Skip to main content

Full text of "Russian Conversation-grammar"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

■•, ~4 

M H ^ ri 


From the Libf^.'^jiy of 
Byuok a. Finney* A3.. 1871 


F ff i lTf t!ft l f! ! p rrfPMl i lM 








DAVID NUTT, 57—59 Long Acre. DULAU k 00., 37 Soho Square. 

SAMPSON LOW. KABSTON * 00., 100 Soathwark Street. 

NEW YORK: BRENTANO'S, Fifth Avenue and 27th street. 

F. W. CHRISTERN, 254 Fifth Avenue. G. E. STECHERT, 9 East leth Street. 

E. STEIGER & CO., 25 Park Place. 

BOSTON: C.A.KCEHLER & CO., 149a, Tremont Street. 



The Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method has become my sole property by 
ri^ht of purchase. These l)ooks are continually revised. Afl nghts, 
especially those of adaption and translation into any language, are ic- 
served. Imitations and copies are fot bidden by law. Suitable communicatioat 
always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg. tJulUis Oroos. 




Deeing that the number of Russian Grammars for 
the use of English students is very small and that the 
standard of these is generally low, I have ventured to 
write this new one, which is based on the best works 
published both in Russia and abroad. 

It is my duty and a real pleasure to acknowledge 
at the outset that I have carefully examined and con- 
sulted all works which have been published on the 
subject up to the present date. But my chief sources, 
besides Ivanov's grammar^, on which mine is chiefly 
based, are the writings of Buslaev, Dahl and Miklosich. 

As to the method followed, it would be quite super- 
fluous to dwell at any length on its advantages. In- 
numerable editions, imitations and fraudulent impres- 
sions, on this and on the other side of the Ocean, have 
amply shown that the celebrated metod Gaspey-Otto- 
Sauer, happily combining theory with practice, scientific 
rigour with real utility, is unquestionably the most 
successful in the acquisition of modern languages. 

In strict adherence to the method, I have divided 
this Conversation-Grammar into two parts. The first 
of them, preceded by an introduction exhibiting the 
theory and practice of correct pronunciation, ojffers in 
as clear and scientific a form as possible the rules of 

* PyccsaH FpaHMaTHRa cocTaejieHHaA A.EBaHOBHirb, 17* oe HSAaHie 
(165 a THCjna), MocsBa 1880. This book is, in spite of its generally 
acknowledged scientific shortcomings, a clear and trustworthy 
manual for students of Russian, and undoubtedly one of the best 
and most widely diffused works of its kind. 

IV Preface. 

the accidence and the elements of the language in general, 
including the irregular verbs. Each lesson treats a 
group of rules complete in itself and conveniently exem- 
plified, a reading exercise in which the rules are applied 
to numerous sentences in fluent and modern conversa- 
tional language, an exercise for translation into Russian, 
and a conversation in which the matter introduced in 
the previous exercises receives a new and more varied 
application. From the twenty-first lesson onwards, anec- 
dotes and tales are appended to encourage students 
by showing them that they are now capable of deci- 
phering something better than detached sentences. At 
the end a certain number of recapitulatory exerdses 
are given. 

The study of the first part being finished, it will 
soon be seen that Russian is a very methodical language, 
and that it is not by far so difficult as it is generally 
thought Declension and conjugation obey, with few 
and rare exceptions, more apparent than real, fixed and 
well ascertained rules. Great simplification is aflForded 
by a constant application of the law of permutation, 
and by a rigorous distinction between hard and soft 
terminations. On the other hand, learners will have 
6bserved with pleasure that the Russian language is 
characterized by a fusion of sweetness and force and 
that its immense fund is not only supplied by Slavonic 
roots, but by the ample admission of Germanic, Ro- 
mance and Oriental elements, without in the least di- 
minishing its regularity and flexibility. 

In the second part^ comprising syntactical and sup- 
plementary rules, I have limited myself to the most 
necessary rules. The Russian sentence is on the whole 
so like the English, that all details have been disregarded 
as a work of supererogation. Such must be left to 
practice and reading, unless beginners are to be utterly 

Preface. V 

disheartened. As to the exercises for translation, the 
most of them are on subjects referring to Russia and 
Russian literature. Likewise the reading exercises of the 
second part are almost all drawn from the masterpieces 
of Russian literature, and notes to them have been added 
in order to assist learners, where the vocabulary at the 
end of the grammar would not prove a sufficient help. 
All the conversations that follow refer to the preceding 
reading exercise. The final exercises for fr^e trans- 
lation are mostly taken from Sir D. Mackenzie- Wallace's 
« Russian, the reading of which can be warmly recom- 
mended to all who take any interest in the great and 
powerful Northern empire. 

The remaining portion of the book is occupied by 
a threefold appendix, for travellers, tradesmen and ofl&cers, 
i. e. for the three classes of students who are most likely 
to use this book. To write this, and especialy the last 
portion intended for ofl&cers, has certainly been no easy 
task. "My good- will and patience were often sorely 
tried ; special works were at every moment to be consulted 
and information to be got from Russia. And after all, 
I do not know whether I have entirely succeeded in 
meeting all exigencies, but if this addition prove really 
serviceable, I shall be amply compensated for my trouble. 

With these explanations, I cheerfully and confiden- 
tly submit my book to the public. I have worked with 
conscientious diligence to make it an attractive and 
reliable guide to Russian, but as it is impossible to 
attain perfection, I shall accept with gratitude all weU- 
considered suggestions for improvement and correction. 

The present edition exhibits the folio ving changes: 
the 24*^ lesson of the first part has been rewritten ; many 
reading exercises have given place to fitter ones; the trans- 
lations of the second part have been enlarged so as to 
present a more convenient application of the^rules. Be- 

VI Protaot. 

sides, many lessons of the second part have been more 
largely developed so that no characteristic feature of Rus- 
sian syntax is now passed by in silence. To facilitate the 
study of pronunciation, the phonetic transcripts both in 
the Introductory Chapter and in the Russian - English 
Vocabulary, are now given in the so universally known 
« Alphabet de 1' Association Phon^tique Internationale*. 
In conclusion I return my hearty thanks to Dr. 
J. Wright, Oxford, and to Dr. P. Schliferowitsch in 
Mannheim, for the kindness and care with which they 
have looked over the printing proofs and also to Prof. 
Max Gantner, Munich, for the interest he has taken 
in the grammar throughout. 






Introduction. The Russian Alphabet. Classification of Letters 1 

Pronunciation of Vowels 5 

Pronunciation of Semi- Vowels and Consonants .... 8 

First Part. 

1. Lesson. Gender of the Russian Substantives 19 

2. y> Declension of masculine Nouns (hard form) . . 21 

3. » Declension of masculine Nouns (soft form) ... 24 

4. » Declension of feminine Nouns (hard form) ... 27 

5. » Declension of feminine Nouns (soft form) ... 29 

6. :s> Declension of neuter Nouns 32 

7. » General view of substantive Inflections .... 35 

8. » Nouns with Prepositions 38 

9. » Conjugation of the auxiliary Verb 5htb to be . 42 

10. » Hints to the regular Conjugation ...... 45 

11. » Hints to the regular Coigugation (Continuation) 48 

12. » Interrogative, negative and conditional forms . . 51 

13. » Personal Pronouns 54 

14. » Possessive Pronouns 57 

15. » Reflexive and demonstrative Pronouns 60 

16. » Interrogative and relative Pronouns 64 

17. » Definite and indefinite Pronouns 67 

18. » Declension of Ac^ectives with full Terminations 72 

19. » Declension of Ac^ectives with apocopated Termi- 

nations 77 

20. » Degrees of Comparison 81 

21. » Cardinal Numbers 85 

22. » Ordinal Numbers 92 

23. » Adverbs 97 

24. » Impersonal verbs 101 

25. » Conjunctions and Interjections 106 

26. » Aspects of the Verb 110 

27. » Formation of the Present, Past and Future . . 115 

28. > Formation of the Imperative, Gerunds and Parti- 

ciples 120 

29. » Irregular Verbs with a regular infinitive Ter- 

mination 125 

30. » Irregular Verbs with an irregular infinitive Ter- 

mination - 130 

Alphabetical List of irregular Verbs 135 

Promiscuous exercises for Translation and Conversation ... 136 

Some russian Proverbs 140 

Second Part. 

1. Lesson. Remarks on the Gender of Substantives .... 141 

The four musicians of Riazan (after Grimm) . 144 

2. » Remarks on the Declension of masculine Nouns 146 

The four musicians of Riazan 1^^ 








A a 

(X a t; 


Ji ji 

11 t// 

B 6 

b b, 



m m, 

H B 

Y V, 



11 D^ 

r r 

g gi 






II n 

p p. (•• ' '- 

H e 

le lo 


r r, ta- 




C c 

8 S. 

3 3 

z z. 


T T 

t t. 

M H 





I i 





K t 


i a'kratkoi 


E K 




ts ts, 1 J 

1 The phonetic transcript are in the ^Alphabet de TAssoci- 




Proper sound. 






t/e ^ 
















ftard «^n 









B ^ 

half mute 

soft 8tgn 




i£ 6 

iat .;. 










iu u 





la a Ke 





f f, 


V '^.ft 







ation Phon 

4tique Internationale''. 


4 Classification op letters. 

It is of the utmost importance, even for beginners, 
that the following Classifications of Russian Letters be 
committed to memory.^ They greatly facilitate the 
understanding not only of the rules of the pronunciation, 
but also many apparent anomalies of declension and 
conjugation are thus to be explained. 

Of the thirty- six letters which compose the Russian 
alphabet, twelve are vowels; three are semi- vowels; the 
twenty-one others are consonants. 

Vowels: a, e, h, i, o, y, h, i, 3, ro, a, r; 
Semi- vowels: Tb, l, ft; 

Consonants : 6, b, r, a, m, 3, k, ji, m, h, n, p, c, t, 
(j), X, ^, q, m, ffli, e. 

Vowels and semi-vowels are divided into hard and 
soft, while consonants may be classed into strong and 
weak, as in other languages. 

Hard vowels: a, 3, y, o, h; 

Soft vowels: a, e (i), h), e*, h (i); 

Hard semi- vowels: "l; 

Soft semi- vowels: l, fi; 

Strong consonants: n, (j), k, x, t, m, c; 

Weak consonants: 6, b, r, ;i;, at, 3.* 

Besides this, with regard to the organs that give 
utterance to the various consonants, a second and more 
important classification is obtained which extends to 
them all: 

Labials: n, 6, (j), b, m; 
Gutturals: r, k, x; 
Dentals: t, ;i;; 
Lispings: c, 3; 
Lingual: n;; 
Hissings: at, ^, m, m;; 
Palatals: jt, h, p. 

1 For the present they may be overlookpd, if found too diffi- 
cult; but the sooner they are studied the better it will be. 

2 Pronounced yoh. See page 7, pronunciation of E. 

' Neither the liquids j, m, n, p, nor ^, q, m, have a corre- 
sponding weak coDSonant; they have therefore not been comprised 
in this classification. The weak consonant r corresponds to the 
strong consonants s and x, according to circumstances. 

Peonunciation op towels. 6 

The vowel v and the consonant e have not been 
comprised in the above classifications, their use being 
extremely rare and restricted to words of Greek origin. 
The first is employed for o, the second for d: Evanrejuie, 
AefiHH (EiaYY^XiQV, 'Afti^vai). Such words are now com- 
monly written with b and (j): EBaHrejrie, A(j)fiHH. 


a) Hard yowels. 

A^ a. 

Its proper sound is that of a in father; but when 
at the end of words and not accented^, it is pronounced 
very rapidly so as to approach a in fat: 

3&naA% 6ap&H% 6&6Ka r&ra 

'zapat ba'rann 'bapka gaga 

west mutton grandmother eider-duck. 

The hard vowel a has the sound of 13, when found 
after a hissing consonant (see page 4), provided it be 
not accented and not at the end of a word: 

HacTHii,a yaeaci h&cto AV^^ 

t/es'titsa uj-bs 't/asto du'/a 

small part terror often soul. 

In the accented genitive termination dro^, the vowel a is 
pronounced 0; but in this case also r is pronounced irregularity. 
Se therefore page 10, pronunciation of r. 

It has uniformly its proper sound of e in met. This 
letters occurs mostly in words of foreign origin: 

dK3&MeH'b dTa»eepKa nodiia dTOxx 

sk'zamen st-e'^erka p^'sma 'st^t 

examination cupboard poem this. 

* The tonic accent is no longer printed in Russian; but to 
assist beginners all words occurring in this grammar are accentuated, 
when consisting of more than one syllable. 

* In the new orthography, the genitive singular termination 
accented on the penultimate is written oro instead of aro. 

6 Pronunoutiov of towels. 

U, u. 

The proper sound of this vowel is that of i thick 
and guttm'al. To catch the right pronunciation of u, 
learners ought to utter with a guttural affectation the 
final y of such words as pity, witty y etc. 

After labials (see page 4), it is pronounced much 
similar to wl in toig: 

cirai ipiHr& MUjQio rpH6iii 

'sin tsm'ga mflo gri'bi 

son scurvy soap mushrooms. 

0, 0. 

When accented, it sounds like o in note; when un- 
accented, its pronunciation greatly resembles that of a 
in father, but at the end of words it generally preserves 
its proper soimd: - A.W-t-(;^<vi^CK J 

AOKb npecTOjrb qy^o bojq[Oboj[& 

dam pje'stol 't/udo k'ekk'B'la 
house throne wonder bells. 


It has uniformly its 

proper sound of oo in 










Bepetition. Sanaa's, 6ap&H'b,\6a6aj) rdra, ^acT^a, 
yatact, Hacro, Ajaik, BKsaMeHt, 9Ta»8pTO, no^Ma, ^tcpb, 
CHffiB, n;HHra, mhjio, rpH66, AOMt, npecTOJ'b, ^;i;o, kojo- 
Kojid, pjTKd, yniH, ;i;ypHO, Myia. 


3anac%, CTaKasi, m^hho, jiana^ na- 
cu, 3KaHji,ap]Fb,aEapB0^^apa,dCBa;i]>6Hi»9 
dM6ji6Ma, no-&TOMy, axo, cspi, n^ur&H^ 

' The phonetic transcript and literal translation of this 
and the following Reading Exercices are given in the Key to this 

.Pronunciation op vowels. 7 

CH011U9 6ujiOj b6sLj Moji^a^ OBky obojio, 
jiyHa, yxo, xyji,o, MyBa. 

b) Soft Towels. 

S.y a (soft a). 

When accented, it has its proper sound of la in 
yard. When not accented and at the end of words its 
sound is that of le: 

HBKa cTo:iHBa demjiA vp6mB 

'lafka st-e'Ianka zem'l.a 'vr.em.a 
notice halt earth time. 

In all other cases, when not accented, it is pro- 
nounced as le: 

flj^pd apMO A^BflTB BflSRy 

'Is'dro Xsr'mo 'd,evist v.s'ju 

bullet yoke nine I tie. 

E, e (soft 9); £, e (soft 0). 

At the beginning of words and sylables, when not 
accented, it sounds nearly like ie: 

ejsji& aRejQi&eT'b Bejimslft ecxB 

'isd'va je'lodst v.e'likil lest, 

hardly he wishes great he is. 

When accented it has very often the sound of lo 
or 0, if preceded by a lingual or hissing consonant, 
(see page 4). In such cases however, it is customary 
to mark it with two dots: 













In all other combinations, and especially after a 
consonant belonging to the same syllable, the soft vowel 
e has the hard sound of e: 

tipper's MOpe hqjio eejio 

' mor.e t/61o s.e'lo 

shore sea forehead village. 

8 Pronunciation of vowels. 

% 4 (soft a). 
The same rules stated for e apply equally to'*, 
with the exception that this never has the sound of a 
and only very seldom that of i:>: 

i^erh %9fl,& irfaMOft B«pa 
Isst, lez'da n.e'moi V.era 

to eat journey dumb faith. 

Note, Among the words in which ^ has the sound io, ob- 
serve the following and their derivatives^: cixJia saddle, ssisxH 
stars, rnidAa birds' nests, njB&r'b he flourished, o6pij['b I (thou, he) found. 

H, H, I, i (soft h). 
The proper sound of both these soft vowels is al- 
ways that of I in sick and iota. The second of them, i, 
must invariably be followed by another vowel or semi- 
vowel, whereas h is employed exclusively before a con- 

msp'b npitSA'^ CHHift 

mir pri'Iszd 'sin,ii 

peace arrival blue. 

H), K) (soft y). 
The compound soft vowel lo has in most Russian 
words the sound of lu. In words of French or German 
origin, lo is often pronounced as French u or German il: 
Kon&H) »6Ka 6iocT'L Bp»cce;iL 

^(nJ^y ifeii'palu 'lupka 'b.ust 'br.yssel, 

I dig petty-coat bttst Brussels. 

Bepetition. Sbkb,, CToiHKa, dewiA, speM^, AApo, 
apMO, ji^iBATh, B&saf, ea;Ba, mejikevh, Be-iHKoe, ecTB, ejiKa, 
TBep;i;o, mejK'b, qepHHfi, 66per'B, Mope, nejo, cejo, 4ctb, 
t3ji;a, HiMofi, Bipa, Mnp-B, npitsAt, cfiniH, KonaH), H)6Ka, 
6iocTii, BpjbccejiL. 


Maco cuTHas niiin;a. Banma bh- 
coKa, xHSKHHa uH3Ka. Jlujsia 6:fejia, 
nioHJa K pacHa, KjnoEBa EHCJias iro;i;a. 

*^ Only those of course in which the accent is preserved on the i. 
^ The only exception is Mipi world, to distinguish it from 
MHpi peace. 

Pbonxtngiation of semi-yowbls. 9 

7(66poe cep;i;ii,e ysajKaeTca Bctira. 
Ile^H TonaTca ji^posaMn. Jtpna Hama 



a) Seml-Towels. 

Tb, %. 

The hard semi-vowel t has now no sound whatever, 
but it serves to give to the consonant that precedes it 
a strong and harsh pronunciation as though this were 
double. Before i, a weak consonant has always the 
sound of its corresponding strong, 6 = n, b = ^, etc. : 

CTEHl KpOB'b nieCTl^ CTOJE'b 

'stan 'krof ybst 'stot 

stage roof perch table. 

L, L. 

The soft semi-vowel b may to a certain extent be 
regarded as a half uttered ^, giving to the preceding 
consonant a soft and liquid resonance somewhat similar 
to the French 11 mouille or the German |: 









begin (thou) 



so much. 

% fi. 

This semi-vowel is but a very short h occurring 
only after a vowel and pronounced very rapidly along 
with it, so as to form one syllable: 

jSflA HOft neft cjiy^aft 

'dal 'mol 'pel 'slut/al 

give (thou) I my (masc.) drink (thou)! occasion. 

Repetition. CTant, kpob'b, niecTB, CTOJit, cTaHb, 
BpOBB, ineCTB, CTOJIB, ]Ji0i, Mofl, Hcfi, cjiy^afl. 

10 Pronunciation of consonants. 

b) Consonants. 

Labials: 115 n; B^ 6; 9^ ^; B^ b; M^ m. 

These five letters have the same sound as their 
English equivalents (p, b, f, v, m), observing however 
that the weak 6 and b are pronounced like the strong 
n and 4>» when followed by a strong consonant or by t: 

UABJrkOh 6HTBa 4^0H&pB MaTB 

pavlin 'bltva fe'nar 'mat, 

pea-cock battle lantern mother. 

Gutturals: E^ e; X^ x; Ty r. 

The consonant b is generally pronounced as in 
English; only when placed before k, t or q, it has the 
spirantal value which is heard in the German 2)ad^. Such 
is always the sound of the Bussian x^ often transcribed 
in English by Jch: 











of the Russian 

of the had(ing). 

Dentals: Ty t; ]S^ ?,. 

The sound of both these consonants is exactly that 
of English t and d in done and turn: 

Tf^Wh TOTKa ]SfiWb fl,B]S,B 

'tarn 'tlotka 'don 'dladla 

there aunt Don uncle. 

Lispings: C^ c; 3^ 3. 

These two consonants are pronounced respectively 
like the S in safe and z in 0one; but c is pronounced 
like 3 before a weak consonant: 

caji.'b cecxpi 3B0ffb croptxB 

'sad ses'tra 'zvon zge', 

garden sister sound to bum. 

Lingual: U^ n;. 

It is always pronounced as ts in wits: 

i^apB n^peii^ jnni^o ufbiA 

'tsar, 'pler.ets li'tso ts.e'na 

emperor (king) pepper face price. 

Pronunciation of consonants. 11 

Hissings: HI^ m; SR, s; ^^ ^; Hi;, ni;. 

Tbey correspond respectively to sh in shut to z in 
azure, en in charm, shtch in smasht-china : 

mBJL&BTb aReH& ^aci mfSTb 

fe'lsif je'na 't/bcs 'ft/it 

cottage woman hour shield. 

It must be noted that: ^ before t; m before h, m; 
7& before a strong consonant or t, are pronounced 

HTO noMOn^HHKi HoasBa Myaei 

yio p-B'mo/nik no/ka mu/* 

what assistant little foot husband. 

Palatals: J[, ji; H^ h; P^ p. 

These four consonants do not sensibly differ in 
their usual pronunciation from 1 in life, n in note, r in 
rose. With regard to Ji, it must be noted that its proper 
sound of 11 in doUar occurs only when followed by a 
strong consonant, a hard vowel, or t. With the Russian 
p, great care is required not to lisp it, as Englishmen 
frequentiy do (arm, northern), but to pronounce it rather 
as if it were double, as in the word hurry: 



Bepetition. UsiBJifLWh, 6fiTBa, ^OH&pB, naTB, Epecrb, 
xp&wb, pyccKaro, jnypHoro, tslwb, TCTKa, JI^oke, jifiA^ii gbj[,t>, 
cecrpa, sbowl, cropiTL, n;apB, n^peii;^, jihh;6, j^rsl, ma- 
Ji&nrhj as,eE&, ^aes, iii;ht'b, tto, noMdniHnE'B, HOSRa, wfX'h, 
paHO, jrbEiLBhi% jlotrksl, roBop6jrb. 


Me]sjA]s,h o^eHB ci/usjewh. SRAto 
coBp^Baero jTbTOMi. JEynme ji^aBaTL 
^tiTb npocHTL. B4]iia joodnitas imiiiia 
jil'txeft. 3aft]];ii 6oji3jmBiis skhb^thha. 









I spoke. 


Cino Kocari BocaHn. TKyineHie sMtn 
HacTO HpiriHHaeTi CMepTL. Ttkh 
ja56aTO lutasaTL no Bo;i;i. T^Tesh 
o^y^aeri yHenHKOBt. HHsapB cctl 
nepBiift nieas.'h bi ro;i;y. flKopn ne- 
o6xo^ibai npH B0pa6jLax'b. Bhmoio 
seiHJifl noBpuTa CH^roMi. 


^ ' Oji;larb 6oTkmh ynajrb o;i;Haa:ji;u b% 
ptBy. Ha rpoMBift ero bphbtl iipnOt- 
sdjin jcfi);[i;H''n'^crk BejEHBHM'b Tpy;i;6M'b 
BUTaii];njra ero hsi bo^. Osb npo> 
CHJTb, ht66ii nocTapajcscL noftmaTB ero 
numny, BOTopaa ynji^a yaise jsfiBOSh' 
HO ;i;ajieB6, n o6^m,kjL'b ^s^sltl sa to 
B03Harpa3Bji,eHie. O^t^iwb pu6aBrb nofi- 
HajTb mjuiny n npHH^t efe' Brb Hesy. 
Bora^i ;i,aji% evif 3a to nojiT^HEHBi, 
a Ttx<B, soTopue ero camoro BiiTaiii,iUDi 
jLWb BO]s^ ^kme h ue no6j[aroji,apnjrb. 

Italic and WBiTiBif alphabet. 

Bn;i;HO, ^to 6ora^'E no^HTiyn cboi> 
msAnj ;i;op6aee ce6fl. 


J I 


^ liszj/f Oo\^f^ 

12 Bbadivq ezbboise. 

Cino Kocamb socaMH. yBymeme pM 
HacTO HpiriHHaeTi CMepTL. Ttbh 
jno6aTb lUEasaTL no BOji;t. T^Tesh 
oCy^aen yneHiiKOBi. HHsapL ecTL 
nepBHft nicaji;b wb roji;y. flKopn ne- 
o<>xo;i;nxE[ npH Bopadjiax'b. Shmoh) 
seHJia noBpuTa cHtroMi. 




O^lopb 6oTkmh ynajTB o;i;Haa:^u b'b 
ptsy. Ha rpoMEifi ero Bpnsi npndt- 
asdjin jcfi);ii;n'n et BejobenHt Tpy;i;6M'b 
B^Tanpjm ero hsi BC^opti. Obik npo- 
CHjcbf ^nro6u nocTapajraei noftir axB ero 
nuEflny, BOTopaa ynjo^a yase ;i;ob6jil- 
HO ji^suieBo, H o6^in;aji'E ;i;aTB sa to 
BOSHarpam^eme. Oji^iiwb pii6aBrb noft- 
KsLii mjEany h npHH^i e6 Brb Hemy. 
Bora^i jsfijL'h ewf sa to nojiT^HEHBi, 
a Tkx%, soTopue ero eauoro Bih:aiii,iUDi 
nvb Bo^, ;ii;^e n He Ho6j[aro;i;apHjrb. 

Readtno exercise. 15 



^u^fh m^a^'t "tm^^^ 


Mf4^M^ e^o us'b Some, (}yf^ 


16 Reading exercise. 

mmMajt/b €Ut/l,S^ 

^^,Mncmf{um)j t^ ^;?^/&^?«^ 

Law of permutation. 17 

u H^ nmAa^oo^u.M). 


'uoHo^ "t^mo oo^^^a/t/h nt^- 

^umt^A'b evofo lUAs^my^i^ m 

/loo^e ceo^. 


In the various changes that words undergo through 
declension, conjugation, composition and derivation, the 
final letter of the root is frequently changed according 
to fixed phonetic rules, which it is of the utmost im- 
portance to commit to memory as soon as possible: 


I. r, fl, 3, j [ 3K 

2 K T TT ^ 

Q* J ' ) before «, e, h, k), l change into ( 

o. X, c, ^ \ \ ] ^ I ni 

4. CK, CT, I [ m. 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. 2 


















18 Law of permutation. 


2 ro f ^^*^^ ^' ^' ^' *' ^' ™' ^'^ ^ change into ^ 

3. H »rKxa&Hmiii; » » h 

4. » at^mni;!!; 

5. i » i 


1. h after a vowel 

2. h before a consonant with t 

3. i before two consonants 

4. fi before a consonant with i> 
These permutations are however subject to certain 


Epenthesis and Prosthesis. 

Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter in the middle of a 
word in order to facilitate the pronunciation, or to unite letters 
which cannot be placed in juxta-position. It may be observed in 
jtk)5jik) from jiK)5]iTb, in A^in^BJie from A^nieBO, and so on. 

Prosthesis is the addition of a letter at the beginning of a 
word. This is the case with the consonant b in B6ceMb (Slavonic 
ocBMb) and the vowel o in opaaedfi (from pomt). 

Apocope and Syncope. 

Apocope is the contraction of a vowel into a semi-vowel at 
the end of a word. Ex. co MHott instead of co mh6k), ^To6'b instead 
of ht66h. 

Syncope is the elision of a letter in the middle of a word to 
facilitate the pronunciation. Ex. o6%in,kTh for o6B^m,iTh, nojixopi 
for nciiTopa. 

* When the accented vowel e is pronounced o (after i^, h, at> 
ffl, m) the vowel o is now usually printed and written instead of e. 
Thus they spell xopoffl6 and not xopoing well, OTufiwb instead of 
OTi^eMi by the father, and so on. 





The Russian language has no article^ either de- 
finite or indefinite. Thus OT^n.t signifies indiflferently 
the father; a father; father; it being left to the sense 
of the sentence to indicate whether the substantive is 
taken in a definite, indefinite or general sense. 

Number and case are distinguished by means of 
inflections alone. Hence the necessity of a careful study 
of the Russian declensions. 

There are three genders in Russian, as in English; 
but this distinction appHes in Russian also to inanimate 
objects. In many cases however, the gender of sub- 
stantives may be known either by their signification or 
by their termination. 

Mascaline by their signification are all appellations 
of men, whatever may be their termination: 

Tflop^ut Creator BpajiL liar 

itapb Emperor (king) KaanaH^H treasurer 

Kop6j[b king Ma^ uncle. 

Masculine by their termination are all names of 
animate beings or inanimate objects ending in ^ or w: 
Bon God rep6ft hero 

^paxi brother capafi cart-shed 

optx'b walnut cjiy^ati occasion. 

Feminine by their signification are all female ap- 
pellations : 

Maib mother KHHrHua princess 

AOHb daughter cecTp4 sister 

TeTKa aunt aieHa wife. 

Feminine by their termination are all nouns ending 
in a OY H (not mh): 

RHiIra book hiLmna cherry 

ndJiKa stick hhea nurse-maid 

rpjina pear repoHHa heroine. 

Neuter by its signification is ;iiHTa child. 

Neuter by their termination are all nouns ending 
in 0, e or mh: 

20 Gender op suBSTANTiVEs. 

cji6B0 word iIma name 

k6A0K0 apple Bp^MH time 

n6jie field 6p^MJi burden. 

Substantives in h are partly masculine, partly femin- 
ine; the proper gender of each of them must be learnt 
by practice, or by consulting a good dictionary: 
AoacAB rain — masc. jinb idleness — fem. 

Kop46jib ship — masc. xhshb life — fem. 

H6roTb finger-nail — masc. cxajiB steel — fem. 

Besides masculine, feminine and neuter nouns, there 
are in Russian also nouns of common gender, i. e. such 
as are either masculine or feminine according to circum- 
stances. Thus CHpoTa an orphan, is mascuhne when de- 
noting an orphan boy, and feminine when denoting an 
orphan girl. 

Nouns of common gender present no difficulty at 
all; nor does their declension, which is always in ac- 
cordance with the termination of the nominative singular. 


Ts,^ where h and, also 

BesA^ everywhere a and, but 

3A'l^Cb here i&wb there 

ce^6;^Ha to-day (|)ran.sai-v6d-nya) ya6 already 

KorA4 when eme still, yet 

ecTb is {frequently understood) kto who 

;^6Ma at home (aomi house) ito what. 


TBopeiii'B. JKena. Fpyma. Hmh. BpaTi. fl6jiOKO. 
]ifimj5,h. Kopa6jib. jlinB. Bert seajti. Bpa'rb eme TanTb, 
a cecTpa yme sa^cl. Kto ji;6Ma? OT^nii jtoMa. 

BpaTB H TCTKa TaM^B, a cecTpa h ji,nM SA^Ch. KorAa 
KflHJi xoMa? RAmi cer6;i.Ha ji;6Ma. F^i rpynia h fl6j[0K0? 
rpyma 3ji;ici>, a i6jioKO TaMt. 


' God. ^ The book. -"^A time.- The field. • Life. '' The 

word. 7 A sister. '^ God is the Creator. ^ Who [is]^ there? 

fO The mother [is] there, but the daughter [is] here.^ When 

the father at home?|^The father [is] at home to-day. 

The mother and nurse [are] already at home, but 

the sister [is] still here./^hat [is] there ?/^'The pear is 

^ These words as well as those contained in the preceding 
rules must be thoroughly committed to memory, before doing the 
exercise and translation. 

'^ Observe that a parenthesis (....) encloses a word to be 
translated or an annotation, whereas brackets [ ] signify «leave out». 


Hard masculine nouns. 21 

there, but the apple [is] here, ^ho [is] here? ^he 
brother [is] still here, but the father [is] already there. 


r^i OTeu.'B? Otcii.'b ;ii6Ma. 

Kor;i;a 6paTX ;i.6Ma? BpaTt cer6;iiHa ji;6Ma. 

Kto TaM^? TaM-B cecxpa. 

HtO 3AiCL? 3;i.ici> ^fijTOKO. 



(Hard form.) 

General remarks. There are in Russian three 
declensions, which may be arranged according to the 
genders: the first, masculine; the second, feminine; the 
third, neuter. But the masculine declension, as well as 
the feminine and neuter, must be subdivided into hard 
and soft, according to the termination of the nominative 
singular of each substantive.^ 

Besides the usual eases, common with other lan- 
guages (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), there are 
in Russian two more cases: the instrnmental answering 
to the questions by whom? and with what? and the 
prepositional, so called, because it is always preceded 
by one of the prepositions o, no, &h, npu, ua, as will 
be seen further on. 

The form of the vocative is always like the no- 
minative. It is therefore no distinct case, and will be 
entirely neglected in the study of the declensions. 

In a few Church Slavonic word alone, the vocative differs 
sometimes from the nominative. These are chiefly B6sel (Bo^^) 
God! r6cno;^H! (Focnodh) Lord! OT«ie Hani'bl (Omev/b uaim) 
Our Father! iHcyce XpncT^! (lucjjcb Xpucmdcb) Jesus Christ! 
But it must also be added, that the use of these ancient vocative 
forms is restricted to ecclesiastical books and to some popular ex- 

^ The best Russian Grammarians adopt, from a general and 
scientific point of view, only two declensions (hard and soft). But 
for foreigners the division of declensions according to the three 
genders is unquestionably the best and that to which all others are 
effectively reduced. See the table annexed to the 7*1* lesson. 

22 Hard masculine nouns. 

Examples of hard masculine nouns. 

a) Animate Beings. 

K. BOHHii the warrior b6hhbi the warriors 

G. BdHHE of the warrior bohhob'b of the warriors 

D. BOHHy to the warrior B6HHaM'b to the warriors 

A. BOHHa the warrior BdHHOBi. the warriors 

I. BOHHOM-B by the warrior BOHHaMH by the warriors 

P. (o) b6hh* (about) the warrior. (o) Bbnnax'b (about) the wairiors. 

In the same manner as eoum are declined the 
greatest number of masculine nouns of animate beings 
ending in ^, such as: 

CTOJiflpi joiner 



Ky3H6m blacksmith 



Bopi thief 



CDat^Ti subject^ 



6iJLo^mm\.'h ba^ker^ 



6apaH'B ram* 



6HK'b bull 



BOJTb ox 



b) Inanimate Objects. 

N. CTOJi-B the table ctojh the tables 

G. CTOJiA of the table cioji^Bt of the tables 

D. CTOJiy to the table ctojAmi to the tables 

A. CToji the table ctojih the tables 

I. CTOJi^Mi. with the table ctoji6,mh with the tables 

P. (o) cTOjii (about) the table. (o) cT0Ji6,X'b (about) the tables. 

The declension of masculine nouns denoting inani- 
mate objects differs from that of animate beings only 
in the aecusatiye of both numbers, which in the former 
is the same as the nominative whereas in the latter it 
is the same as the genitive. 

In the same manner as cmoJl^ are declined amon^ 
others : 


1 The genitive is indicated to show the displacement of the 
tonic accent throughout the declension. 

2 Foreign nouns in i are declined as if they where true Rus- 
sian nouns. 

3 It must be constantly borne in mind, that according to 
what has been stated (page 18) concerning the use of Russian let- 
ters, after a guttural or hissing sound (i, k, x; otc, m, h, vO the plu- 
ral inflection is u and not u: 6yA0UHUKUj and not 6yA0HHUKu; 6uKhj 
6uKUj etc. 

* Animals are considered as animate beings with regard to 
their declension. 

Hard masculine nouns. 

Kf6'b oak 

genitive : 


saRdHi law 



xji*6'b bread, loaf 



ffim debt 



cyKi branch 



Maras^Hi shop 



HoiK'b knife 



Some nouns elide in all other cases the vowel e 
or o of the termination of the nominative singular, and 
are declined as follows: 

N. 34moei> the castle 

sdMKH the castles 

G. 3aMKa of the castle 

sdMKOB'b of the castles 

D. saMKy to the castle 

sdMRaifB to the castles 

A. saMOKi the castle 

3&MKH the castles 

I. ddMROHi with the castle 

3&MKaMH by the castles 

P. (o) adMK* (about) the castle. 

(o) sdMsaxi (about) the castles. 

Thus are declined^: 

sandKi lock 

genitive: saMKd 

pojTb corner 

» yrja 

6ar6pi hook 

» 6arpa 

0T6^•b father 

» OTI^d 

Kyn^i^i merchant 

» Kynu4 

opeji eagle 

y> opj^ 

jieB'b lion 

» Jibsa.^ 


Jtafi give (thou) niswmii.'h the boy 

Affile give (you) yneHilKt the pupil, gen, yqenHKa 

BrpdeTi he, she, it plays pa66THHK'B the workman 

Bilxy I see KORgRi'the skate, gen, ROHBKa 

B^AHinb thou seest HMnepaTop'b the emperor 

a roBopH) I speak th roBopHmB thou speakest. 

iioc6ji'b ambassador, gen, nocji4 


SaKOH'B Bora. CyKH ;!i;y66B^. Cbojkct'b HMnepaTopa. 
Xjii6^ 6yjio^HHKOB'B. ^ojirft BopoBX. Jl^aii xji'kC'h padoTHHKy. 
H Bftaty fiapanoB'B. ^afiTC ctojii pa^OTHHKaM^. Majb^HK-B 
HrpaeiTB cb (with) yqenHKaMH. 

* The displacement of the accent begins in this noun from 
the nom. plur. dy6u downwards. 

* The displacement of the accent begins from the nom. plur. 

3 After a hissing consonant, the genitive plural ends in efi, 
when the accent falls on the inflection: Hootcm, of the knives. 

* It must be remembered that in names of animate beings, 
the accusative is like the genitive, for the masculine gender, 

* In the elision, the vowel e becomes * after .*, and u after 
a vowel; adeiip) (3dH^^) the hare, aauna of the hare. 

24 Soft masculine nouns. 

H roBopib CTOjit, a th roBopfimb o saMKax'b. Th 
BijiflTRh saMKH HMnepaxopa h saMKH KysHeii.OB'b. Vji,^ kohl- 
k6 nocja? KohlkA nocjia bi* (in) yoy. Th roBopfiniB 
jbBi, a a roBopK) o 6hk4. 


The laws of God. The branch of the oak. The 
loaves of the baker. The debts of the thief. Give (thou) 
the table to the baker. Thou seest the pupil; he plays 
with (cB instr.) the boys. Thou seest the skate of the 
workman. Give the pupils the tables. 

I speak of (transl, about) the ambassador, and thou 
speakest of the merchant.^ Give (thoa) the hook to the 
fisherman (nom. pHdaKTb, gen. pH6aKa). I see the house 
of the father and the shop of the merchant. Thou 
seest the castle of the emperor, and I see the lock of 
the blacksmith. 

Fa^ CT0J[X pa^OTHHKa? Ctoji'b pa^OTHHKa s^icb. 

Kto b-b aom* nocjra? Biy jiiOMi nocjia CpaTt. 

^TO TH BHAHmb? A Bfiaty ctojih. 

A a ^TO Bfiaty? Th Bfi^Hinb fiap^Ha. 

Kor;i,a MajiLHHK'B ;i,6Ma? Ma./iL^HK'B ceroAHa AOMa. 



(Soft form.) 
Soft masculine nouns have a twofold termination: 
some end in h\ others in u. 

Examples of soft masculine nouns in h. 
a) Animate Beings. 

N. i;apb the Tsar (Czar) uapA the Tsars 

G. uapa of the Tsar uap6ft of the Tsars 

I>. niapib to the Tsar uapaMi to the Tsars 

A. uapfl the Tsar Kap^tt the Tsars 

I. i^apcMi by the Tsar uapaMH by the Tsars 

P. (o) uap* (about) the Tsar. (o) uapaxi (about) the Tsars. 

Thus are declined: 

Kop6jib king genitive: Kopoja 
c;[6capi> locksmith » ciecapn 

y^HiejB teacher » yHHxeifl 

npiflxeji. friend » npiAxejia 

1 The preposition of, after a verbum sentiendi et dedarandi, 
is translated with o that sometimes becomes o(5i and 66o for eu- 
phony's sake. 

Soft masculine xouns. 


HenpiATeJB enemy 
xAreJib inhabitant 
oji^BB stag 
MeAB^AB bear 

genitive: Henpiaiejiii 

^ TK^TeJia 

» He;(BiAH. 

N. 4>0H&pb the lantern 

6. 4>0Hapfl of the lantern 

D. (i>OHapib to the lantern 

A. 4^oHdpB the lantern 

I. j^oeapSM'b with the lantern 

P. (o) 4>oHap4 (about) the lantern. 

Such are: 
cJiOB&pB dictionary 
sjop&6sh {sp. kardhp) ship, boat 
rBosAB iron nail 

b) Inanimate Objects. 

<{)0HapH the lanterns 
(f)0Hap^tt of the lanterns 
(j^onapflM'b to the lanterns 
4)0HapH the lanterns 
<|)0HapflHH with the lanterns 
(o) 4)0HapflX'b (about) the lanterns. 

genitive: cJOsapA 
y> Kopa6jifl 
» rBosAa.^ 

Examples of soft masculine nouns in u. 
a) Animate Beings. 

repoH the heroes 

repdeai of the heroes 

repdHMi* to the heroes 

repdcBi. the heroes 

rep6aMH by the heroes 

(o) rep6flX'B (about) the heroes. 




rep6tt the hero 
repdfl of the hero 
repdH) to the hero 
repoa the hero 
repdeiTL by the hero 
P. (o) rep6* (about) the hero. 

Such are: 
KaseaH^fi treasurer 
sjioA^fi rascal 

b) Inanimate Objects. 

N. cjiyHaft the occasion cjiy^an the occasions 

G. cjiyHaa of the occasion 

D. ciy^aio to the occasion 

A. cjiynatt the occasion 

I. c^jWaeMi with the occasion 

1 '. (o) cjy Hat (about) the occasion. 

Such are: 
cap&fi cart shed, coach house 
noK6fi room 

ciyMaeBi of the occasions 
cjiyHaaM'b to the occasions 
cjynaH the occasions 
ciynaaMH with the occasions 
(o) cjiyqaaxi (about) the occasions. 

genitive: capda 
» noKda. 

A few nouns in eu change in all cases the e of the 
nominative singular into t*, and are declined thus: 

cojiOBbH the nightingales 
cojoBBeB'B of the nightingales 
cojioBBAui to the nightingales 
coJiOBBCBi the nightingales 
cojioBB^HH by the nightingales 
(o) cojOBBixi (aboui) the nightin- 

N. coJOB^g the nightingale 

G. cojioBBfl of the nightingale 

D. cojOBBK) to the nightingale 

A. cojiOBBfl the nightingale 

I. cojiOBB^Mi by the nightingale 

P. (o) coJOBbi (about) the nigh- 

' Plur. rB63AH, TBOSA^H, etc. 

26 Soft masculine nouns. 

Such are: 

Bopo66& sparrow genitive: Bopo5ba 

Mypas^H ant » MypasiA 

pyn^ii rivulet » pyHBa 

pen6fi (knot of) burdock. » penta. 


OxdTHHKi the hunter 6hji'b BCTpineHi he was met 
Ton6pi the hatchet, gen. Tonopd hoct^jib (fern.) bed, bedstead 

B-fepB believe (thou) Ten^pB new, at present 

B-ipBTe believe (you) ^^mi with what: o hSm-b about 

He (before the verb) not what 

nj[6THHKi the carpenter k'Imi by whom 

B'B in noE43HBaeTi (he, she, it) shows. 


CjiOBapa npiiiTejieH. A bhjkv ii;apii. Th BHOTnib 

Kopojieit. Bipb npiaTejuo, a ne Bipb oxoTHHKy. Oxothhk^ 

BpajiL. HprnTCJib noKasHBaeT'B acHTeJiJiM'B yi^A^^A^- He 

^^X^ipbTe HenprnTeji^M-B. IlocTejiH wh noKoi. H xenepL B'B 

^%\^) R roBopK) ct KasHa^eeM^ o Kopadjiiix'b HenpiiTejreft. 
KopojiL Chji-b BCTpi^eH'L at^TejiflMH. Th roBopninb o cjio- 
Bapi, a SL roBopib o Tonopi. Th BHAHmb cojiOBbeB^, a a 
sAacy Bopo6beB'b. JI,afiTe Bopo6biiMi xji46a (some bread). 
r;i,i BopofibH? Bopo6bH b-b capai. 


The dictionary of the friend. The [iron] nail of the 
workman. Thou seest the king, and I see the heroes. 
Do not believe [transl. Beheve not) the enemy (dat,). 
The enemy is a liar. bThou speakest with (cb instr.) 
the teacher about the bedsteads and ships. The Tsar 
was met by the inhabitants. With what does the boy 
play {transl. plays the boy)? 7 With an [iron] nail. 

/ o The hunter shows the stag and the lion. The king 
was met by the heroes. I speak of the ships of the 
enemy, and thou speakest of the bedstead of the teacher. 
The hunters [are] in the coach houses, and the [iron] nails 
[are] in the room. Give the pupil the burdocks, and 
some bread to the sparrows. The ants [are] in the 
rooms (B'B prep.). 

mwh padoTaeiTb njiOTHUK'b? Owb (he) pa^OTaei'b tbos- 


HTonoKasHBaeT'bOxoTHHK'b? Oh-b noKasHBaeT'b ojiena. 

Hard feminine nouns. 


K^M'B Cwiib BCTpi^eni ii;api>? 

Ta* 6paT^ Kopojii? 
Kor^a OT^ii;^ b^ KOMHaTi? 

I],apL 6ujrb BCTpi^eH-B ko- 

BpaT-B KOpOJIfl TaM^. 

Otcii.'b cer6;i,HJi bx KOMnaTi. 



(Hard form.) 

Examples of hard feminine nouns. 
a) Animate Beings. 

N. xen^ the wife 
G. saena. of the wife 
D. xeH^ to the wife 
A. ateny the wife 
I. aeii6io (-6fi) by the wife 
P. (o) x.ewk (about) the wife. 

Such are: 
IlapHi^a Empress (of Russia) 
Kopoj^Ba queen 
BAOBk widow 

atCHH the wives 

jsLeET, of the wives 

sgHaMi» to the wives 

aem the wives 

sgnaM'b by the wives 

(o) aenax'b (about) the wives. 





n^eJ^& bee 
co6&Ka dog 

K0p6Ba cow » KOpOBBI 

A^B^ua girl » A'i^BHi^H. 

In the same manner are also declined all masculine 
nouns in a, such as: 
CT^pocxa headman ^ y 

cjyrd servant. ^^fhi t^/ii^^^^ 

*'bj Inanimate Objects. 

N. BapTUHE the picture 
G. Kapx^HH of the picture 
D. KapTHHi^ to the picture 
A. KapT^ny the picture 
I. KapTHHOH) (-ofi) with the pict. 
P. (o) KapTAni (about) the pict. 

Such are: 
p63a rose 
Tpasd grass, herb 
ROHHaTa room 
BHHra book 
np^THa*^ proverb^ ^ 
Bo;^a water pV^-^ 

KapxHHH the pictures 
KapxHH'b of the pictures 
KapTj^HESfb to the pictures 
KapxAHH the pictures 
Kapx^easiH with the pictures 
(o) KapxHHax'b (about) the pict. 

plural: posH 
» xp^BH 


» KHHrH 

» npHx^H 

» BO AH. 

y^^^^ 1 With feminine nouns the displacement of the accent is rare 
<-«iM limited to the plural. ^ 

2 Feminine nouns in oica, va, ma, preceded by a consonant, 
and in ma even when preceded by a vowel or semi-vowel, form 
their genitive plural in eu (not in ^): npumueu of the proverbs; 
eo3otcd the bridle, eoaotceu of the bridles, etc. 

28 Hard feminine xouns. 

In the accusatiTe of feminine nouns, there is 
no distinction between animate and inanimate in the 
singular; but in the plural the same distinction takes 
place as with masculine nouns (page 9Sf, 

Such feminine nouns as have two consonants be- 
fore the final vowel, or a consonant and a soft semi- 
vowel, insert e or o between them in the genitive plural^ 
the soft semi- vowel being suppressed: 

N. uiiKSL the stick ndjiRH the sticks 

G. ndjTKH of the stick ^a.IOR^ of the sticks 

D. nkjLK'h to the stick n^JKaMi to the sticks 

A. ndJiRy the stick u^jlkh the sticks 

I. ndJKOK) with the stick najruaHn with the sticks 

P. (o) nkjLK^ (about) the stick. (o) uLikblxi (about) the sticks. 

Such are: 

0Bu,d sheep 

genitive phir. 

: OB^ui 

R6niRa cat 




6i6BA old woman, grandmother 




uap^BHa Imperial Princess 




jiomRa spoon 




CBaAB6a marriage 




Ron^iiKa copeck (Russ. coin.) 




The vowels o and e are inserted solely to facilitate 
the pronunciation; when unnecessary they are omitted.. 
Thus BepcTa verst, atepTsa victim, cecTpa sister, and others, 
make regularly eepcrm, o/cepm&h, cecmp^^, etc. 


O^ofiiuHR'B upholsterer njieManHHua niece 

o66h (plur.) tapestry, wallpaper a BHAijfB I saw, I have seen 

MHt to me jiH? (interr, particle) 

nojK^jiyficTa if you please hjih either, or 

cjiyjRdHRa servant-maid yRpamdeTi (he) ornaments 

Rops^HRa basket ndcxo often, frequently 

cyiip^ra wife o6hkhob^hho usually 

^ijiaexe you make, you do RymaeMi (we) eat 

^B^JT^ colour; i^BixdRi flower Rpacoxd beauty 

9M(5.i6Ma emblem pd;^ocTI> joy. 


R BHA^Ji'B co6aKy. Co6aKa HrpaeTi> ^acTO c^ Kopo- 
BOK). /I^afi (give) co6aKi Xji46a. ^afi mh* Kops^HKy A't- 
Bim,H. Jl^afi KopoBaM-B TpaBU (gen, sing,). 066fiiii;HK^ JKpa- 

Cecmpd has however also the irregular form cecmep%. 

Soft feminine nouns. 29 

inaeT'L KOMHaTH o66mm h KapTHHaMH. Jl^afixe mh*, noata- 
jiyficTa, KHfiry h KopsHHKy. 

Poaa, KopojieBa u.BiTOB'L, ecTL 9M6jieMa KpacoTu h 
paAOCTH. OBii,a HrpaeTTb ch kohikok). ItBiT-B KonieKTb mh* 
HpaBHTca (pleases me). jl,afi khAfh cjiym&EKt, a KopafiHKH 
AiBfiu,*. Mh KymaeM^ JiomKOH) h bAjikoh) (fork), ^to bh 
Teuepb ;i,ij!aeTe? 


Give bread tq^ the dog, and grass to the cow. The 
brother ornament^ the room with papers and pictures. 
I saw the basket of the niece and the book of the girl. 
Give the widow the basket. You speak of (transl 
about) the dog, and I speak of the cow. What do you 
make (^to bh ;i;ijiaeTe), a basket or a book? I often 
see the picture. 

What do you do^ with the money (cb ;!i;eHLraMH) 
of the widow? I saw a rose, but you speak of the 
basket. Who plays usually with the cat? The boy 
usually plays with the cat and with the cow, and the 
girl plays with the dogs of the widow. We eat with 
spoons, knives and forks. 


^iM-B yKpamaeT-B o66itin;HKi> 066fiinj/iK'b yKpamaeTi kom- 
KOMHaTy? HaTy o66aMH. 

Kto nrpacTTb cb KoniKaMH? Majb^HK'B h jitBOHKa h- 

rparoT-B cb KouiKaMH. 

Kto Bfifl^bjub KHfiry Kopo- R Bii;i;'feji'B KHfiry Kopo.ieBLi 
JICBH? H KapTHHy i^apeBHKT. 

KoMy (To whom) bh ^acTe H ;i,aK) KopsAnKy atent 6y- 


^To bh A'fejiaeTe xenepb? A ^ijiaio KapTHHy. 



(Soft form.) 

Soft feminine nouns have, like soft mascuhne nouns, 
a twofold termination. Some of them end in h] others in h. 

^ The particle jih is omitted whenever the interrogative sen- 
tence begins with an interrogative pronoun. 


Soft feminine nouns. 

Examples of soft feminine nouns in n, 
a) Animate Beings. 

N. ukBSL the nurse (-maid) 
G. HAHH of the nurse 
D. HXH']^ to the nurse 
A. H^HM) the nurse 
I. HflHeio (-eii) by the nurse 
P. (o) hAh* (about) the nurse. 

Such are: 

KHflrHHfl princess 
6orBHJi goddess 
rpa(|)UHJi countess 
repo^Hfl heroine 

HflHH the nurses 

hAhb of the nurses 

ukvLHWb to the nurses 

u£[Hb the nurses 

hAhamh by the nurses 

(o) HaHaxi (about) the nurses. 

gen. plur.: RUflrnHB 

:^ » 6orAHb 

» » rpa(|)6Hb 

» » repoAnb. 

b) Inanimate Objects. 

nyjiH the bullets 

nyjB of the bullets 

nyjiaHii to the bullets 

nyjiH the bullets 

n^jiflMH with the bullets 

(o) n^juflxi (about) the bullets. 



: jtHHb 









3apb and sap^fii 



TOHb and TOH^H 



j^osh and A0Ji6ii 










N. n^jia the bullet 
CSknj^jH of the bullet 
(GJnyji'fe to the bullet 

A/nJjuo the bullet 
I. nj^Jieio (-efi) with the bullet 

P. (o) nyji* (about) the bullet. 

Such are: 
A^wa melon 
6ypH tempest 
HeA'fejia week 
sapA dawn 
t6b;i fishing net 
;56ji;i portion 
n6H« fine, penalty 
6p6H/! cuirass ^ y 

seMJia earth VifM*^\k ' 'JW^^'^ *^ » 

Some nouns enmng in jia or hh preceded by another 
consonant, insert in the genitive plural e or o^ or change 
h and w into e, iust as in the case of the hard feminine 
nouns (page 27): 

6dcHH fable gen. plur.: 5&ceHb^ 

6k\!mn tower » » 6&ineHb. 

Such feminine nouns as end in in^ like Auimh 
England, Poccih Russia, have in the dative and prepo- 
sitional the inflection u instead of w>, according to the 

^ Some nouns of this class form their genitive plural also in eu. 

- Some nouns of this class form their genitive plural only 
in CM. 

8 One single noun k^xhh, the kitchen, inserts o: Kyxantt (Ky- 
xom) of the kitchens. 

* Instead of -ewb, many grammarians write -e«», according 
to pronunciation. 

Soft feminine nouns. 


law of permutation (page 17) AmAtu to England, offb 
Ahimu about England, Pocciu^ o Pocciu. 

Examples of soft feminine nouns in h. 
a) Animate Beings. 

N. ji6iiiaAb the horse 

G. JidmaAH of the horse 

D. Ji6niaAH to the horse 

A. jD[6niaAi» the horse 

I. Ji6msLj^hJO (-iro) by the horse* 

P. (o) JL6ma.jpi (about) the horse. 

Such are: 
CBeKpoBb mother-in-law 
Hsnib mouse 

jidma^H the horses 
j[oma;(^tt of the horses 
jomaAflM'b to the horses 
jomaA^tt the horses 
jiomaAflMH (-BM^) by the horses 
(o) jiofflaAflX'b (about) the horses. 

gen. plur.: CBeKpdseH 
» » Mum^g. 

The two words MaTL mother, and ji,ohl daughter, 
are declined throughout as if their nominative singular 
were Mcimeph and doneph. 

b) Inanimate Objects. 

N. KOCTB the bone 
G. k6cth of the bone 
D. k6cth to the bone 
A. K6cTb the bone 
I. K6cTbio (-ii)) with the bone 
P. (o) k6cth (about) the bone. 

r6cth the bones 

KocT^ft of the bones 

KOCTHM'b to the bones 

k6cth the bones 

KOCTHMH (koctbmA) with the bones 

(o) Kocxax'b (about) the bones. 

Such are: 

cipacTB passion 
TKaHB tissue 
KpoBaxB bedstead 
npd3AH0CTB idleness 
Bemb thing 
jLseiph door 

gen. plur.: cxpacT^fi 

» » TK&Hefi 

» » KpoBaT^fi 
» » (npasAHocT^fi) 
» » Bem^H 
» » ,TBep6fi. 


FoBopi^TB (he, she, it) speaks 
yCtadja (she) ran away 
^pHHa;^JIeK6,TB (they) belong 
bucot4 height 
Kynep-B coachmann 

3TH these 
KOHMHa stable 
nop6Ki vice 
xepninie patience 
orpoMHa (she is) immense. 


JI^o^L KHarfaH HrpaeTTb cb HrineK) rpa4)B[HH. Tfl,^ Jio- 
maAH CBeKpoBH? JIoffla^H cbckpobh b^ KOHromHi, a jio- 

^ These nouns even when denoting animate beings admit of 
no distinction between the nominative and accusative singular, but 
in the plural the usual distinction is made. 

32 Hakd and soft neuter nouns. 

fflEAH METepH SAicb. 9th kocth npHHa;i;jieHaTi JIh)66bhJ 
BHcoTa dameu'B ropoAa (town) orpoMBa. 

Mu KymaeM'b ai^hk). OdodiUHK'B iiOKa3HBaeTi> kom- 
HaTH MaTepiMTb H ;!i;oHepiiM'B. JlK)66Bb MaTep^fi orpoMHa. 
HO Tepntnie hahl TaKiKe (also) orpoMHO. ^afiTe TpaBy 
jiomfiji,Awb. KoniKa y6i»ajia ci koctlh). 

^ ^^ ^ 'y,,^ f^cuma^ translation lo. /ZJ "^6 
C/ >./ ^^The^danghter plays with the mother, and the boy 
(' plays with the nurse. The Tsar speaks of the princess, 
and thou speakest of the countess. These horses belong 
to the mother-in-law. The horses [are] in the stable of 
the mother. Idleness is the mother of vices. Coachman, 
give me the bullet! 

We often eat melons. The hunter shows the mother 
a melon. The house of the uncle does not please me 
(trafis, pleases me not, Exerc. 7). Give the uncle the 
book of fables. The height of the tower is immense. 
The dog ran away with the bone. Boy, give the uncle 
these bullets 1 

CONVERSATION.- iof.-^^:u :\ 
Ta* ceroAHH HiiHJi? Hina y6'fe3Kajirf cb Majib- 


r^i A0% Ten^pb? ]ifi^h cb Hflnero iia Tpafii. 

KoMy npHHaAJreata-TB 9th Oh4 npHHawemart pH6aKy 

TOHH? rpa(})6HH. 

B6a*.ih jih bh HOBHX'b (new) fl BH^ijr^ Jioinaji;6fi KHaraHii 

JIOinaA^ft KHflrfiHH? Wh KOHlbfflHflXl AflJlH- 

^To BH roBop6Te repoHHi? Si roBopH) ne o repoHHi, ho 

KoMy BR AacTe CpoHio? R Aaib fipoHBO repoHHi. 



(Hard and soft termination.) 
Example of a hard neuter noun. 
N. Cji6bo the word cjobA the words 

G. cjioBE of the word CJioB'b of the words 

D. cjOBy to the word cjiobAmi to the words 

A. cj6bo the word cjiobA the words 

I. cjOBOM'b with the word cjiob6,mh with the words 

P. (o) cjr6B* (about) the word. (o) ciobAxi (about) the words. 

1 JTiDAOBb Love, a Christian name very frequently met with in 
Russia. Such are also: Bipa Faith, and Ha^^sAa Hope. 


> sing. 

, Tijia 



. T^kK 
























Bilna % 



























nHBa not used in 

the plur. 

Hard and soft neuter nouns. 33 

Such are: 
Tijio body 
cxdAO herd 
63epo lake 
s^pKHJio mirror 
bhh6 wine 

A^o business, affair 
jLEufi person, face 
ceji6 village 
aftu6 egg 
n^Bo beer 

Example of soft neuter nouns in e. 

N. M6pe the sea Hopa the seas 

6. Mopfl of the sea Mop^tt of the seas 

D. M6pio to the sea MopflHi to the sea^ 

A. Mope the sea Mopa the seas 

I. yidyewb by the sea MopflMH by the seas 

?. (o) Mdpt (about) the sea. (o) Mopaxi (about) the seas. 

Such is also: 
n6jie the field. 

Words exhibiting this typical inflection are very 
rare. Neuter nouns in ue, otce, ne, me take for the most 
part the inflections of the hard form: 

N. ji6se the couch aotblb. the couches 

G. Ji6sa of the couch jdx'b of the couches 

D. Ji6xy to the couch JidasaH'b to the couches 

A. ji6jB.e the couch Ji6xa the couches 

I. jidxeifb with the couch jidxaMH with the couches 

P. (o) Ji6a4 (about) the couch. (o) ji6aaxi (about) the coucheF. 

Such are: 

njie?6 (lueng) shoulder- gen. sing. luend nom. plur. uji^vh 

yn^jHn^e school » » yniljiHiua » » y4HJiHiaa 

xHji^iue dwelling » » xajLimsfiL » » sHJinma. 

Nouns in ie, such as mepn'thme patience, have in 
their prepositional singular the termination iu (instead of 
ifb): mepnfhuiu about the patience. 

Also some neuter nouns insert a vowel in the 
genitive plural to facilitate pronunciation: okho the 
window, OKOWh of the windows, ctckjio glass, the pane of 
glass, CTCKOJi'B of glasses. 

There are ten neuter nouns in mh (some are of very 
frequent use) which have a peculiar form of declension. 

1 In neuter nouns, the accent very often distinguishes tlie 
gen. sing, from the nom. plur. 

2 Neuter forms in e are now generally replaced by those in o. 
Russian Cony. -Grammar. 3 


Habu and soft neuter nouns. 

Example of soft neuter nouns in mh. 

N, fip^Mfl the time 
G. Bp^MeHH of the time 
D. Bp^MeHH to the time 
A. Bp^Mfl the time 
^ I. Bp^MeHeMi* with the time 
P. (o) Bp^MOHH (about) the time. 

Such are: 
6p6Ma burden 
iuH name, noun 
miuH flame 
ni^MH race 
CTpena stirrup 

The word jij/lta child, exhibits the following irregu- 
larities : 

Sing. N. ahtA, G. j^htAtji, D. ;^HTaTH, A. ;^HTA, I. AHiaTei), P. o jultAtih. 
Plur. N. A^TH, G. A*T6fi, D. AiTJiMi, A. a^t^S, I. jijktbuiLy P. o A'^Taxi. 


BpeMCH^ the times 
BpeHeHi of the times 
BpeMeHdH'b to the times 
BpeneH^ the times 
BpeMeH^MH with the times 
(o) BpeMeH^x'b (about) the times. 

T^Ma crown 
3HdMA standard^ 
dun seed^ 
BiiMA udder. 

9Toro of this, sthxi of these 
BRyci taste 
iiocjdBHua proverb 
ncpeMteaKTca (they) change 
nepeifbHiieMCfl (we) change 
MH 3H4eH'B we know 
Hdraeft of our (f.) 
oCiMQRkeTb (it) explains 
aBJi^nie phenomenon 
co^HH^Hie work (literary) 
h4ti (there is) no 
xep^BHJi village 
npoHSHom^Hie pronunciation 

cer6 of this (obsolete) 
Tor6 of that 

nB-ijT'L colour, plur. us'feTa'* 
njidBaroxi (they) swim or sail 
Hrp4 play 

yAOBdJLCTBie pleasure 
CMepTfc f. death 

(|)]a3HKa physics, natural philos. 
naHi to us 
npHp6Aa nature 
CTHxoTBop^Bie poetry 
ecTB there is, there are 
MH^ HpdsHTCfl it pleases me, I like. 

IIpoHBHOin^Hie 3Toro cjOBa onewb Tpy;i;HO (difficult). 
II,BiTi 3HaMeHH npiiTeji^ mh^ npaBHTca, a nhirh snaMeni 
HenpiaTejieH mh^ He npaBHTca. A roBopio o nojii, a th tobo- 
pfimb ctMeHH. JI^afiTe mh*, noacajiyftcTa, CTpeMena npiaTejia. 
BoTb (Here is) snaMa h CTp^na. Ot^i^-b Hrpaex^ Cb a^tbmh. 

$H3HKa HaM^ o6^flCHaeTi nBJiimsi npHp6;!i;H. He o 
CO^HH^HijIX'B JIH n^niKHHa BH lOBopfiTe? Ht>'rb, a roBopK> 
CTHxoTBop6Hiaxi> JlepMOHTOBa. JIk);i;h (people) roBopiiirB 
^acTO, ^TO BpeMena nepeMinfijiHCb (are changed), ho BpcMena 
He nepeMiniiioTCH; jiioah nepeMiniiroTca cl BpeneHeM^. 

The pronunciation of these words is very difficult. 
The colour of this beer does not please me, but the 

1 In the nom. plur., it is pronounced SHaMend and SHaMena. 
^ In the genitive plural, it has c^yiawb instead of dug hi. 
^ This word has a double plural with a different significatioD 
(page 156). 

General view of substaxtivk inflections. 


colour of that wine pleases me much. In Russia (Bi^prep.) 
[there are some] lakes. You speak of the standards of 
the enemies, and I speak of the friends' stirrups. The 
taste of the eggs does not please me. The uncle speaks 
about the villages, and thou speakest about the seas. 
[A] proverb says: times change while we change with 
the times. Do you see the window? I see the panes 
of glass of the windows. The children play in (nsiprep.) 
the field. The ships sail on the sea. The play causes 
(AOCTaBJiiieT'B) the children (dat) pleasure. We know 
nothing about the time of our death. 

^TO TH Bfi;i,HlIII>? 

^TO BH A^JiacTe? 
Tji,± TcnepL ;i;HTii? 
^ewb TH roBopfiniB? 

KaKl 30ByTl (call) 3T0 ;i,MTfl? 

^HTajiH-jiH (Did you read) bh 
Kto ua nojiflxi? 

A B^my iifiixa h bhho. 
a nrpaio c^ j^wr HTejo. 
J[wtA Tcn^pL B'b Y^fummik, 
R roBopib atHJiAmi ji.'kTelk. 
9Toro MM He snaeM'B. 
A yate 'iHTaji'B cthxotbop^- 

Hia 3Toro noBTa. 
Ha nojiAx'h MyatHKfl cr, ci- 




From what has been hitherto said concerning the 
declensions of substantives, and from the following 
synoptical table, we may easily draw a few hints of a gfme- 
ral character, which will no doubt greatly assist the learner. 

Hard form. 1 

Soft form 

%^ , ^f>i 1 

Cases. 1 




Masc. 1 Fem. 







fl ; H 


I e 







H H 


1 ^ 







K) 1 ij 


» MeuH 




OH) (oh) 


(fl) i: K) 


e 1 Ma 





GM-b' |'eK)(eH) 

bK) (iio) 

eMi iMeiieMi 






* !! 4 











H !' H 









es'b 1 h 









HWh 1 HVLTy 









(eBi>)l| (l) 











! AMH 







nx-b 1' HXI 


flxi, Menaxi 1 


36 General view of substantive inflections. 

1. Though each of the three genders has its own 
declension, yet we may state that the singular inflections 
of neuter nouns are in the main Uke those of the mas- 
cuUne gender, whereas their plural inflections do not in 
general diflfer from those of the feminine gender. 

2. The prepositional singular always ends in k, 
except in a few feminine and neuter nouns (page 31 
and 33). 

3. The dative, instrumental and prepositional of 
the plural take without any distinction of gender, the 
inflections aMt, aMH, axi, in hard nouns; and nwh, hmh, 
axt, in soft ones. 

Remarks on the genitive case.^ 
This case must always be employed in negative 
sentences containing transitive verbs (see page 52) and 
after the following adverbs of quantity: 
MHoro much, many cji^romi. too, too mucli 

H^o little, few CT6iibK0 as much, as many 

662^8 more HH<ier6 (pr. nit-chai v6h) nothing 

MeH'be less hto Hii6fji,b something, somewhat 

cr6jibro how much, how many h'&ckojbko some, any, several 
AOb6jibho enough HeMH6ro a little, some.^ 

MH6ro CT0Ji6B'b. many tahles. 

ck6j[bko pa6dTHHK0B'L? how many workmen? 

A0B6j[bH0 A^nerib (worn. pi. AeHbrn). money enough, 
a He BUA^ib i^apa. I did not see the Tsar. 

BH He BUAHxe CTeROJTb. You do not see the panes. 

SA'l^Cb He 6hjio j6inaAH. here was no horse. ^ 

The genitive singular of some masculine nouns in 
^, t> and w, when used in a partitive sense, i. e. to denote 
a part of a totality, or a certain quantity, ends in y 
or H), instead of a or a: 

J(auTe MHi HeMu6ro cdxapy! Give me some sugar! 

BoT^ qamaa hAd. There is a cup of tea. 

Kyp^Hie Ta6aK^ bp^aho. The smoke of tabacco is harmful. 

Note also the ten following words of frequent use 
which take y (h)) instead of i in their prepositional singular: 

^ Further details on the use of the genitive case are given in 
the 1^ lesson of the second part. 

2 The simple particle He does not require the genitive, because 
the turn of the sentence is considered as positive: y Mena ne cjio- 
B&pL I have no dictionary. 

3 The use of the genitive case after a negation and an ad- 
verb of quantity is by no means a peculiar feature of the Slavonic 
languages, as some grammarians have styled it. Comp. the French: 
Conibien de travailleurs? 11 n'y a pas de cheval ici, etc. 

General view op substantive inflections. 


roAi year 
Bepxi top 
B^Kb century 
CsLjfb ball 

66per% shore, coast 
6oR'b side, flank 

MuCHiiKi butcher, gen. -a 

3aR4jiHBaTb to kill, to slaughter 

KyxdpRa woman-cook 

KypHi^a hen 

niryxi cock, gen. -a 

rycB goose 

yTKa duck, gen. pi. ]^toki 

ryjaert (he, she, it) walks 

IjiYVb friend 

6or&TCTBo riches 

cocToArb (he, she, it) consists 

CROTi cattle 

Bep6jiK)A'b camel 

npn^HH^a (she) caused 

na on, upon, to 

umiiuIki coachman, gen. -a 

rp66eBb comb 

6pacji^T% bracelet 

sacT^xRa hook 

cfitT^jBHHK'b lucifer, match 

noACBi^HHRi candlestick 

Bici> weight 

HepH^jibHHi^a inkstand 

6e3i> nacTyx4 without shepherd 

yA0B6jBCTBie pleasure 

R03& goat, plur. r63h 

BOJRi wolf 

Rpaii country, spot 
jitci forest • 
Mocrb bridge 
caAi garden 
Haci hour.* 


xyA^XHERi artist 

noA&ftxe give (you)! 

speA'B damage, gen. -k 

HaROBdjibHJi anvil 

OTBt^^TB to answer 

nHCLH6 letter 

KOTdpafi which, who, what 

coc^Xb neighbour 

CR6po soon, quick 

H 6JAY oTBt^iiB I shall answer 

cjrdsa glory 

cnoR6MCTBie tranquillity 

noAB n^njioMi under the ashes 

oTRpHBdTBCfl to be discovered 

MH6jRecTB0 quantity 

BemB (feni.) thing 

R0JiBi^6 ring 

02Rep^JBe necklace 

ociaBJiaerB (he, she, it) abandons 

cHpoT4 orphan 

km,EK'b box, case 

cRaaRAie tell [cjiyrn 

cjiyr^ servant, footman, plur, 

6aHR^p% banker [the victim 

6hb^i)ti> Ao6ii9eK) (they) become 

cjiowb elephant, gen. -k 

A^JiaoTi (he, she, it) does, makes. 


Bon He ocTaBMeiTb cnpo'PB. no^afiTe cjiOHy iifijiOKo. 

CKa»6Te, nomdjijrficTa, cjryrt 6aHK6pa, ^to a ajticb Bt 

KOMHari o66fiin.HKa. Obii;h Seat nacTyxa 6HBaK)T'b ao6u- 

^eiO BOJKOBt. &T0 A^O AOCTdLBJlAeVb MHi MHoro yj,o- 

BOJTLCTBia. JI,afiTe mh* emie neMHoro xjii6a. 

nojjt n^ujiOM'b FepKyjEanyMa OTicpHBaeTca MHoatecTBO 
Bemi^S: nomd, joskkh, rp^6Hii, AmjiKii, K6jiBii;a, oas.ef6jiha, 

6paCJl6TH, SaCXeatKH, CBiTfijILHHKH, BiCU, ^epH^JTMHI^U. 

Th roBop6ini> o KapTdnax'B xyAOffiHHKa, a a roBopib o 
aydapixt njioTHEKOBt. JHeAth y^enHKa Bt y^fijinjiit. 
The butcher slaughters cows and bulls, goats and 
sheep (plur.), and the woman-cook [kills] hens and cooks, 

* All further remarks and exceptions concerning the declen- 
sion of nouns have been removed to the Second Part. 


38 Nouns with prepositions. 

geese and ducks. The teacher walks with the boy, the 
mother (walks) with the daughter, the brother with the 
sister, the friend with the friend. The riches of the 
Kirgise consist (sing.) of (b% prepos) cattle: of camels, 
bulls, goats, sheep and horses. 

The tempest caused much damage to the houses 
and fields. The blacksmiths work on (na prepos) the 
anvils. Did you already answer (na accus.) the letter 
of the friend who yesterday was (B^epa 6ujn>) in the 
room of the neighbour? I did not yet answer (K emjd 
He OTBi^ajit), but I shall soon answer. The century of 
Octavius (Nam. OKTasifi) was a century (instr, here) of 
glory and tranquillity. 


Fa* cjiyra y^flTejia? Cjiyra yqHTejia 3a*ci», a cjy- 

ra 6aHKflpa Ha MOCTy. 
He mejiaeTe jih bh o64AaTb Ct yAOBOJiBCTBieMt. 

cer6;iHa Bt ropoA*? 
Kto 6hjii> TaM'b na nojii cb H 6uai> na nojii Cb mac- 



OKHi? HO (one) ctckjio. 

He npHHHHfljia jih 6ypa mho- BypanpHqHHfijiaMHoroBpeAa 

ro Bpe^a jitcaMt h ca- ne jvbckwh h ca;^aMT», a 

;i,aM'B? AOMaMi) h hojihm'b. 

Fa* JieTisATb UeTepfiypr'b (or IleTepfiyprTb, cxojiHiiia (capi- 

CaHRTrB-IXeTepeyprt)? tal) Poccih, jierndTb ua 

6eperax'b Hcbu. 



A. Prepositions whicli always govern the same case: 

a) With the genitive: 
663% without oTi from, away from 

AJa for p^AH for the sake of 

Ao till, up to y at, by, near. 

H3% out of, from 

> Very often the cases of nouns are governed by prepositions 
(as in Greek, Latin, German, etc.), which occur so frequently in 
most sentences, that they must be learnt as early as possible. For 
the present only those prepositions are given which are most ne- 
cessary, this part of speech being fully treated in the Second Part. 

Nouns with prepositions. 39 

b) With the dative: 
B%, KO^ to, towards. 

c) With the accusatiye: 
iipo of, about, concerning ^pest, H^peai, over, across, 

CKB03B through, throughout through, after. 

d) With the instrnmental : 

eaAi above, over. 

e) With the prepositional: 
npH near, in the time of. 


BoTT> jifiwh 6e3h 6koh"b. There is a house without win- 


M^jib^HK-B, yfijiA orm otrhI Boy, go away from the fire I 

Kn^ra y ynHTejia. The book is at the teacher's. 

UoAi&Te m nHBOB&pyl Go to the brewer! 

n^jiji npcjeT-kia cneoat CT6KJia. The bullet flew through the 


IlTHua JCTdcTt Ha^^ roJoedK) The bird flies over the head of 
npiaTeji«. the friend. 

Gto CJiyq^jocb npu AjieKcdH^p*. This happened in the time of 


B. Prepositions wUoli govern two oases: 

a) With the accnsative and instrumental: 

nojpi under, below 3a behind, after, for (with verbs 

n^pe;^, npejiB before, to of thanking). 

These three prepositions govern the accusative, when 
the verb of the sentence conveys an idea of motion or 
direction ; whereas they are followed by the instrumental 
if denoting a state of rest: 

A 6p6cHjrB KHi&ry nodz ctcii. T threw the book under the table. 

K6uiKa ch;(6tt> no^^ h^hkoio. The cat lies under the stove. 

B.Taro^apK) BacT> aa ufBURj, Thank you for the music. 

b) With the accusative and prepositional: 

B'L in, into, to, at na on, upon, against, to. 

When implying motion with the accusative, when 
implying rest with the prepositional: 
OeA uoniJiH e^ niKdJiy. They went to school. 

Owh 6Hj['b Ha yjHui. He was in the street. 

The preposition o, 06^, 660 generally governs the 
prepositional when employed for abouty concerning and 
the accusative when taken in the sense of against: 

^ The final (instead of i) is frequently met with in many 
prepositions, in order to soften pronunciation. 

40 Nouns with prepositions. 

Oh% yxapHJi KyjiaR6M'b o6i ctoji. He struck (against) the table 

with his fist, 
fl roBopi) o6^ omi, a th roBo- F speak (about) of the father, and 
pimb cuni. thou speakest of the son. 

C. Prepositions which govern three cases^: 
a) With the instrnmental^ genitiye and accusative: 

Cb with; from; about. 

Generally speaking, ct governs the instrumental 
when it signifies with, tlie genitive when it signifies 
from and the accusative when it signifies about: 
G% yip^ ^0 B^qepa. From morning to evening. 

n^Ra tojiiiuih6i) Cb n&jei^'b. A stick about one finger thick. 

SL ncmeJi'b ryj^ib cb 2EeH6i). I went and took a walk with my 

b) With the dative, accasati?e and prepositional: 
no along, according to; up to; after, on. 

This preposition is used with the dative to express 
motion, time and manner; it is followed by the accusative, 
when signifying up to, as far as; with the prepositional, 
when corresponding to after, on: 
S. ryji«i) no rdpo^y. I walk in the town. 

a er6 BH;^dJl•b no BT6piiHKaM'b. I saw him on (every) Tuesday. 

Oh-l oAiBAeTca no m6a* He dresses fashionably. 

no jriByro CTdpony. On the left hand side. 

no npora^cTBiH ehtA stvh. After the lapse of five years. 

R CHTi no r6pjio. I am full up to my throat. 

JIo npiisA* cib^a. On the arrival here. 


CTind wall, plur. ciinH caA6BHHR'b gardener 

sepcid verst^, plur. B^pciH owb npHm^ji he came 

piK4 river, plur, p^KH ko MH'fe to me 

i3AHTb to go, to drive, to pass on&cno (it is) dangerous 

H Bk'l^xaji'b I started pascE^si tale 

a npiixaji'b I arrived npixiHO agreeable 

oTofuAie! keep away! cjij^maib to listen 

noffAiiTe go (you)! a6jiro long, long time 

eHy to him HRdna image (sacred) 

oTAHxdTB to rest BoroMdiepb Holy Virgin 

A^peso tree KpecTi cross 

iij6maAb place, square rjiasd top, head 

ynLii (he) fell co66p'b cathedral 

H o5iAaK) I dine 6oAhmkn great (fem. adj.) 

HTo6i that, in order that n^Ka stick, gen. plur. d^jioki. 

» As it is rather difficult for beginners to understand which 
case must be employed, it has been thought advisable to assist them 
with practical hints, whenever necessary, in the translations ocur- 
ring in the First Part. 

2 A Russian verst is equal to 8500 English feet. 

Nouns with prepositions. 41 


a B^epa npiixajt hs'b Mockbh. JI,4th, 0T0itfl;6Te 
OTh MOCTa; onacHO isjijiTh no MOCTaMtl CeroAHa a o64- 
^aK) y coci^a. PascKas's o repot mb* o^enL npaBHTca, 
ero npiflTHO cjiymaTL. DofiA^Te Kt njOTHHKy h CKaatHie 
eMy (to him), ^T0 r Ten6pB Bt ropo^i. 

Stot-b cjiOBapB MA 6paTa, a 3th KHftrn w-a cecTpn. 
JI,aSTe pa^H Bora xjii6a pafioxHHKaM'B, a najiKH nj6THH- 
KaM'Bl Oh'b ynaji'B b^ piK^. B^epa 6HJia 6ojibniaa 6ypa 
Ha osepi. Kiob'b jiemiiTb na piKi JI.H'hnpi. fl BfiA^Ji'h 
i^apa CKB03B CTCKjia OKsa. 


I started from St. Petersburg. How many versts 
[is it] from St. Petersburg to Moscow? Keep away from 
the fire I To-day I dine at the teacher's. Go to the 
gardener, please, and tell him that he may come (transl, 
he came) to me to-morrow. It is dangerous to pass 
over the bridge. 

Where didst thou rest, in the room or under the 
tree? I rested under the oak. The bird flies through 
the square. There is a room without mirrors. Fairy 
tales (CKasKH) [are] agreeable to listen to. The sister 
prayed (MOJiHJiacB) a long time before the image of the 
Holy Virgin. The cross fell from the top of the cathedral. 


KoFAaacHJCB (lived) CoKpaiTB? CoKpaT'B mnji'h bt> tp^tbcmi 

CTOJitTiH (century) jifi 
Poa;;i;ecTBa XpncTOBa. 

Kto ynaji'B ci. Ji6nia;i;H? CojiAaT'B ynajrb ci. jromaw. 

Hto ynaio b'b piKy? lUjiana (hat) ynajia b^b piKy. 

Kto o;i;iBaeTca no moa*? CecTpa oxtBacTca no moa*. 

KyA^ nomeji'B ot6ii;'b? Oh'b nomej'B ryjiaTB cb Ma- 


Kor;i;d B03BpaT6jica (return- IIpiaTejiB BOSBpaTfijca no 
ed) npiaTCJiB hs-b IleTep- npomecTBin naT6 Jiivh. 

^ewh TH Ten^pB ;i,yMaemB? H AyMaio od-B orni, a tu ^y- 

MaeniB o BO^i. 

42 The auxiliary verb bhtb to be. 



Indicative Mood, 


SL (ecHb) I am^ mh (ecMu) we are 

TH (ec6) thou art2 bh (ecT6) you are 

oHi, oHd, ou6 ecTB be, she, it is. oh^, oni, ohi^, cyTb they are. 

iL 6vLJL'b^ -jd, -JO I was^ Hfii 5ujiH we were 

TH 6vLA% -Ji4, -Jio thou wast BH 6iijiH you were 

OHi 6hjix he was oni 6iijiH they were 

oed 6hji4 she was on^ 6ibH they were 

oh6 (Jiijio it was. ohh 6^sb. they were. 

a 6^ay I shall be mh 6j]ifiVL'h we shall be 

TH ^^Aemb thou wilt be bh 6^AeTe you will be 

OHi, OHd, oh6 6'jjifit'h he, she, it oh6, OH-fe, ohh 6y;^yT'B they will 
will be. be. 

Imperative Mood. 


6y;iB be (you). 6]fABTe be (you). 

Conditional and Subjunctive Mood.^ 

Present and Past. 
A 6HJi'b 6h I should be mh 6hjih 6h we should be 

TH 6HJi'b 6u thou wouldst be bh 6^jm 6h you would be 

OHTi 6hji'i. 6h he would be. OHii 6hjih 6u they would be. 

Infinitive Mood, 

Participle present, 
c^miii, -an, -ee being. 

Participle past. 
6HBmiH, -aa, -ee been. 

* The forms given in parenthesis are used only in poetry. 
The third person is also very frequently omitted in prose. 

2 In poetry sometimes also ecTb. 

3 The distinction of genders extends in Russian also to the 
singular of the past of verbs. A man says h 6h[A'b; a woman a 
6hj4; a child, or a personified thing says a 6ikjio. This fact is 
explained in the 27tli lesson (page 116). 

* These moods which are wanting in Russian, may be sup- 
plied by the forms of the Indicative past followed by the particle 6h. 


Participle future. 
6yAymiH, -aa, -ee that shall be. 

Gerund present. 
6yAy^H being, while being. 

Gerund past. 
Cuvb, 6uBinH having been. 

NB. The conjugation of fitiBaTL (to be usually) 
does not differ in the least from that of all other verbs 
ending in hbetl or HBaTB. See the 26*** lesson. Its 
present tense however is never omitted. 

The verb to have may be rendered by waivb, but 
the usual way of expressing it in Russian is by the 
verb 6uTi>, expressed or understood, and accompanied 
by the genitive of the possessor (noun or pronoun) 
preceded by y. 

Hereby must be observed that the present tense of 
6htl is almost always suppressed. It must further be 
noticed that the possessed object stands in Russian in 
the nominative^ and not in the accusative as in Enghsh.^ 

y MCHa (ecTb) I have y Haci we have 

y Te6ii thou hast y Baci you have 

y Her6 he has * y hhxx they have 

y Eea she has y coci^Aa the neighbour has 

y Hero it has.; y ji6maAH the horse has. 

y MOHfl 6hji'l 6psiTb I had a brother 

y Te6k 6ujik KHHra thou hadst a book 

y Her6 6^ao ^6jioko he had an apple, etc. 

y ueHfl 6yAeT'b hosi I shall have a knife 

y Te6a 6y;ieT'L aHu6 thou wilt have an egg 

y Hero dpyTi ciOBapii he will have the dictionaries, etc. 


BB^bRi, B-feHHo eternally upaB;ia truth, right 

n6cj[t sdfiTpa the day after to- acdpKo hot, warm 
morrow jiiTOMi in summer 

EBflkAT* back; tom^ na^dAi* ago poj^^TOJiH parents 

^ The reason of this is evident. If instead of saying I Lave 
a book, I say Near me (is) a hook (y Mena KHAra), the word hook 
is no longer a possessed object, but a subject which indicates its 
possessor. This manner of expressing the idea of possession may 
be usefully compared to the Latin constructions: tihi est pater, mihi 
est tixor and to the French: ce Uvre est a moi. 

44 Thb auxiliary verb bhtb to be. 

CKSakMSi (she) said, told a Ayu&v) I think 

cer6xHji B^HepoMi this evening xep^BHa village, country, gefi. pL 
T^Rxe also, too xepeB^Hb 

BT» JiscV in the forest B^epd no yipy yesterday morning. 

Borne, TH ecfi, th 6ujvb, th fipemL si^Ho! r^t 
6iijio fl,m!A B^epa no J^py? Mh He sniewb, r^i oho 6hjo 
Bqepd no yxpy, a B^epa B^^epoM'b oho 6hjio wb jrfecy. Y 
coci^a (ecTB^) CHHt h ao^b. y nact (ecTL)K6niKa h co6aKa. 
y Bact HtTb co6iR%. y HHX'b 6ujio MHoro co6aK'b. y 
MBHfl TdKffie co6aKH. 

A ceroAHfl B^nepoifb ;i;6Ma, a bh 6peTe ^ona saBTpa 
fiJEH nocjii sdBTpa. Hto y Meni ecTB? y Bact nnnero wkn>. 
jltTOM'B MU fiy^eM'b B'b ^ep^BHi, a 3hm6k) mh BcerAa b'b 
ropoA*. y Hac^ AOMt Bt j^ep^Bnt, a y Hero aomtj b'b 
ropoA*. y Hei MHoro A^nert. y Bac^ jih ^^HBrn? 
God is, was and shall be eternally. Where will the 
parents be the day after to-morrow? Where were you yester- 
day morning? Your sister (Bdma cecTpAi^a) was at home 
and told me: My sister (Moa cecTpa) will be back this 
evening; she is now at [her] mother's. She told the truth : 
I was there. I have the bread, and you have the basket. 
Where will the friends be? They will be in the 
garden. We should have been (6iijrH 6u) this morning 
in the forest, if you had been (transl. were) there. 
When will the brother and sister be at home? You 
have many friends. You had a house in town. Yester- 
day it was very (o^enb) hot, to day it is also hot, and 
I think that to-morrow it will be hot too. 

EcTL JH y Bact BOJit? y MeHfl ecTB BOJii, a y Bact 

l\i fiujit OT^i^t ceroAHfl CeroAHa yTpojTB OHt 6ujn> 
yTpoMt ? SA^cb, a cer6;ina B^^epoM'b 

OH^ BipoflTHO (probably) 
dpeiTB B'B ropoAi. 
EcTb-jTH y Hea ctoji^? HiTij, y nei HiTb cTOJia. 

y MOHfl JIH TpocTB (caue)? ;T,a, TpocTb y Bact. 
BiUiJ'bJiH TH sdMOK^napfl? HiT'b, a He BfiAtJi'B saMKa 

i^apa, a bAa*^ ^Boper^'b 

(palace) KopoJia. 

* If we wish to assert the existence of the object possessed, 
ecTb cannot be ommitted and, being in this case an impersonal 
verb, it does not agree with anything. 

Hints to the regular conjugation. 45 

BAjiikjiSL Jim Bama cecTp6ii;a JI,a, OHa BtjiikjiSL saMOK'L kha- 

SaMOK'b KH^r^HH? rdHH. 

BAfliknn jiH BH cjioHa, ko- B^epa no yxpy ji 6hji'b ne 
TopHfi 6hji'b Bt ;i;epeBfffe Bt ^ep^BHi, a bi> ropoA*. 
B^epa no yxpy? 

EcTL-jiH y 6paTa jioniaAB? Y 6paTa JioniaAH ntT-B; y 

Hero ecTTb 6hk'b h KopoBa. 



All Russian regular verbs are divided into two 
conjugations, according to the inflections of the second 
person singular and the third person plural of the in- 
dicative present.^ 

To the first regular conjugation, which embraces 
the greatest number of verbs, belong those which have 
the second person singular of the present ending in 
eniL, and the third person plural in yTt or lovh. 

To assist beginners, it may also be added that the 
first conjugation comprises the greatest part of those 
verbs which in the infinitive present end in etb, htb 

or HJTB. 

Examples of the first conjugation. 

a) ?HT&TB to read. 

a hht^m) I read mh HHTdeMi we read 

tu HHTdemb thou readest bh ^HxdeTe you read 

oHi ^m&erb he reads oh^ hht&m>t% they (m.) read 

OHa HHT&en she reads on-fe hht^iotb they (f.) read 

OHO HHT&en it^ reads. oh^ hht4h)tb they (n.) read. 

ji<iHT&A'b,-jia,-j[oIread, Ihaveread^ hh ?ht4jih we read 
th hht^jii, -ja, -JO thou readst bh MHiajH you read 

^ The complete theory of the Russian verb is given later on 
(Lesson 26). Here only the most necessary paradigms are given to 
learners, who will no dubt be impatient to know the mechanism 
of the most important of all parts of speech. 

^ Properly speaking, there is but one regular conjugation in 
Russian, as will be seen in the 27th lesson. This division into two 
conjugations has been provisionally adopted here, because of great 
and unquestionable practical utility. 

^ A. man says h ^wikA'b, a woman a HHTajia, a thing a ^, 
and so on. See footnote 3, page 42. 

46 Hints to the regular conjugation. 

OHt miTki'b he read ohA hht^jih they (m.) read 

oHa HHT^Jia she read OHi hht^ih they (f.) read 

oh6 HHTijio it read. ohh HHiajH they (n.) read. 

H 6yxy HHTdxb I shall read mh 6Ynewb hht^tb we shall read 

th 6yAeinb mrrkn thou wilt read bh 6^^6X6 hht&tb you will read 
OH-L 6ff.eT% HHidTL he will read ohh 6y^^yTl qHxdTb they will read 
OHd 6yAeTb ^nidit she will read oni 6YJi,YTh ^Hidxb they will read 
OHO 6yAeTi hht4xb it will read. ohh 6yjt,yTb HHxdxt they will read. 

HHT^il read (thou)! HHx^ftTe read (you) I 

In the same manner as ^ht^tl are also conjugated: 

pa66xaTb to work 6ojiT^Tb to chatter 

pascR^HBaxb to tell, to narrate nptiraxb to jump, to spring 

cnpdmHBaTb to ask, to demand 2Eeji4Tb to wish, to desire 

oxB^Hdxb to answer, to reply j^imih to make, to do 

no3BOjflTb to permit, to allow ryjiAXb to walk 

AynaTb lo think, to believe xB^CTaxb to boast. 

b) jK^aTL to wait, to expect. 

H KAy I wait MH sixewb we wait 

th a;(einb thou waitest bh atACxe you wait 

OHi atj^gxi he waits oh6 xjf^yr'b they wait 

onk a^gii she waits oh4 aiyxi they wait 

oh6 m.jt,erb it waits. ohh XAyTi they wait. 

H jKAajii, -Jia, -JO I waited mh xAajn we waited 

TH iKAaii, -ja, -jno thou waitedst bh ska&jih you waited 
oHi atiajii he waited oh6 ika^h they waited 

OHd sKA^Jia she waited oh-^ xa^jih they waited 

OHO xA^o it waited. ohh isAaiH they waited. 

ji 6yAy aAaxb I shall wait mh Cy^eMi atxaxb we shall wait 

TH 6}^jienib sAaxb thou wilt wait bh 6fji,eTe atAaxb you will wait 
oHii hyji.e'i'b a^aTb he will wait ohh 6yjf,yTb a^aTb they will wait 
onk 6j^eT'L xAaxb she will wait oni 63^iiyT'b 7Rji,B,Th they will wait 
oh6 6yji.eT'b aAarb it will wait. ohA 6yAyT'b at;^aTb they will wait. 

atAH wait (thou)! aj^HTe wait (you)! 

Such verbs as m^ijaTB are: 

pBaxb to tear, to rend rnyTb to bend, to bow 

Bpaxb to lie, to tell a falsehood THEfrh to draw, to pull. 

Hints to the regular conjugation. 47 


Bci HayKH all sciences cboi^mh ycnixauH of his success 

ox6tho willingly jexdiB to fly 

r6jiy6L pigeon, gen. plar. -6m BixBt branch (of a tree) 

nocToi[HBO incessantly B6poH'B raven 

copoKa magpie moji^^tb to he silent, -Hy, -HAmL 

CBA^i'b (he) sat xu B'&pHniL thou helieirest 

Bce x^KH however nji6xo Bipro I hardly believe 

naBipHo indeed, in truth xorb this one, that one 

noBHM^xb to understand 6HeHb x^;^o very badly. 

AepcBo tree 


^TO Bu 6yAeTe ;ii4;[aTb ceroAHa Be^epoMt? Mh B^epa 
HHHero He ;i,ijTajiH. ^to ^yMaiOT^ HenpiaTejiH? Ohh ;i;y- 
MajiH B^epa no yxpy, qTO oh6 Ten6pL sniioTb Bct na^KH. 
^^llL'h XBacxaji'L fipait? Owh xBacTaji^ cbo6mh ycnixaMH. 
Hto ;i;4th ;i;'fejaH)Tt TaKi. oxotho? Ohh cjiyraaio'Tb cjiOBa 
yHHTejia. ^to r6jiy6L ;i,4jiaji'L? Owh jrexaji'B no b^tbam^ 

OxoTHHRii ;i,6jiro acAajit na nojii h Bt jiicy. CopoKa 
BiU'feJia BopoHa H ;i.yMajia: Ont AypaKt (a fool), OH^b cji&m- 
KOMt MHoro fiojiTaexTb; kto xaKt MHoro 6ojiTaeT'B, KaK'B 

OHt, TOTt HafiipHO H MHOrO B^'eTh. Th He BipHHIL TOMy, 

^TO a Te64 pascKasHBaro? H BceMy (all) Bipio, npiriTejib 
Mofi; TH HHKorAa (never) ne Bpaji'L. 


What do you there? I work, and you do no- 
thing. He thinks that he knows all sciences and in- 
cessantly boasts of his success. We willingly listen [to 
you], when you tell [something]. What did you [do] 
yesterday? We do not know (trans, we know not). To- 
day I shall answer, and you will answer to-morrow or 
the day after to-morrow. 

Listen, child, when the teacher tells [a story]! 
The magpie jumped on (no dat.) the branches of a tree 
and incessantly chattered; but the raven sat [tranquil] 
and was silent. — What dost thou, friend, perhaps (6jrH) 
thou dost not believe what I tell thee? asked at last 
the magpie. — I hardly believe, answered the raven, 
[for] he who chatters so much like (KaKi) thou, he (TOTt) 
indeed slies 2much itoo. 

48 Hints to the regular conjugation. 



B^epa paacKasHBaji'b o co- ^to bh mh* paacKasHBajH 

6aKi cociAa? , mh* o^ent HpaBHJiocL. 

r^i BH 6y;i;eTe ofit^aTB 9Toro a ne SHaro: a 6yAy 

ceroAHfl, Bt ropoAi 6jih o6'tAaTi> cb npLiTejieMt. 

Bi ;i;ep6BHi? 
Koro BH atAaJTH na njiomiaAH, H at^a^'B 6paTa h cecTpy. 

Kor^a A BacB BHA^Jit? 
IIoHHMaeTe jm bh xeni^pB no H ein;e oqeHB Majio noHHMaH) 

pyccEH? no pyccKH. 

^ewb oh6 jtyMaroTi? OhA ;i;yMaH)T'B 6htl 3Aicb 

saBTpa fijiH nocjii saBTpa. 
KaR^ OH'B noHHMaeT'B no Oh'b eni,e o^enb njioxo nonn- 

dnrjiificKH? MaeTi> h roBopfiTt no an- 

^TO AiTH A'tjajiH? Onfi Msoro ;i;yMajiH, no Bce 

TaKH He snajTH ^to A'fejiaTb. 




To the second regular conjugation belong those 
verbs having the second person singular of the indica- 
tive present in nnib, and the third person plural in ai'b 
or nTh, 

This is mostly the case with verbs having in the 
infinitive present the terminations htb, sBaxB, mmh^ maxB^ 
n^aTB and 'faxB. 

Examples of the second conjugation. 

a) roBOpHTB to speak, to say. 

« roBopib 1 speak, I say mh roBopAanb we speak 

th roBopHmb thou speakest bh roBopHTe you speak 

owh roBop^Tb he speaks ohu roBopaT'b they speak 

ouk roBopilirb she speaks oni roBopflTi they speak 

oh6 roBopHTB it speaks. ohh roBopaTB they speak. 

n roBop^Jii, -Jia, -JIG I spoke mei roBoporjiH we spoke 

th roBopAjii, -Jia, -jo thou spokest bh roBopiuH you spoke 

Hints to the regular conjugation. 49 

oui rofiopHJi he spoke ohu roBopHjiH they spoke 

oh4 roBopHjia she spoke OHi roBopi^jiH they spoke 

OHO it spoke. ou± roBop^JiH they spoke. 


ji 6yAy roBopHTb 1 shall speak mh 6y;^eM•b roBopnifc whe sh. sp. 

TH 6Jfl,emh roBop^Tb thou w. sp. bh 6y;^eTe roBopHTL you w. sp. 

OHb 6fji,eTb roBop^TB he w. sp. ohh OynyT'b roBopnib they w. sp. 

0H§. 6y;(eT'L roBopAxb she w. sp. on-fc 6y;(yTi roBopnib they w. sp. 

oh6 6fji,eT'h roBop^Tb it w. sp. ohA 63^1x11 roBopi^Tb they w. sp. 


roBop^ speak (thou)! roBopi^ie speak (you)! 

Thus are conjugated: 

nynvLTh to blaroe Ryp^xb to smoke, -pK>, -pHinb 

XBa.iHTb to praise, -jdb, -JiHinb ^jiaroxapixb to thank 

roTOBHib to prepare^ jioB^Tb to catch^ 

xpaH^Tb to preserve, to protect ctp6htl to build. 

b) CTyqaTL to knock, to strike. 
M CTyq^ I knock mbi CTy^HM'b we knock 

TH cTyqnnib thou knockest bh cxyq^re you knock 

OHi cryHHTi he knocks chA CTyHiiT^ they knock 

oh4 CTyiHTi she knocks oni cxyiaTi. they knock 

OHO CTyH^Ti it knocks. ohh CTyH^Tt they knock. 

M CTyq^i, -ja, -Jio I knocked mh ciy^ajiH we knocked 
TH CTyndjii, -ja, -jo thou kn. bh cxynajiH you knocked 

OH-b cxy^^Ji-b he knocked ohA cxyq^JH they knocked 

0H& CTy<iajia she knocked ob-^ cxynd^H they knocked 

ou6 CTyH&jio it knocked. ohA cxyndjin they knocked. 

ji 6^j^y cxyqdxb I shall knock mh 6J;^eM•b cxyndxb we sh. kn. 

TH 6y;^efflb CTyndxb thou w. kn. bh 6fAexe cxyn^Tb you w. kn. 
OH-b 6yAerb cxyn^Tb he w. kn. ohh 6fji,yT'b cxyqdxb they w. kn. 

OH^ 6^^6X1. cxy^^xb she we kn. oH-fe 6yAyT'b ciy^^xb they w. kn. 
oh6 6jjkeT'b cxyn^Tb it w. kn. oh A 6}}i,yTh CTyiiib they w. kn. 

cxyqii knock (thou)! CTynAxe knock (you) I 

Thus are: 
KpHH&xb to cry, to shout xpemixb to rattle, to crack 

xepsdxb to hold, -aty, -atHrab ropixb to burn [-xpHrab 

MOJiq^Tb to be silent, not to CMoxpixb to look, to gaze, -xpi), 
speak CHA'&xb to sit (a cHas^, xh CH^tob 

npHHaAJesRaxb to belong and so on). 


Pii6a fish ;^eHb day, gen. J^HH 

ndsapTi cook -noieMy? why? 

^ Verbs in bhtb, AHXb, MHXb, nnxb, (J)HXb (polysyllable) insert 
;r in the first person singular of the present: a rox6BJiro, a jobjk). 
See Lesson 27. 

Russian Con v. -Grammar. 4 

50 Hints to the regular conjugation. 

Bp^AHO (it is) prejudicial, harmful ra^^R's tobacco, gen. •& (pag. 37) 
np^»Ae formerly xhtb to live 

pu6dKi fisherman, gen. -a noTOHy hto because 

ABopi court, yard, gen. -k ropdsAO much, very much 

o6i;^l dinner Aop6ra way, road. 


H AO^b. OhI. He BipHTK|^ ^0 OHTb TBH^pB rOBOpATt. 

Iloeapt roT6BHTx odi^t, a padaKt JOBHTt pH6y. Th 

CTpOHJI'L AOMl, Bt KOT6pOMl, TH He 6yAefflb aCHTb HH OA- 

Horo AHH (not even one day). Uo^eMy th ne K]^pHmb? 

IIOTOMy ^TO MHi po^fiTejiH roBopfljiH: Kyp^Hbe (to smoke) 

Jj^ Ta6aKy (pagw^^ Bp^^HO. &to npaB^a, oho o^eHb bp^aho. 

J^OM'b coc^Aa ropiji'b TpH r6;i.a TOMy (naaa^i.'b) (three 

years ago). Oh'b Tenepb CTpoHTTb hobhS aomx. 4to th 

BfiAHHib? H Bfl^iji'L pu6y B'b piKi; a pH6aKa s^icb 

HiTx. y^fiTeJib roBopfiji'b no pyccKH; oh'b Bcer^a roBO- 

pflT^ no pyccKH. IlTfii^a CH^ijia na BtTEax'b A<5peBa. Ot6i^'b 

\\jifijrb cuHa noTOMy ^to oh-b ne 6j[aroAap6jrb ynfiTOJia. 

BoTi TafidKi, noHOMy bh ne K^pHTe? Bjiaro;i;apK) nacb, 

a He Kypio. 


God save the Tsar! The parents protect [their] 
sons and daughters (chhob^H h AOiepefi). You do not 
believe whaty ou say. The teacher blames the pupil. 
The cook-woman prepared the dinner. We catch fish 
in the river. There is too much tobacco, why do you 
not smoke to-day? I thank [you], my friend; formerly 
I smoked frequently, but now I do not smoke. They 
will smoke. 

The (laughters will speak with [their] mother in 
(no) English, and the father will speak with the sons 
(cb CHHOBbiMH) in (no) Russian. Don't praise a day till 
evening! We build a house now in which we shall not 
live. The Russians (PyccKie) spoke with us (cb naMn) 
in Russian, but we did not understand them (nxTb). We 
shall never smoke, because the smoking (KypeHbe) of 
tobacco is harmful. 

KToroBopA.Tbc^y^nTeaeM'b? MaTb yHeHHKii roBopfi.ia ct 

Koro (AVhom) xmui'i.Tb y- YqnTejb xBa.ifi.Tb 6paTa, ho 
MUTe.Tb? OHi* xy.iH.Tb cecrpy. 

Interrogative, negative and conditional form. 


CTpoHfflL-jiH TH Ten^pb h6- 

KtO KypHTl> Bt KOMHaTi? 

Ci K-hMt TH 6yAeinL roBO- 
pHTb ceroOT^ Be^epoM'B? 

^TO BHepa ropijio? 

3HaeTe jih bh Tfljb copoKa 
CHjiiijra BHepa no yTpy? 

HiT'L. R yac^ buctpohj-b 

AOMt TpH ro^a TOMy 

01^11,% KypHTi, Ha ABopi, a 

He m> KOMHar]^. 
fl CMOTpK) Ha 6araHH). 
Bopoffib CHAfiTi TaifE, r^t 

npeatAG CH;i;'hjia copoKa. 
A 6YJIJ roBopHTb ct Majit- 


Hn^ero Bnepa ne ropijro. 

Bnepa no yTpy, Kor^a a 
vyjiAjTb no ;iiop6ri, copoKa 
QViji^ijisi na jijepeBi h npH- 
-^ rajra no BiTBflM'L ero. 

t [y^ 




a) Interrogatiye form. 

hhtok) jih a? do I read? etc. HHTdem jh mh? do we read? etc. 

HHT&emb JIH TH? 

^HT&erb JiH oHd? 
VETkeTb JIH oh6? 

HHTaexe jih bei? 


hht4i)ti jih oni? 



HHidjii JIH a? did I read? etc.* 

^HTdjIl JIH OHl? 
HHTdia JIH 0H&? 

?ht4jih jih uh? did we read? etc. 


^HTdjiH JIH oni? 



6 Jay jih h hht4ti.? shall I read? 

6fji,emb JUL TH HHTdTb? 
6jffiTb JIH OHl HHTdTB? 

6ff,eT'b JIH oHd hht4tb? 

6jieTl JIH oho HHT^Tb? 

» Of course the usual distinction of genders (see page 42) 
takes place also in the interrogative, negative and conditional forms : 
HHTdjia JIH a (woman)? »iht4jio jih h (thing)? 


6y;^eMl. .ih mh hht^tb? shall we 

6^;^eTe jih bh hht4tb? 
6y;^yT•b JIH ohA hht^tb? 
6yjiyTB JIH oh4 hht^tb?' 
6y^yT'B JIH oh6 hht4tb? 

62 Interrogative, negative and conditional form. 

This is the usual structure of an interrogative sen- 
tence in Russian. But, when there is at the beginning 
an interrogative pronoun or adverb, such are: kto who, 
HTO what, Kor^a when, r^i where, and others, the inter- 
rogaiive particle Jin must be suppressed, and the verb 
may indifferently be placed before or after the subject: 
Hto roBop^a oh&? What did she say? 

KorA^ th 6yji,emb A^wa? When wilt thou be at home? 

b) Negative form. 

A He ?HTdK) I do not read 

TH He HETiemb thou dost not read 

OHi He HinkeTb he does not read 

HH He HHideM-L we do not read 

BH He HHTdeTe you do not read 

OH^ ne HHT^iDT'b they do not read 

Be HBTaH) JH fl? do I not read? 

He HHT&enib jih tu? dost thou not read? 

Be miTkeTb jih ohiV does he not read? 

He HETkewb JIH Mu? do we not read? 

A lie ^wikji'b I did not read 

He HHT&jii JIH a? did I not read? 

a He 6jji,Y HHTaxB I shall not read 

He C^Ay JH a HHxdTb? shall I not read? 

The negative form of the verb is always expressed 
as in English by means of the negative particle He 
(not), but in Russian this particle is not even suppres- 
sed when the verb is accompanied by a negative pro- 
noun or adverb: 

a HH^ero ne hht4k) I read nothing. 

er6 OAict HHKorAa ne 6ikAo he never was here, a /. 

It has already been stated on page 3{f, ^tnat the 
accusative case following a transitive verb is rendered 
into Russian by the genitive, whenever the sentence 
has a negative form: 

fl He BHA^'b Kwm I did not see any hooks 

oH-B He ^po;^aeT•B Aomadeu he does not sell horses. 

c) Conditional (subjunctive) form. 
The conditional and subjunctive moods are entirely 
wanting in Russian. To express the idea of dependence 
or uncertainty conveyed by these moods in English, one 
must have recourse to the past and the particle 6h.^ 
This is not unfrequently combined with ecjiu if, and 
Kotdd when, to render the subjunctive imperfect. 

^ Derived from 6HTb to he. 

Interrogative, negative and conditional form. 53 

In many cases however, the English conditional 
or subjunctive are expressed in Russian by means of 
the corresponding indicative tenses: 
H Cusit du AOBOJieHi, ^CAHdfii BH I should be {or have been) satis- 

xaKi CA^JiajiH icaR^b h xorki'b. fled, if you had done as I 

Oat 6^jiR 6m sA^cb, noTjsfi. 6fii They would be here, if you were 
, Bu 6hjih TaMi. (or had been) there. 

Ecjindi^ BU He 6hjh iioiMt ^p^- If you were not my friend, I 

roMib^ H vojma.jL'b 6hi. would not speak. 

J{ 6hi ue noB'fepHji'b, hto bh 9to I should not believe, that you 

c^^au^vi. had done it. 


nHCBM6 letter ^a^^ta flute, flageolet 

yp6Ri> lesson cbo3 his 

c^ijiaTB to do, to finish xot^tb to wish, to desire (will) 

uoJiy^Tb to receive ht66u that, in order that. 

AOBdJbDU^ satisfied 

He Buxkjvb jm th Kopojrfl b% ropoA'fe? HIiTt, a ne 

BUA'kA'h KOpOJIfl, HO a BHA'fejI'B KOpOJieBy H TpSi^fLEJO. SHaeiHL 

JIM TH, TA* TenepB moS ynfiTCJiB? SI ne SHaio, r^i owb 
Ten^pB; ero s^icB ne^6uj[0, XbbjiAjih jih bh MajiLHHKa? 
Mh He xBaj!i6jn0[ MajB^HKa, ho mh ero xyjrfrjra. IIoqeMy bh 
ero xyjifijra? IIoTOMy hto oh'b ne ,ii3yqaji'B|poer6 ypoKa. 
KoMy npHHa^jiejKH'PB 4)ji^fiTa? p/'>|^^^*^^l 

Mh 6HjrH 6h b'b Poccih, 6Gm6i> bh Toate 6±m TaM'B. 
Bh 6h.ih 6u aobojibhh, 6cjin6H mh xaK'B ;i;ijiaj[H, KaK'B bh 
xot4jih. IIojiyHfijrH jih Bh yac6 hhcbmo ot-b MaxepH? H 
emfi He nojiyqfijnb nncBMa ot-b MaxepH, ho a 6ujn> 6h ^o- 
BOJieHi, ^cjih6h HOJiy^ftji'B hhcbmo otb 6paTa fijiH otb 
cecTpH. Th hc HOBipHJiB 6h, tto a. 3to c;i;'hjrajr'B. 


Did you not speak with the warriors? No, we did 
not speak with the warriors. Dost thou speak of (about) 
the table or of the hatchet? I do not speak of the 
tables, and you do not see the tables. Does the teacher 
praise the pupils? No, the teacher does not praise the 
pupils; he blames them. Didst thou already read the 
letter of the father? No, I did not read the letters of 
the father. 

* Contracted for euphony's sake. 

2 The instrumental case is frequently placed after the vorh 
6HTb to denote a transitory or exterior quality. 

54 Personal PRONonNs. 

The brother would be very satisfied, if he had many 
dogs and cats. Why did you not read the letter? Be- 
cause I have no time to read letters. The wife would 
be here, if the husband were here also. You would 
not believe what I gtell lyou, if I were not your friend 
(fiafflHM'B ApyroMi). Have you already seen the magpie? 
I have not yet seen the magpie, but I saw the raven, 
when it jumped on the branches of a tree. 


Kor;i;a OTeii,^ roBopHji'B, tto Ot6ii,'b HHKO^;^a ne roBopHjix, 

6yAeT'B Ha nojii? hto OB'S 6Jji,eTh na nojii. 

Kor;i;a h fa* bh dy^CTC Mh saBTpa 6yAeM'B ofii^aTb 

3aBTpa o6iAaTL? y cociAa. 

Tflik B^epa padoTajTH hjiot- IIjiothhkh Bqepa pafioTajiH 

HHKH? Bt capai, a ceTojijaa ohh 

He xoTflTt TaMi pa66TaTi>. 
Fa* »e (then) ohh 6yAyT'B 3Toro a ne SHaio ; onfi 6hjih 

pa66TaTi>? 6h ;i;ob6jiI)HH padoTaxb na 



BB,wh pa3CKa3HBaji'b? pascKaauBaji'B; mh hohh- 

MajiH 6h, 6cjm6u owb to- 
BOpAjI'B He TaKt CKopo. 
He roBopHJiH jih ohh, hto Ohh axo CEasajH; ho oh6 

oniTL (again) Cfflym, ne 6py'Pb 3AicB cer6;i;Ha 

3AicB cer6;^Ha Be^epoMt? Be^epoM's. 



First Person. 



N. H I 

MH we 

6. MCHH of me 

Hact of us 

D. MH^ to me 

HaMi to us 

A. MeHfl me 

Haci us 

I. mh6k) by me 

n^HH by us 

P. (660) MH* (about) 


(0) HacB (about) us. 
Second Person. 

N. TH thou 

BEi you 

G. Te6k of thee 

Baci of you 

D. Te6i to thee 

BaM-B to you 

A. Te6a thee 

BacB you 

I. T0661) by thee 

BdMH by you 

P. (0) Te6i (about) thee. 

(0) Bacb (about) you, 

Personal pronouns. 55 

Third Person (masculine). 
Singular. Plural. 

N. 0H% he OHH they 

G. er6 of him hxi of them 

D. eM^ to him hmi to them 

A. er6 him Hxob them 

I. HM'b hy him 6mh hy them 

P. (o) fi^wh (about) him. (o) hexi (about) them. 

Third person (feminine). 

N. 0H& she 

oni they 

G. ek of her 

Hxi of them 

D. efi to her 

HMi to them 

A. ee her 

Hxii them 

I. 6i) by her 

HMH by them 

P. (o) BOH (about) her. 

(o) EHxi (about) them. 


person (neuter). 

N. oh6 it 

ou6 they 

G. er6 of it 

Hx-B of them 

D. eMy to it 

nwb to them 

A. er6 it 

Hx'B them 

I. HM'B by it, with it 

^ME by them, with them 

P. (o) HgMi (about) it. 

(o) ^Hx-b (about) them. 

When preceded by 

a preposition, the personal pro- 

noun of the third 

person takes an initial h, to soften 

the pronunciation: 

S. ^HJTb y ueio. 

I was at his house. 

y neA MH6ro ;^^He^'B. 

She has much money. 

3to J^Jla Hux^. 

This is for them. 

Th roBop6ini> o HeM^. 

Thou speakest of him. 

Remark, that 


accnsatiye is always like the 

genitive, except in 


feminine third person singular. 


S. npomy I pray, I beg (of you) HCT6piii history, story 

TedTpi theatre ab^ neA^H two weeks, a fortnight 

npBK&SHBaTB to order, to com- iidxeT-B 6htb (it) may be 

mand o6hkhob^hho usually 

sycdKi bit, piece, gen. -ck^ 6^eHb xopomo very well 

ificflAi month jla yes. 

csiXh garden 

nponiy BacB, CKaatfiTe mh4, cKOJibKO MtcameB'B Bh 
6hjih y nHx^b. K 6ujlt> y Hero HicKOJEbEO M^cflii;eB'B, a 
y Hea a 6wi% tojibko jifii He;i;4jrH. Ona zrpajia cb hslmh. 
a npHKasBTBaK) euf padoTaTb, ho owl eni;e ne xopomo 
pa66TaeT%. Th MH6ro^;i;yMaefflB o hcm'b, ho oh'b nHKor^a 
He AfuLSieTb Te6i. 9to MoateT^ 6htb, a ero o^chb xo- 
poni6 3HdK). 


Personal pronouns. 

He roBopHTe o Hnxt; ohh namH Bparfi. Buji'tjiiy 
jiH TH ee yat^.? fl emie ne BAA^Jit ea, ho ona Menri efi- 
;i;'k!ia, Kor;iia a 6ujiT> b'b TeaTp-fe. Mh ryjiaeM'B ct hhm'b 
oChkhob^hho, noTOMy hto ohx nani'L npiriTejib. Kto 3to 
roBopftji'b, TH HJiH OHa? r^i OHi,? Ohi y Hero, ohb 
Tcn^pt y Hero. Y nacL 6hji'b ;i;oM'b, a y HHxt 6ujrb ca^i*. 

What did the teacher tell thee about me? The 
boy works with me. Dine to-day with us, I pray youl 
The mother knows me, thee, him and her. Thou wilt 
have many books. Where wert thou with [thy] sister? 
I was with her at the theatre. What are the children 
doing (transL do the children)? They [are] in the garden 
(wb ca;i;y), we play with them. Give to him and to her 
a bit of bread. Do you know me? Yes, I know you. 

You were long at my house (transl. at me). This 
may be, but I do not know you. We spealc with you, 
but you never speak with us. Do you know this warrior? 
I know him very well. About what did he speak? He 
told me a story. Did you not speak to him of me? 
Of you I did not speak, but of her and of them. I think 
of you, but you do not think of me. 

He 6ujiH jiK Bh yate y mchh? 

EcTL JIH y Te6fl Tenepb BpeMa 
roBopHTb no pyccKH? 

ByAeiUB JIH TH MHOH) ;^0B6- 


^TO 6iijio y Te6fl sqepa 

Kto Hrpaji'L c^h BaMH b'b caj^y ? 


C'B Kbwb BH ryjifljiH ceroAHa 

HiT'L, a eni,6 ne HM-fcji'b 9to- 

ro y;i;0B6jiLCTBifl. 
HiTt, Mofi Apyr'B, y Mena 

Ten^pt ^HiTij BpeMCHH. 
Jta, a T060BO 6yAy ;i;oBDJieHi> : 

TH paCoTaeniL oqenb xo- 


y MCHfl B^epa BeqepoMt 6uji'b 

KycoKt xjii6a cb cupoM'B. 
UAtts. Hrpajia cb naMH B'B 

ROMHaT'fe, a He wb ca^y. 
He 3HaK), HO AyMaH), ^tg oho 

OT'B Hero. 
Mh ryjiflJiH cb hhm'b; a ce- 

roAHfl oh6 6y;i;yT'L ryji^TB 

C'B BaMH. 


Oh'b mh* pa3CKa3HBaji'B hh- 

;^6jiro pa3CKa.3UBa.ii>? 

TepecHyio (interesting) hc- 


?/- ^: y 

^.>j^^< ^^!u 


Possessive pronouns. 57 



First Person. Singular. 
Masc. and neut. sing.^ Feminine singular.^ 

N. MOtt, Moe my, mine uok my« mine 

G. Moero of my mo4h of my 

D. MoeMy to my Mo6a to my 

A. iioer6, moh, mo^ my hok) my 

I. mo Ami. by my, with my mo^id by my, with my 

P. (o) MOCMi (about) my. (o) Mo6fi (about) my. 

Plural for the three genders.* 
N. MoA my, mine 
G. MOHxi of my 
D. Mo^Mib to my 
A. Moiuxi, MOH my 
I. MO^MH by my, with my 
P. (o) MoAxi (about) my. 
In the same manner are modified and declined 
TBOiky thy, CBOH his own, her own, its own etc. 

The pronoun CBOft often corresponds also to my own, 
thy own, our own, your own, their own, because it is 
the possessive case referred to the subject of the sentence 
without any regard to the gender, person and number 
of the possessor: 

y Heni ceoA KH^ra 

I have my book 

y Te6k ceou ^omi 

thou hast thy house 

y Her6 ceoe nep6 

he has his pen 

y Eek ceou HyjioRi 

she has her stocking 

y nac-B ceou JI6ma;^H 

we have our horses 

y B&cb ceou nAcbMa 

you have your letters 

y EHxi ceoe 3^pRajio 

they have their mirror.* 

When not referred to the subject of the sentence, 
the same possessive pronoun as in English is employed 
also in Russian: 

y Te6fl MoA RHHra. Thou hast my book, 

y mohA meou ;^0M'^. I have thy house, etc. 

First Person. Plural. 

Masc. and neut. sing.» 

Feminine singular. ^ 


Hami, H^ine our, ours 

Hdma our, ours 


Hdinero of our 

HdmeH of our 


HdmeMy to our 

Hdraea to our 


Hdmero, nann., ukme our 

H^my our 


HiMBWb by our, with our 

namei) by our, with our 


(o) HdmeM'b (about) our. 

(o) H&mefi (about) our. 

^ Of the possessed object. 

2 Compare the Greek: 05tu) TratSeosK; too? o.hxob cptXoo?. 

58 Possessive pronouns. 

Plural for the three genders.^ 
N. HdmH our, ours 
G. H&msx'b of our 
D. B&mBWb to our 
A. H&mHxi, H&mE our 
I. H^mHMH by our, with our 
P. (o) Ekmnx'b (about) our. 

AccordiDg to the above paradigm (naui'L) is modified 
and declined also the possessive pronoun of the second 
person plural: Bam'L, Banie, Baraa, Bdma, your, yours. 

The possessive pronouns of the third person are 
in the singular: 

ero his, its, for masculine and neuter possessors, 
ea her, for feminine possessors. 

In the plural: 

Hxx their, without any distinction of gender. 


a B^X^i ei6 KOHfl I saw his horse 

TH B^^i ei6 KH^FH thou sawest his books 

owb Kyn^ji'b eA aom'b he bought her house 

BH np6^jiH tnrh is.op3kttu you sold their baskets. 

The pronouns ero, ea, hx'b, are not declined at all. 
They remain always unchanged whatever may be the 
gender, number and case in which the possessed object 
is employed. * But the greatest care is required in their 
choice, because they must at any rate strictly agree in 
gender and number with the possessor, otherwise serious 
misunderstandings may arise: 

Om Bsjijii er6 KB^ry. He took his book (of a man). 

Obi bs&tl ek KH^ry. He took her book (of a woman). 

Remark dso: 

Obi BSfljfb CBOK) RH^ry. He took his own book. 


%cii (plur.) watch bt* M&i vAcau,^ in the month of 

npoA^Tb to sell May 

Kpafi border, country 3ffop6Bbe health 

m'j6& fur-coat, pelisse roibu6 ring. 

y^iumjafi school 

1 Of the possessed object. 

2 It must be borne in mind that, properly speaking, the words 
er6, ei, hxi are but the genitive (possessive) case of ohi, oh&, oh^, 
just as in Greek abzob is the genitive of ahx6<;. 

Possessive pronouns. 59 



K0JiLii;6. Moe ajijopoBbe Ten^pB o^eHb xopomo. Mh tobo- 
pAjiH ero 6paTi, a oh^ roBopfiji'L o Hameirb 6paTi. Bh 
Ten6pL HHTaeTe co CBoftMt j^&Tejiewb HCTopiro naniero 
r6po;i;a. B'b Mai Mtcani'fe b^ nameM'B ropo;^* MHoro hthi^'b. 
Oh'l yKpaniaeT^ Mofi aoitb, a th yKpamaeniL ero jhomx. 
y Heri Moe nepo, a y Te6ii CBoe nepo. 

KaK'L Bame s^opoBBe? BjaroAapK) Bac^, a xenepb 
3Aop6Bi>; a BU KaEOb no^KHBaeTe (bow are you)? CKaasfiTe, 
no^KajyficTa, ni moa nuiina. ,9 ne b^a^tb Bamefi nijiiiiu; 
a He 3HaK) r^i ona. Th BHA^t cboh) nijiiiny. Ona npo- 
Aajia CBofi aom'b; SHaexe jih Bh, kto Kynnji'b ea jifiWb'i 
yroro a ne sHaio, ho a AyMaro, ^to Barn's 6pa'Pb KynfijTB 
ea AOM'B, noTOMy qxo ohi ceroAHa npoAaji'B CBOft AOWb. 


Here is my hat, where is yours? My sisters are 
now at (b% prep,) school. Children, do not play with 
my watch! I play with my sister. I sold my fur-coat. 
We now read your book with our mother. In the month 
of May, it is very pleasant (npiaTHo) in our country 
(page 37). Thou erabellishest thy house. Dost thou 
know my teacher? I saw his house and her garden. 

Thou sawest their horses. Tell, please, [something] 
about our heroes. He works with his brother. I was 
with my friend in the garden, and thou wast with thy 
brother in the forest. They love even {jii)6srrb js^ime) 
their enemies. I know ray horses, but I do not know 
his horses. My parents are now at your father's, and 
your father will be here to-morrow. 


Fa* Bani'b nacnop'PB? Bcpb Mofi nacnopTi. 

Bam'b JTH 3T0 AOM'B? R'bTb, axo He Ham's AOifb. 

KaKi SAopoBLe Bdraero co- Ero SAopoBLC Ten^pL oqent 

c^Aa? xopomo. 

KOMI ona roBopfijia co Ona roBopfijia o cbocm'b 

CBOCH) cecTpoH)? 6paTi. 

^TO roBopfijia ona o cbocm'b Ona xBajHJia CBoero 6paTa. 


60 Reflexive and demonstrative pronouns. 

IIpoji.acT'L (will sell) jm sauia Oh4 KynflTi, (will buy) h 
TBTKa CBOHXi» jiomaAefi? BamHX'b jioina;i;eft: y Hea 

MHoro ;i;eHer'B. 

^eM'LTH roBopiiuiL? ;iTe6ri He roBopfi cjifiniKOM'L MHoro 
He noHHMaio. o cbo6x'b ;^'hJIax•B: 3to moS 

%o HHTepecHaro b'l tbocm'l B'b Mai Micaii,* b-b MoeMt 
Kpaib bi» Mat Mtcflii;t>? Kpaib MHoro nTHn;^. 



a) Reflexive pronouns. 

(Reflexive verbs.) 

The reflexive pronoun or all genders and numbers 
is ee6fl^ which, according to circumstances, corresponds 
to myself, thyself, himself herself itself ourselves, etc. 

It naturally has no nominative form ; its declension 
is as follows: 


G. ce6a of himself, of herself, etc. 

D. ce6^ to himself, etc. 

A. ce6fl himself, etc. 

I. C0661D hy himself, etc. 

P. (0) ce64 (about) himself. 

Combined wirth verbs, it is contracted into ca after 
a consonant or semi- vowel, and cb after a vowel, and 
forms the so-called reflexive conjugation. 

GoDJugation of a reflexive verb. 

ojijkBkTbca to dress oneself. 


H o^iBdiocb I dress myself, etc. mu 0,^'lbBaeMCH we dress ourselves 

Tu oA'i^B^einbCfl bh o^^'ibsaeTecB 

on'B, OHd, oh6 o^^^B^excii. oh^, oei o^^tB^iOTCJi. 

a ox^BkiOi I dressed myself, etc. mh OA^B^jHCb we dressed oursel- 

TH OAtB&JICfl B£I O^'kEkJlUCb [veS 

OH'b OJl,^Bkj[CH out OA^B^JIHCb 

OHa oA^BdjacB oni ojtfkBkjmch 

0h6 OJifbBikAOCh. OHH 0^'feBaJIHCL. 

Reflexive and demonstrative pronouns. 61 

a 6yAy oxifidTbCJi • I shall dress myself, etc. 

TH 6yAeinfc o;^tB4TBCfl, etc. 

oA^BdHCfl dress thyself. oA^Bdriiecb dress yourselves. 

Thus are coujugated amongst others: 
pasAifidTbCfl to undress oneself 
synaTbCfl to bathe, to take a bath 
y^HTbca to learn, to instruct oneself (second conjug.) 
MyHHTbca to torment oneself (second conjug.). 

b) Demonstrative proBonns. 
dTOTi this. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. axoTi, 3T0 this 3Ta this 

6. axoro of this aTofi of this 

D. 3T0My to this stoh to this 

A. 3Toro, 9T0TT., 3T0 this 9Ty this 

I. 3THMI by this, with this stok), 3toh by this, with this 

P. (061) Biowb (about) this. (o) 3toh (about) this. 

Plural for the tree genders. 
N. 3TH these 
G. 3THXb of these 
D. axHifb to these 

A. STHX-B, 9TH theSB 

I. 3THMH by these, with these 
P. (061) sTHx-b (about) these. 

TOPB that. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. TOT-b, TO that Ta that 

G. Tor6 of that xofi of that 

D. TOM^ to that Toif to that 

A. Tor6, TOTX, TO that Ty that 

I. T-feM-b by that, with that t6k), toh by that, with that 

P. (0) TOMTb (about) that. (0) Tofi (about) that. 

Plural for the three genders. 

N. Ti those 

G. T-fex-b of those 

D. T-feM-b to those 

A. Td^xi, T^ those 

I. T-feMH by those, with those 

P. (0) T-fex-b (about) those. 

xaKoft such. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. Tasdn, TaR6e such tslkslh such 

G. TaKoro of such Taadn of such 

D. TaK(5My to such TaK6fi to such 

A. TaK6ro, TaK6&, TaR6e such TaKyio such 

I. TaK^Mi by such, with such TaR6i), TaK6ft by such, with such 

P. (0) TaR6M«b (about) such. (0) Taadfi (about) such. 

62 Reflexive and demonstrative pronouns. 

Plural for the three genders. 
N. TaKle (m.), xaRlfl (f. and n.) such 
G. TQxkx'b of such 
D. T&KtvL'b to such 
A. laR^xi, TaRie, trrIa such 
I. TER^MH by such, with such 
P. (o) trrAx-b (about) such. 

In the same manner as TaKofi are declined TaKOBoS 
such a one, and TOjfiKifi such a great, so great a.^ 

ceA this, that.^ 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. cet, cig this ci^ this 

6. cer6 of this cen of this 

D. ceMy to this cefi to this 

A. cer6, cefi, ci6 this ciib this 

I. CHMi by this, with this c6id by this, with this 

P. (o) c^wb (about) this. (o) cefi (about) this. 

Plural for the three genders. 
N. ciH these 
G. CHxi of these 
D. CHM-B to these 
A. CHxi, ci6 these 
I. c^HH by these, with these 
P. (o) CHX-B (about) these. 
Another demonstrative pronoun, which is also some- 
times though not frequently used, is ohu]^ this or that one. 
Its declension does not differ from that of qualifying 
adjectives having the same termination (see 20 th lesson). 


CxpaH^ country, region,pZ.CTpdHu saHHudTBCA to occupy oneself 

Topr6Bjifl trade, commerce AocTasjiaTb to procure 

HecTL (fem.J honour [self) rocnoA^H'b gentleman 

npHroTOBiiTLCji to prepare (one- RaxoTca it appears, it seems 

jiBTo year; summer ceH^HCXBO family 

A^Ma lady R^neHB stone, plur. Kman 

npoMiiiiiJieHHocTB industry CR6po soon, quickly 

Hix-B no coJA^Ti soldier, gen. plur. -!». 


Bi BTHX'b CTpanax'B atfirejiH saHHMaiOTca ToproBJieH). 

B'L TOfi KHfirfe MHOrO KapTHHi. ^TO BH A^aJTH Wh TOfi 

KfiMHaxi? Mh h6 6hjih b'b toh KOMHaTfe, cy;i;api>; mh o;!;^- 
BajiHCB B'B aTOM'b HOKoi. OHt ce6fl He SHaeT'B, ho ofn> 
MHoro ;i;yMaeT'L o ce64. Bfi;i,ijH jih Bh yace TaKyio KHfiry? 

^ The pronoun TOJi^Rifi is now obsolete. 
2 The pronoun cefi was formerly much in use, but now it is 
very seldom met with. In its place, axorb is most frequently employed. 

Reflexive and demonstrative pronouns. 6B 

A emj^ He BfLji^kjub tekoS KH^rn. Kor^^ Bu KynaiucL wh 
Tofi piKi? 9Toro a ne SHaio. SaHHMaeTCfl jih eme rocno- 
^ifiHt N. N. TaKOH) pa6(5TOH)? jI,yMaft o ce6t, ;i;pyrb MOfi! 
3hm OK) SHTejH 8Toro ropo^ca saHHMdioTCA TaRHMH pa66- 
TaMH, a jiteoM'b 6YJ5,yTh saHHMaTLca ;i;pyrfiMH (with other) 
padoTaMH. Owb ;^0CTaBjiaeT'b ToproBJieK) TOMy ceM^ficTBy 
^ecTL H 6oraTCTCBO. Owb ohhtl 6yji,eTh npHroTOBMTBca 
Ki Bofini, noTOMy ^to owb SHaeTi., hto jiixoM'b 6ffl,eTh 
Bofina. SHdeniB jih th btofo ^oc^o;^<^Ha? HiirB, a ero 
He 3HaH), HO MHt KaatoTca, hto a ero Bft^^t b-b tobpb 
r6po;^i. Hto TaKoe? KaK'b BaM'B bto KaateTCfl? 


In this country, the inhabitants occupy themselves 
with commerce and industry. Trade procures for these 
inhabitants riches and honour. In those books [there are] 
many tales. These pictures belong to that girl. The 
panes of glass of these windows do not please me, but 
the glass of that window pleases me very much. Didst 
thou not already bathe in this river? No, I did not 
yet bathe here, but I shall soon bathe in that river. 
We do not know ourselves. 

Do not speak much about yourself! They thought 
much of themselves. I saw myself in the mirror. Thou 
dost not know thyself. This warrior never was in that 
country. These books belong to that gentleman whom 
(KOTOparo) you saw yesterday morning in this garden. 
These soldiers prepare themselves again for (k'b dat.) 
the war. Have you not already seen this town? Yes, 
Sir, I saw it three years ago. You did occupy (transL 
occupied) yourself formerly with commerce, but now you 
occupy yourself with industry. 


AOMt? ^ HaTB. 

Tj[fk HrpajTH 3TH ;i;iTH ce- 9th ji,'km nrpajiH na tom'b 

roOT^ yTpoMi.? ^ ;i;Bopt. 

KoMy npHHaAJreacHT'B 3Ta 9Ta KH^ra h 3T0 nepo npn- 

KHfira? HaAJreataT'B TOMy y^eHHKy. 

KoFAa TH B03BpaTHjica (didst a B03BpaTfijica B-B repMaeiBO 

thou return) b% TepMa- bi. tot^ caMHfi roA'B, K0^;^a 

hIh)? Ha^ajiacB (began) BoftHa. 

64 Interrogative and relative pronouns. 

Hhtojih jih Bh y»e TaKVH) K ee TaKt nacTO miiijuh, 
KH6ry ? 'iTO 3HaH) ee no^xfi (almost) 

HaHsycTB (by heart). 

Kto 6ujvb Bi Tofi KOMHaTfe? ToTt rocno^fiHt, KOToparo 

Bu BHepa bAa^jiu bi* toM 
KOMHaxi, 6uji'b Mofi jiipyrB 
HBaH'L neTpoBH^t. 


KOHioinH'ij? Hen, ho Ha tom'l ABopi 


Kto Ten^pL oA^BaeTCfl wh MajiLqHK'B OA'feBaeTca xen^pb 

ca^y? B'B ca;i;y. 

Hto A'tjiaiOT'B yieHHKfi Ha C^b MOCTa h ci» 6epera a^tm 

3T0Mi> Mocxy? 6pocaH)'Pb (throw) KaMHH 

Bt 3Ty piKV. 



a) Interrogative pronouns. 

Kto tvho, HTO which, ivhat, nett ivhose are far more 
often used as interrogative pronouns than otherwise. 
Their declension is as follows: 
N. KTO who HTO which 

G. Kor6 of whom ^er6 of which 

D. KOM^ to whom HGMy to which 

A. Kor6 whom hto which 

I. Ki^Mi hy whom Him with what 

P. (o) KOMI (ahout) whom. (o) h6mi (ahout) what. 



Masc. aod neiit. sing. 

Feminine singular. 


Heft, Htg whose 

MbA whose 


Hber6 of whose 

Hbefi of whose 


HBCMy to whose 

Hben to whose 


Hi>er6, HeR, \\>^ whose 

HbiD whose 


HBHMi hy whose 

Hb6r>, Hbeft by whose 


(o) Hb^Mi (ahout) whose. 

(o) Hben (about) whose. 

Plural for the three genders. 
N. HbH whose 
G. HbHxx of whose 
D. HLHH'b to whose 
A. HbEx-b, HbH whose 
I. Hb^MH by whose 
P. (o) HbHX'b (about) whose. 

Interrogative and relative pronouns. 65 

Relative prononns. 

KOTOpiift who, which, that. 
Masc. and neut. siDg. Feminine singular. 

N. KOidpuii, KOT6poe who, which K0T6paii who, which 
G. KOT6paro of whom, of which kot6poh of whom, of which 
D. KOT6poMy to whom, etc. ROT6po3 to whom, to which 

A. KOT6paro, KOTdpufi, KOT6poe R0T6pyi) whom, etc. 

whom, etc. 
I. KOTdpmrb hy whom, etc. ROTdpoD, Koxdpofi by whom 

P. (o) KOT6poM'B (about) whom, etc. (o) Koxdpoft (about) whom, etc. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. KOTdpne (m.), KOTdpna (f. and n.) who, which, etc. 
6. ROTdpHx-B of whom, etc. 
D. ROTdpHMi to whom, etc. 
A. R0T6pEix'b, R0T6pHe, R0T6piifl whom, etc. 
I. K0T6pHHH by whom, etc. 
P. (o) ROTdpHxi (about) whom, etc. 

Kowimo, ROT6poe £H Kyn^H .... The ring which you bought .... 
BoTi ca^dBHHRi, GOT6paro bh B?epd Here is the gardener whom you 
BHA'i^jiH. saw yesterday. 

KaKOtt! whichy what? what sort of? 
Masc. and neut. sing. Femiuine singular. 

N. KaR6fi? KaR6e? which? what? RaRda? which? what? 
G. RaR6ro? of which? etc KaK6fi? of which? etc. 

D. RaR6My? to which? etc. [etc. RaR6fi? to which? etc. 
A. RaR6ro?RaR6fi?RaR6e? which? RRRyn? which? etc. 
I. RRR^iTb? by which? etc. RaR6i)? by which? etc. 

P. (d)RaR6Mi? (about) which? etc. (o) RaR6ft? (about) which? etc. 
Plural for the three genders. 

N. RaRfe, RaRla? which? what? 

G. RaR^xi? of which? etc. 

D. RaR^Mi? to which? etc. 

A. KaKiucb? RRRle? RRRia? which? etc. 

I. rrrAmh? by which? etc. 

P. (o) rrkAxi? (about) which? etc. 

^oc^oA6Hl,wwcecTp]fBMBA;^HTe.. The gentleman whose sister you 

see ... . 
0(|)Hu^p'b, Hvuxb jioinaA^tf bh Ry- The officer whose horses you 

n^jH .... bought .... 

Kopoji^Ba, y!beM^ ABO^u^i a ro- The queen of whose palace I 

Bopib .... speak .... 

RaR^i RHiraxi. bh xfu&eTe? Of what books do you think? 
KaR^Mi ddpasom? In what manner? 

^ber6 ^pdxa aiOT-B ;^0M^? To whose brother does this 

house belong? 
hbSmi jifiv^ bh roBopHxe? Of whose house do you speak? 

KoT6pHfi xen^pB ^aci? What o'clock is it now? 

Hlk) cecTpAuy th bAa^ji*? Whose sister didst thou see? 

Russian Conv.-Grammar. 5 

66 Interrogative and relative pronouns. 


/(dna lady npoc^TB to ask 

He3Aop6Ba (she is) unwell KOHu^px'b concert 

BSLWb nyxHO you want naci hour, o'clock 

chActjihb'b (he is) happy ohA shb^i they live 

A0B6ieH% (he is) satisfied npniuiDHi^Hie adventure, event 

o6'ibiu&Ti> to promise cxapi^R'b old man, gen. -& 

noHHHdxb to understand nojy^^xB to receive. 

Tlojii, OKOTopHxt a roBopib, npHHaweat^Tt nameMy 
cocijij. IIoHHMaeTe jih bh, ^to & Bawb roBopib? Totb, 
KTO ^liOBOJieH'B, c^acTjfflB'B. ^CM^ Tu Ten^pb ^yMaeniL? 
Hero npocfiji'B Bain's 6paTB? Owh npocfiji'B KHAry, KOTopyH) 
Bu eMy B^epa o6iiniajiH. BoHHa, o KOTopoM-B bh roBopfiTe, 
B.'bTh djij^cb, Oh6 npocfijiH MenA pascKaaaTb nwh (to tell 
them) Moft npHKJiioqeHia, too a h c^tjaji^ Cb y^OBOJiL- 

CTBieMX. BOTT» U.B'feTH, KOTOpHe BaMl O^CHB HpaBflTCfl. 

CTapHKi, Bi ^bQWb AOM* MH ^ojiro atfijiH, Ten6pL bi AMepHK*. 
IIoqeMy TH He jtyMaemt o tom-b, too th o6'fcin;aji'b 
uaHTi? KoMHaTa, bt* KOTopofi MH o6i;i;aeMi, mh^ ho Hpa- 
BHTca. ^ewh BH ;iiyMaeTe? kom-b bh roBopfiTe? Mh 
AVMaeMT* js,iTaxT>, waTL KOTopHxi TenepL Hes^opoBa. 
Hbero coctjta 9to nojie? Hbcm]^ cnny npHHa^JieaaTt 3th 
nojTfl? Koro bh bctp^thjih (did you meet) B^epa y CBO^ft 
TeTKH? KoT6pHft ^acB? Bi KOTopoMi nacy bh ofii^aere? 
KoM^ TH ;^aJrB Moe hhclmo? Cjiyrt, KOTopnfi 6ujub Tain*. 
Hto owh cKasajit? 

' To whom did you give (oT^ijajLH bh) your ring? 
^'Which woman spoke with you? ^he ladies who were 
yesterday at my aunt's, [are] the daughters of this gent- 
leman, ^o you know the lady who was to-day at the 
(Bt prep.) concert? ^I'he letter which I received from my 
friend gave me much pleasure. ^Who is there? Whose 
dog is this? "^To whom did you write a letter? **^With 
whom did your mother speak? ^About what did she 
speak?/'Which of (hs'b) your sisters is unwell? Louisa 
(jlyfiaa). ^' Which of your friends returned to America? 
What does he say? Which book do you want? 
In which room were you? At w^hat o'clock {transl. In 
which hour) do you dine? What a winter we have! 
What flowers [are there] in the garden? Which of these 
books belongs to your brother? Do you know the house 
in which they live? This is (9to) the picture which I 

Definite and indefinite pronouns. 67 

showed to your sister, who (KOTopaa) returned from 
America three years ago. The garden of which you 
speak, belongs to my father. The bird, which flew 
away (BHjreTijia), is in the garden of the neighbour. 

B^jiikjLT> JiH TH yate jifiwh, HiTb, Mofi ;iipyirB, k ero He 

ROTopiifi MH np6;i;ajiH? Bftji^^kirh. 

KoMy BH ;iiajiH cbo6 hhclmo? Botb cjiyra, KOTopoMy a 


&T0 He Ta KHfira, O KOTOpofi HejOBiK'b, KOTOpHfi 6ujuh 

a. roBopfijii; a r^i;* xa? 3AicB, Baaji ee. 

Ta* TCH^pb aoHTHKi (para- A noTepAj'B (I lost) ero; 

sol), KOTopHfi Bamt ji,Hji,A a OHCHb coatajriH) o6i 

npHHeci (brought) Bameft BTOMt (I am very sorry 

cecTpt? for it). 

KaKyro KapTfiny KynHJTB H ne BHaro, Kynfijii jih owh 

Bamt OTen;^? KapTfiny, hjh wkrb. 

Hero MHoro BecndH) (in BecHOH) bi piKaxt Poccfa 

spring) BipiKax'BPoccfH? MH6ro bo^h. 

HbH) MaTb Bh Bft^ijIH? A BfiJiibA'b MaTb y^eHHKd, 

KOTOpHfi 6uJl'b B% MoCKBi. 

KaKofi o4)Hn,6p'B finjit na 04)Hi^epi, KOToparo co6aKy 
yjiHii,*? BH BTOpa KynfijiH, 6ujtb 

Ha yjiHn;i. 



a) Definite pronouns. 

c&Miitt the same. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. C&MH&, c^Hoe the same cdMa;i the same 

6. ciMaro of the same cknoik of the same 

D. ciMOMy to the same cdMoii to the same 

A. cdHaro, c4mhh, cdHoe the same c&nyv) the same 
I. cdHHM'b by the same c4hoh), cauoH by the same 

P. (o) cdMOMi (about) the same. (o) c4moh (about) the same. 
Plural for the three genders. 
N. caMHe (m.), ckuBa (f. and n.) the same 
6. c^HHX'B of the same 
D. c^MHicB to the same 
A. ckMue, G&VBX'b, cdHHfl the same 
I. cdMHMH by the same 
P. (o) cdMHxi (about) the same. 


68 Definite and indefinite pronouns. 

caiTb self. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. caMi, caH6 self cand self 

G. caHor6 of . . . self caM6g of . . . self 

D. caMOMy to . . . self caM6H to . . . self 

A. caHor6, caMi, caH6 self canoe self 

I. caxAwb by . . . self candD, caiidg by . . . self 

P. (o) caMdiTB (about) . . . self. (o) caM6ft (about) . . . self. 
Plural for the tree genders. 
N. c&MH selves 
6. c&vAx.'b of . . . selves 
D. caM^Mi to . . . selves 
A. caidocb selves 
I. caii^MH by . . . selves 
P. {o) caxAx'b (about) . . . selves. 
The pronouns caiTB and canud have the same 
meaning, but they may not be used indifferently. Csarb 
accompanies the personal pronouns and the names of 
animate and abstract beings: 
a caMi, owb csM'b I myself, he himself 

caMor6 ce6k oneself (accus. case). 

CdMiiS is used with the demonstrative pronouns and 
the names of inanimate objects: 
ToTb cdvEifi. The very same. 

C&nM cnepTb. Death itself. 

N. 6. The pronoun ckuuJk before a qualifying adjective ex- 
presses the superlative (page 84). 

BecB all, whole. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. BecB (m.), Bc6 (n.) all bca all 

G. Bcerd of all Bce& of all 

D. BceM^ to all Bce& to all 

A. Bcer6, bccl, Bce all bcd all 

I. BC^Mi by all BC^D, Bcefi by all 

P. (o) Bceifb (about) all. (o) Bcefi (about) all. 

Plural for the three genders. 

N. Bc^ all 

6. BC^xi of all 

D. BC^ifb to all 

A. Bc^xi, Bcfe all 

I. BcinH by all 

P. (o) Bc4xt (about) all. 

K&SRfl,uA each, every. 
Masc and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. KdasAHH, KdxAoe each, every RdsAaa each, every 

G. K^Aaro of each KdsAOH of each 

D. K^AOMy to each e4saoh to each 
A. K&XA&ro, k&xahSi K£t2EAoe each KdsjtyK) each 

I. R^XAUMi by each nasAOK), K^sAoti by each 

P. (o) KdatAOM'b (about) each. (o) kAikaoh (about) each. 

Definite and indefinite pronouns. 69 

Plural for the three genders. 
N. RdxAue (ni.)t k^xaha (f. and n.) each, every 
6. KdaucHxi of each 
p. E&SAHM!b to each 
A. sasAHXi, R4sxHe, K&7Rji,uii each 
I. K&SAHHH hy each 
P. (o) RdKAHX'b (ahout) each. 

b) Indefinite prononns. 
H^BTO a certaiQ (used only in the nominative). 
flrib^TO something (used only in the nominative and 

In the oblique caces instead of these two pronouns, 
KTO-TO and ^to-to are frequently employed. 
vbBOTOpuft some one (declined like KOTopwft, page 65). 
HHBTO nobody (declined like kto, page 64). 
HmTO nothing (declined like hto, page 64). 
Boe-KTO somebody or other (declined Uke kto, page 64). 
BOe-HTO something or other (declined like wo. page 64). 
bto-jih6o^ BT0-HH6y;i,B whoewer, anybody. 
hto-jih6o^ HT0-HH6y;i;B whatewer, anything. 

The words jifi6o and HH6y;i;B are indeclinable, where^ 
as KTO and tto combined with them are declined as if 
they were alone. 

HHOft many, more than one, several. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. hh62, BH6e many a vukn many a 

G. HH6ro of many a bh6£ of many a 

D. iiH6My to many a BH6ii to many a 

A. HHdro, bh63, HH6e many a jinfK) many a 

I. BHihfb hy many a nndH), hh6h by many a 

P. (o6i) imdwb (about) many a. (o6i) HH6fi (about) many a. 

Plural for the three genders. 

N. HHiie, bhiIji many, several 

6. HHiix'b of many 

D. HHi&irb to many 

A. BHiixi, HHiie, HHiiA many 

I. BHi^MH by many 

P. (061) HiTHxt (about) many. 

OfljiWb one, some one, a certain, alone. 
Masc. and neut. sing. Feminine singular. 

N. oxiBHi, om6 one oAnk one 

G. oxHor6 of one ojLH6!k of one 

D. OAHOHy to one OAndfi to one 

A. OAHor6, ojijkwb, o;(h6 one 0AH]f one 

I. oxBian'b by one o;^H6K), o;^H6R by one 

P. (061) ojLRdwb (about) one. (o5i) oah68 (about) one. 

70 Definite and indefinite pronouns. 

Masc. and neut. plur. Feminine plural. 

N. OAHH ones oxni ones 

6. ojibAxt* of ones oxnixi of ones 

D. oAniarh to ones oxniH'b to ones 

A. OAH^i, OAH^ ones OAnixi, oah^ ones 

I. OAHi^HH by ones oxniMH by ones 

P. (o6t) ojiffAx'b (about) ones. (061.) OAnix'b (about) ones. 

ji.pyr'B-^lipyra each other, one another. 

N. — — 

G. Apyn-Apjra of each other 

D. Jlpy^•b-;^py^y to each other 

A. jipyn-Apj^a each other 

I. Apyn-ApyroMi by each other 

P. Apyn-Apyri about each other. 
To the indefinite pronouns belong also many others, 
such as BCflBitt every one, wbeuoJihrntiL^ some^ any, 
fiMH6% HHKaKOfty HH OAHH'b fione; but their use does 
not present any difficulty at all. 

Hhbto and hhhto must always be accompanied by 
a negative adverb ne, wkvb: 
y MOH^ HH?er6 Htbrm. I have nothing. 

Hhkt6 BSLCb He BimijL'b. Nobody saw you. 


OAHH'B are used with a preposition^ the preposition is 

placed between the hh and the pronoun proper: 

Hn Wb OAEdwb a6m^. In no house. 

He y Kor6. At nobody's. 

dTo HH Kb HeMy ne roAHTCii. That is good for nothing. 


IIoKpHBaTb, naKpuTB to cover nanpoTHBi on the contrary 

cv^pTeHib (he is) mortal npexu^Tb subject, thing 

BecBMi A<5jiro very long omH64Tbcii to err 

jiiKdpcTBo medicine bshti caught 

SB^pB animal cb-^ti world 

KpinocTb fortress napdA'B people, nation 

nosHaBSiTb to know K6HqHTBCii to end 

6yH4ra paper onii^6Ba fault 

JTOAH men, people Mdaen (he) can, may. 


R caMi noKpMBajTB ctojii> 6yMaraMH. Bori» ot6ii;ti 
Bcixi JiH);i;6S. CKaafiTe 3T0, noaajyficTa, K0My-HH6yAB. 
Hs'b HH^ero ne c^i.'kiaenib HH^ero. Bi» KaaK^iiOM'B cejii 
ecTb n;6pK0BL. Bi> Te^^nie (In the course) H'tcKOJbKHx* 

^ It is obsolete in the singular, while in the plural it is used 
in the oblique cases only: HicKOJiBRHxi., HicROJBKHMB, HicKOJiBKHiiH, 
flicBOiBRHxi; but in the nominative and accusative plural, the 
adverbial form nicROJiBEo is more frequently used instead of ni- 


Definite and indefinite pronouns. 71 

Kicsofiwh owb He nojiy^AjTb hu o;i;Hor6 uHCbMa. AnrjisqaHe 
H (j)paH^y3H jribfijiTb Apyr'b-jtpyra. Hmji IlyniKHHa SHaMe- 
h6to (is celebrated) no BceMy CBfoy. fl hh o qeMi 66;iie 
(more) ne 6yAy saM'B pa3CKa3HBaTb. 

Bh HHKOFAa eiii;e He roBopdjH ci h^imh caH^HH. 
Btotx aom^b npHHa;i;j[e3K6TB eMjf caMOMy. HHHe bohhh ho 
xp46pH. GajiecTb, rpe^ecKift (|)hj[6co(|)i, roBopAjrt: Tpy;i;H'fee 
Bcer6 HOSHaBdTL caMoro ce6a, a Ji6rqe Bcero Haxo;i;6Ti> (to 
find) om66EH bi Apyrdx'B (others). Mh pa6dTajrH h30 
Bcixrb cai'b. Th fiy^eniL ryjiriTL ci h6h) gbm6v>. BcjiKift 
H3i BacB 3HaeTE>, ^TO seMjii Hama o6paiii;aeTca (turns) 
OKOJO cojiHuia. jlH)6fi Bora 66jiie Bcero h CBoero 6jrfi«- 
Hflpo (nom. 6ji6mHifi next) KaEi caMoro ce6A. 


I shall soon have an opportunity .thank him for 
some books which he gave me.*Cover xhe books and 
papers with something! ^ome one spoke about that 
aflfair, but nobody believed him. *^ I myself was in the 
city. ^I'he most difficult of all things (TpyAnie Bcero) 
is to know oneself. ^Do you know the weight of our 
earth? /These objects belong to herself. ^I never (msKOTj^i) 
spoke with him. Hi shall show that to nobody. ^Every 
man is mortal. * Nobody can say that he never erred. 

Some people live very long. Not one was caught; 

all took to flight (y6iatajiH). Give him the medicine 

every (qepe3Tb Kaat^He) two hours (;i,Ba ^aca). In this 

world [there is] nothing [that is] durable (gen.). Even 

the birds and animals love their native country. All 

centuries, all nations [will] come to an end {trmisl. finish). 

In the street [some] workmen construct something and 

speak with one another. In the fortress something is 

being done (^iJiaroTx). I think on the contrary, that 

they are doing nothing in the fortress, because I saw 

nobody there. 



KHMH 6yMaraMH. 
HHKoro cer6;iiHa h6 6ujlo y Gevoj^nsi 6hjih y Baci KaKie- 

MCHi? TO Jl¥)A15.. 

He cjiuDiajiH jih Bh nero fl HH^ero He ejiHxaj[i» o hcmi. 


roBopMH JH Bh y»^. cb HkTi,, a. em<d ne roBopfij'B 
HfiMH camfiMH? ci> mv^vB., 


72 Adjectives with pull terminations. 

H^TO OHT* eMy jtaBaji'b qepeat Owb ^aBajri eM^ jiiKapcTBO, 

Ea2Cji;He Asa qaca? a ne xjii6a. 

KTOM6HeT'BCKa3aTL, HTOOH'b Hhkto He HosKexi CRasaTL, 

HHKor;^a ne 0fflH6ajica? 'ito owh HHKor;^a ne omn- 


Koro Bh yBaataeTe 66jie, Si yBaaaro Kan's o;^Ho^6, 

OAHoro 6jih Apyroro? "idASJh h ;i;pyr6ro. 

KaKia CTpaHH bha^Jih Bh? flBfiAiJiTE»noHT6BCK)EBp(3ay. 

r^i Bam fiojiLffle (most) KajK;i;aa CTpana HMteTi csoe 

Bcero noHpaBHjioc'B? xopomee h CBoe ^ypioe. 



Adjectives in Russian may be divided into two classes: 
I. Qualifying adjectives, such as: Aofipiaft good, kind, 

xpa6pHfi brave. 
II. Possessive adjectives, such as: IleTpoBi Peter's, 
OTii.OB'B of the father.^ 
Both agree in gender, number and case witi the 
noun with which they are coupled.^ 

Qualifying adjectives have a twofold termination:' 
the full and the apocopated.* 

The full termination is used when the adjective is 
employed attributively, i. e. when it qualifies a substan- 
tive which genei^ally follows it: xpa6pHft bohh-b the brave 

The apocopated or abridged termination is used 
when the adjective is employed predicatively i. e. after 
a verb expressed or understood: bohhi xpa6p^ the 
warrior is brave. 


^ This kind of adjectives is discussed in the next lesson. 

^ Most Bussian Grammarians enumerate also a third class 
comprising the circumstandal acfjectives, i. e. those which point 
to dependence on circumstances of time or place, such as sximHifi 
of here, cer6xRiiuiHiS of to-day (Greek G*r)|jLeptv6;, Lat. hodiernus. 
Germ. t)eutig). But to the autor of this book, they seem to be, as 
in other languages, nothing else than ordinary qualifying adjectives 
deserving of no particular mention, the less so as their declension 
does not in the least differ from that of all other qualifying adjec- 
tives. It may suffice to state that they all follow the soft declension. 

3 See page 77, footnote 1. 

Adjectives with full terminations. 73 

Example of hard full terminations. 
Masculine: xp&6pii& BdHHi the brave warrior. 
N. xp46putt BdHHi xp&6p£ie bohhh 

6. xp46paro BdHHa xpi6p£ix'b B6nH0B'b 

D. Xp46pOMy B6HHy Xp46p£IH'b B6HHaM-B 

A. xpd6paro Bdnna^ xpd6p£ix'b b6hhobi>i 

I. Xp46pBIM'b BdHH'b Xpd6p£IMH BdHHaMH 

p. (o) xpi6pOM'b B6nH'Jb. (o) xpd6pHX'B BdHnaxi. 

Feminine: J^66paa aend the good woman. 

N. A66pafl send A66p£iA s^hh 

6. A<^6pott senu A<^6p£ix'b s^hi 

D. x66pott xeni A66p£iM'b senaM'b 

A. A65pyio seny j^65pEix'b aceni^ 

I. ;i66poio senoK) A66pK[Hn xeHaMH 

P. (o) ;(66pofl seei. (o) A66p£ix'b xeeaxi. 

Neuter: iipiaxHoe m^cto the agreeable place. 
N. npiATHoe m^cto npiarHKiA m-^ct^ 

G. npiflTHaro nicxa npiflTHUX'b m^cti. 

D. npiiiTHOMy m^ctv npiiTUMM'B M-JbcTiMi. 

A. npiHTHoe bi^cto ^ npiATHBia Micxd 

I. npiixUMH'b M^CTOMl nplflTBMHH If&CT&MH 

P. (o) npiflTHOlTB M^cxi. (o) npijfTH£IX% MiCTdx'b. 

In the same manner may be declined: 
HOBEifi r6poAi> the new town 6i?MUTk nejiOBiB'b (plur. jiuah) the 

orpdHHaji cxpaHa the immense poor man 

region 6ordTaji x&Ma the rich lady 

HAcToe n6jie the clean field (level CH.«i>Hoe ot^^cctbo the strong 
ground) fatherland. 

Adjectives having the accent on the last syllable 
take in the nominative singular of the masculine gender 
the termination 6ft, and in the genitive singular ore 
in other respects, they are declined according to the models 
given above. 

Such are: 
6oJLhm6fL ^^OMi the great house, 6ojiBin(5ro^ A6Ha, 6ojibm6My etc. . . . 
Cojbindfl ptK^ the great river . . . 6oJbffl6e cej6 the great village. 

Example of soft full terminations. 

Masculine: ^CKpeHHiH npiiTejiL the sincere friend. 

N. ^CKpeHHitt npiflxejiB ^cspeHHie iipi^xeiH 

G. ncKpeHHflro npijixejji HCKpeHHHX'b npi^xejieft 

D. ^cxpeHHeMy irpi^xejK) ^CBpoHHHM'b npiflxejr;iM'i> 

A. i^cRpeHHflFO npi^xejji HCKpeHHHX'b npiflxejeii 

I. liCBpeHHHH'b DpiHxejieM'b ^cspeHHHMH npi^xejiflMH 

P. (061) HCRpeHHeM'b npiflxejii. (o6i>) HCKpeHHHX'b npiiiTejiAX'b. 

^ When accompanied by nouns denoting inanimate objects, the 
accusative form of the adjective does not differ from the nominative. 
^ In the old orthography, 5ojrBin4ro. 


Adjectives with full terminations. 

Feminine: Hrp^HAA i6inaxB the sorrel horse. 
N. Hip^HflA JidmaAB Hrp^niA ji6inaAn 

G. Hip^nett jidmaAH Hrp^EHXi jiomaA^K 

D. Hrp^eett jdmaAH nrp^HHM'B aomsij^km, 

A. Hrp^Hioio j[6inaAB Brp^eHXi jiomaA^fi 

I. Hrp^neio Ji6niaABX) nrp^HiiMH jioinaABM^ 

P. (06%) Hrp^nett ji6inaAH. (odi) Hip^HHXi jiomaAHxi. 

Neuter: np^xnee oa^ajio the former coverlet. 

np^3RHifl oA'l^ajia 

npesHHMH oAt^jiaMH 
(0) np^acHHX'b OA^flJraxi. 

N. np^sHee oa'I^jo 
G. np^sHAro oxkkm 
D. np^jKueMy OA^Jiy 
A. np^sHee oj^iikAo 
I. np^sHHinb OA^^jioM'b 
P. (0) np^sHeH'b oaMj^. 

Such are: 
j^THiH jifiHh the summer day 
siMEnE BOMB the winter night 
c^nee h66o the blue sky (plur. of h66o = ee6ec4). 

It must be noted that, not all qualifying adjectives 
having the nominative singular of the masculine gender 
terminating in ifi, belong to the soft form. 

A considerable number of hard adjectives have an 
apparent mixed declension for the simple reason that 
the law of permutation (page 16) does not permit the 
use of H after a guttural or hissing consonant (page 5). 
Such is jierKifi light, which has in the feminine jrerKaa 
and in the neuter jierKoe (and not jierKaa, jerKee) and 
BHCOKifi high, CTporift rigorous, p4ji;Kift rare, mnpoKifi 
broad, large, and so on. 


adjectives in Hfi or ifi which are derived 

from names 


animate beings exhibit the following 


exemplified in: oji^Hift of a deer. 



Fem. Neiit. 

N. oji^hIh 


G. oji^Hbaro 

oii^Hbeii oJi^Hbflro 

D. oj^eteMy 

oji^HBefi oj^HBeMy 

A. OJI^Hlfi 


I. OJf^HBHM-b 


p. 061 OJI^HBeMX. 

061. OJI^HBeri. oC'b OJI^HBeMB. 




G. oj[6hbhx'b 



oj^nBHMB ojreHBnMT, 





P. (o6b) OJI^IlBnX'B. 

(06b) OJI^HBHXB. 06'b OJI^HBHXB. 

Adjectives with full terminations. 75 


FojoBa head , 4)i&iKa violet 

HaK^nHBaxB to punish BOSBpax^jicA (he) returned 

ocb'&ii;4ti> to light up, to enlighten Kpac^BHH handsome 

cifiepHoe ciiiHie aurora horealis aju^hhhS long 

BoffH^ war T6HKiH narrow, slender 

MOJioji6if young c^BepHEig northern 

OTA^jATJb to separate npeRpdcHuii beautiful 

HCA^BHo recently CT^pufi old 

noHnrdTb to adore BHSRifi low 

c^a force, strength nenoAB^xHEiH immobile 

npoAojiiEaTb to continue iiphji^khbh diligent 

xj^acHHa hut udjieabidfi small, little. 


CKOJbKO jrbT'b npo;iiOJi»ajiaci» BoflHa? B4;i,HHe jubjifi 
HHByTb B^ Hfl3Kofi xAatHHt. Ha ;i;Bopt 6iiJiH npeKpacHiia 
jLomajiji. Sb^sah (page 7) 66jLhmeio ^acrbio HenoABdmnuA 
TkjiL MaTL pa66TaeT^ cb npHj^atnuMH ;iiO'iepLM6. JJ^o^epn 
yRpamaioTi cboh ctojem chhhmii ({)iajKaMH. IIpHJiemHue 
yqeHHKu ;i;ocTaBjijiH)TB po^iifrrejHM'B mhopo yAOBOJrbCTBia. 
OrpoMHoe Mope OTja^iAAevh EBpony oti Am^phkh. JI,66pBLa 
AfoH HppajiH Ch HaneH). ZlacTyxt BOSBpaTAjroa aomoS co 


R yKpacHJi 6oji>niyH) KOMHaTy chhhmh CTeKjraMH. H 
nojiy^fijit TBoe KopoTKoe hhclmo. BoraTHft Kyn6n,i», koto- 

pnfi T&llBGT'h Bl 60JGbmdMl J^OMt Ha niHpOKOg yJIHII,t, HMieT'B 

64;ipara 6paTa h fii^iiHyH) cecxpy. Bi btomi aom* na 
njEomaAH ffltHBexi mhopo CTapHxt jrioA^fi- Bh odi^aeTe 


(Roman) HMnepia 6LLia Toate, ^to TenepL PocciftcKaa 
HMH^pia ; ho wh AP^BHeft PflMCKoft HMn^pin 6hjio ropaa^o 
66jibme (much more) 3KflTejiefi, neatejiH b^ Ten^peiuHeft 
PocciflcKofi HMnepiH. 


The widow of the good Peter gave (^a^a) the poor 
man a bit of bread. What is the good child doing in 
the large yard? The horse has a beautiful head, a long 
body, and long (high) and slender legs. Bad actions are 
punished [transl. punish themselves, instr.) with rigorous 
laws. Winter nigts [are] often lighted up (ocBiniiaroTca) 
by the aurora borealis. In the handsome rooms of the 
uncle [there are] many rare things. I know your old 
friend very well. He showed us the high room with 
great pleasure. 


Adjectives with pull terminations. 

We recently read in a new book the interesting 
story of a young merchant. There is the high house 
of the rich Frenchman (worn, ^pani^ys'b)! The children 
played in the long street. The rich people in the town 
spoke with the poor old man of the rare things. My 
good old father wrote me a very agreeable letter. The 
ancient people worshipped the moon, the stars and the 
forces of nature. In northern countries where tlie night 
continues (npoAOJatdeTca) several months, the moon and 
the stars light up the earth. 


^TO Bh Bfijsikjiii Ha 6eperax'b 

4.paH^y3CKHX'b piK-B? 

KaKHXi BHHrb HaByn^j'b 

^TO ;ii66pHfi OT^n;^ ^o;^apfiJ!'B 

(presented) cboAmi npa- 

KaKaa TenepB nor(fii;^{wea- 

%o BH ^HTajiH cer6;ipfl bt» 

HOBOfi KHfiri? 

^'kwh saHHMaioTca npHji^at- 

HHe atfiTejTH 3Toro 6ojil- 

inoro ropo^a? 
Kto jtajiT* Tefii dTOVb 6oj!l- 

mofi KycoK'B xoporaaro 


Ha 6eperaxi ^pani^y.scKHX'b 

f^K'h a. BfiJl^JiTi BHCORie 

H npcKpacHue saMKH. 
y^LenfiKi HaKyn6j!i» mhofo 

xopomHX'B KHHr-B. 
J[66fii& OT^n,!. noAapfijPB 

cbo6m^ npHJi6mHUH'B ^i;^- 

TflMi HrpymeK'B (toys). 
H660 noKpHTO (is covered) 



pa66THHKaxi», KOTopne pa- 


y 6oraTaro Ky^^a. 
Pasjifi^HHH (various) pafioTU 

3aHHMaK)Tt atfiTCJiefi BToro 

6ojiLra6ro r6po;iia. 
atefld 6t;i;Haro pafioTHHKa 

ji;ajia mh* BTOTt fiojiLinoH 

KycoKt xopomaro xjiida 

H TOTt CTaKaHl OTJifi^Haro 


Adjectr'es with apocopated terminations. 




(Possessive Adjectives.) 

The apocopated terminations are, what the name 
plainly indicates, shortened terminations which the ad- 
jective takes when it acts as predicate of a verb. 

Their declension would therefore seem quite un- 
necessary.^ But they sometimes occur in poetry in- 
stead of the full terminations. Besides this, their termi- 
nations are adopted by possessive adjectives, as will soon 
be seen on page 79. 

Example of hard apocopated terminations: 

xpa6p'B, xp46pa, xp46po brave. 


Fem. Neut. 

xp46pa xpd6po 

(xp46pofi) (xp&6pa) 

(xp46poM) (xp46py) 

(xp46py) (xpd6pa) 

(xpd6poi)) (xp46pHMt) 

(o xp46poH). (o xpii6poMi, -i). 


xpd6p£i xpi6pu 

(xp46pHxi) (xpd6pHX'b) 

(xpa6pHM'b) (xpd^pHifb) 

(xpd^pHX'b, xp&6pH) (xp46pH) 

(xp&6pHHH) (xp46pHHH) 

(o xpd6pHxi). (o xp^6pux'b). 

Thus may be declined, for the sake of practice: 
ji,o6pby ;io6p4, ;^o6p6 good (A66pHft) 
HOBi, hob4, h6bo new (h6bhh) 
HHCTX, HHCTi, h6cto clean (nicTHft). 

Example of soft apocopated terminations: 
CHHb, CHHA, chb6 blue. 
Masc. Fem. Neut. 


G. (cAna) (cAhch) (cAna) 

D. (c^Hio) (ci&Hefi) (c^uio) 

N. xpa6pTb 
G. (xp&6pa) 
D. (xp46py) 
A. (xp46pa, xpa6p'B) 
I. (xpddpHHi.) 
r. (o xp&6poHi, -i). 

N. xp46pH 
G. (xpaCpHxi) 
D. (xp46piiH%) 
A. (xpd6pHX'b, xpd6pH) 
I. (xp&6piniH) 
P. (o xpd5pHX'b). 

^ It is derived from the Greek iiro away, and v.bK'zia I cut. 
* In prose, only the nominative forms of each gender and 
number arc used. 


Adjectives with apocopated terminations. 

A. (cAhh), (CHHb) 


(chhS, cHHe) 

I. (cAhhmi) 



p. (o ctEewb). 

(o cAnefi). 

(o cmeu-L). 

N. C^HH 



G. (cAhhxi) 



D. (c^HHHl) 



A. (C^HHXlb, CIIHB) 

(cAhhxi, cAhh) 


I. (chhhiih) 



p. (o cAhhxi). 

(o cAhhxi). 

(o cAhhxl). 

In forming the apocopated termination of the mas- 
culine gender, the vowels e and o are often inserted for 
euphony's sake. Also b and fi become e: 

full: CB^T JLH& brilliant apocopated: CB^xejn, -TJid, -tj[6 

6oibR6fi sick, ill 66j[eH'b, -xle^, -ji>h6 

KpinKifi strong Kp'fen6K'b, -nK&, -into 

cnoRdHHQg tranquil cnoK6eH:b, -HHa, -fiHo 

Ap^emfi ancient Xp^eeHb, -bha, -Bse 

CM'fenm6fi ridiculous cMinieH'B,-mH&,-nifl6. 

After the polite second person bh, an apocopated 
adjective is always put in the plural, although but one 
person is addressed: 
Bh jiBHBu, Apyri moh. You are lazy, my friend. 

The name of possessive adjectives is given by 
Russian Grammarians to those adjectives which point 
out to whom an object belongs. 

They are deserving of particular attention, both with 
regard to their use and to their declension: as to their 
use, we must state that they do not correspond to any 
English adjective, but to an English substantive em- 
ployed in the genitive (possessive) case; as to their de- 
clension (pag. 72), they always take the apocopated ter- 

Examples of possessive adjectives: 
neTp6B'b jifiwb Peter's house.^ 
neTp6fiH ;(om4 
neTpdEEixi aoh6b'i> 

neTp6BHM'B AOMiMl 

' neTp6BU ;iom4 
neTp6BiiiMB aom4mh 
(o) neTpdEHx-b ;^0M4x'b. 

N. neTp6B'i, ;^0Mt 
6. neTp6Ba x^Ma 
D. neTpdfiy ^^My 
A. neTpdBt jtoM'fc 
I. neTpdEHMi a6mom% 
P. (o) neTp6B0Mi ;^6M4. 

It is quite as good to say aomi IleTpa, biob4 6p4Ta, etc. 

Adjectives with apocopated terminations. 79 

6p4THHHa BAoea the brother's widow. 
N. 6paTHHHa baob& 6piTHHHii ba6bh 

G. 6paTnBH0H BAOBli 6p4THHHUX'b BJIOBl. 

D. 6pdTnHuofi BAOBi 6pdTHHHUM'b BA6Bairb 



p. (o) 6paTHHI108 BAOBi. (o) 6p4THBHHX'b BA6BaX'b. 

I^ap^UHHo cej[6 the Empress' village. 

N. Itap^i^iHo ceji6 H^ap^uuHU ceja 

6. Ilap^uHHa cejr& D^apHAURHX'B c3jii 

D. I]|ap]&i](HHy cesf D^apHuiiHiiMi cgjiaifb 

A. H^ap^uHHo cej[6 D^ap^i^UHH cSjia 

I. ^ap]ftI^IHHMl ceji6}i'b £(apHi^HHHun cejiaHH 

P. (o) ^apli^HH0M'b (-4) cejii. (o) ItapHUHHax-B cejiaxt. 

Thus also: 

Hb&hobi cax'B John's garden 
cecTpHHa i6inaAb the sister's horse 
AiB^UHHo K0J[I>^6 the girl's ring. 

A great number of proper names having the form 
of possessive adjectives are decUned in the same way. 
Such are: 

n^BjEOBi Pavlov n^niKHH'B Pushkin 

r^T^HHa Gatchina CK66ejieB'b Skobelev 

BopoAHHd Borodino KopcdsoB'b Eorsakov. 

It must however be remarked that such names, 
besides having no plural inflections, in the prepositional 
singular they take the substantival inflection i, instead 
of OMi or oft. 

In Russia, persons of all conditions are usually 
called and addressed not by their family name, as in 
Western Europe, but by their Christian name and patro- 

The patronymic appellation is formed by means of 
the termination obh^i or eBum^ for o man, and OBHa or 
eBHa for a woman. 

Thus, if a man's name is HBani, and his father's 
Christian name is, or was, IleTpTb, you address him as 
HBRHt IleTpoBH^'b; and if this man should happen to 
have a sister called MapiH, you will address her, even 
though she were married, Mapte IleTpoBHa. 


80 Adjectives with apocopated terminations. 


JKHBonAcHHri picturesque CTOJiAi^a capital (city) 

TpyAHsa difficult mndra sword 

rjiy66KiH deep iipoBSHoin^Hie pronunciation 

Aopor6ft dear, costly oKeda-b Ocean 

jrJ^H^BHi idle, lazy BcexaKH nevertheless 

ysKiH narrow canon, boot, shoe, gen, -k 

seaiieH^THH celebrated iiepeedAi. translation 

3Aop6BHfi healthy, well KpacHopiqie eloquence 

cnacTJiHBHS happy Tp^uia Greece 

AOBdjibHHfi satisfied oni]&6Ea mistake, fault 

HeA0B6j[bHHfi not satisfied coAeps^xB to contain 

npei^cTHHH superb, splendid MtcionojioaE^Hie situation 

Ka<|)TAffb coat, over- coat bhai view, landscape. 


Sl He;iiOB6jieH'b MofiMt hobhm'b Ka4)TaH0M^, ohi cjiHin- 
KOMt j^aoKt. Mh TenepB ryjiieMi, noTOMy ito ^o^6i^a 
xopoma. Baffle nepeB6;i;i 6hji'b TppeH'b. Micronojio- 
a^Hie IleTep6ypra He atHBonficHO. Y^enfiKi j-fenfiB^. iStot^b 
xjiifi'b o^eHb xopoma, a to bhho o^eHL ;^ypHO. HeTpoB'b 
CHH'B 6hjii B'lepd cb npiflTejflMH HBaHOBHMH BX Bacii- 
jiteBOMi ca;i;y. r6po;i;'b MocKBa jtp^BeH's, ho 3Ta CT0Ji6n;a 
He TaKt ;iipeBHa, KaKt r6po;ii'B HapAatt. BHAt Cb ^thx'b 
fiameH'B npeji6cTeHT3. 

Jtopora ;^JHHHa. JIoraaAB, KOTopyro HMnepaTopx nojiy- 
^HJit OT-L (|)paHi^y3CKaro nocjia, npeKpacna. KynfijiH jih 
BH pyccKyK) rpaMMaTHKy HBanoBa? ^Bfi^iJiH jih bh CBoero 
npiiiTejiH AjieKcdH;iipa HBanoBH^a? Btot^ coJAaxi o^eHB 
xpafipt H ero KanHTant BecBMa xopom-B. roBopfl.iH jih 
Bei yate ojh HexpoMi AjieKcaHApoBHqeMt? fl tojlko hto 
(just now) BCxpiTHJii ero na yjiHii,i. BoraTU jh BdniH 
y^eHHKfi? Htxii, OHfi o^ohl 64jtHH; ho np6atj;e ohh 6hjih 
6oraTH. fl Ten6pL ;i;oB6jieH'b, a bh BcerM hoaobojibhh. 


The teacher was satisfied with the pupil, because 
he was diligent. In summer (instr,) the days are very 
long. This pen is bad. This castle is picturesque. The 
warrior whom you saw on the bridge is very brave. 
Have you seen the brother's sword ^ The pronunciation 
of the English language is very difficult. The Ocean 
is very deep. The feathers (II^pKa) which you bought 
at your neighbour's the merchant are very dear, and 
nevertheless they are not good. Thy brother is very 
idle. The shoes of the teacher are too narrow. 

Degrees op comparison. 81 

The eloquence of Demosthenes was celebrated through 
(bo) all Greece. Who was ill? I do not know, I am 
healthy. The sister was also ill, but now she is well. 
Would you be happy, if you were rich? Wilt thou be 
satisfied? Be satisfied (plural)l The sister's translation 
contains many mistakes. The situation of Heidelberg 
is superb. The view from this tower is superb. The 
teacher's watch ^ is old. The watch which I bought 
yesterday is good but dear. 


Xopomaa .ih B^epa 6Hjia IIoyTpynoroAadHJiaxopoina, 
noroAa? ho k-l B^nepy OHa H3Mt- 

Hfijacb (changed). 


BHcpa nojiynfijiH ot^ cbo- o^chl npiaTHO. 
ero 6aTH)inKH (father)? 
BAopoB-L jiH Bani'L oTeui'b? Mofi OT<?iii'b Ten^pL 3ao- 

POB-L; OWb AOJiro 6ujvb 

(JojieH'L. , \,^N*^ 

KaK-B ;i;6poro CToara BamH Mofi wh ne hobh; onfi ^ 

HOBHe ^acu? oqen* ciapH. 

KoM]^ Bh AaJH BacfijLeBy H ji,dijub BacHjBeBy TeTpa;i;B 

TCTpa^B CB KapTfiHKaMH? CB KapTHHKaMH npHJICfflt- 

HOMy, a He jitafiBOMy 


JltnABB JIH Ten^pB Bam^b Ohb len^pB npHJi^mcHB, ho 
ynenfiK'B 6jih npHJi^KeH-B? npeffi^e oh-b 6ujub o^chb 

KaKOBa 9Ta y^enfiiiia? 9Ta yneHHiiia npHJieatHa. 



The eomparatiye is formed in three different ways : 

1. By changing the termination of the positive 

preceded by any consonant except a guttural into ifimifi 

for the full, and into ie for the apocopated termination : 


^ The Russian word for watch is nacH, that is the hours; it 
is therefore used in the plural only. 

Russian Con v. -Grammar. 6 

82 Degbebs of comparison. 

c]kjQ>HH§ strong CHJbHittmill, cHJUtB^e stronger 

cjd6iiii weak cjiSL6^km\A, cja6^e weaker. 

Some adjectives form the apocopated comparative 
simply in e changing the precedfing consonant: 

6ordTu{^ rich 6oraTi8iniif, 6or&?e richer 

xemgBuS cheap ^effl^B'fegnilH, ^eni^Bje cheaper 

rycT6M thick, dark rycxifiniiii, rycxie (r^me) thicker* 

npocxdif simple npocT^niniH, np6ii(e simpler 

TBepAufi hard, firm TBepAifimig, TB^pme harder 

hActhS pure, clean HHCTiRmifi, n^me purer. 

2. By changing the termination of the positive pre- 
ceded by a guttural consonant (r, k, x) into afimiS for 
the ftdl, and e for the apocopated termination, with a 
consonantal change: 

rjiy66KiB deep rjiy6ovilttiiiift, rji^6se deeper 

CTporiH rigorous CTpoas^ttiiiift, crpose more rigorous 

KpinKiii strong Kptaqiittinitt, Kpin^e stronger. 

A great number of adjectives in rifi, Kifi, xift 
have not the full termination of the comparative; whilst 
others of very frequent use form their comparatives in 
different ways: 

AajieKiH distant AajiBHtSmiu, ji^ijihme more distant 

A6jirifi long xojisd&iiiiif, A^JiBme longer 

Aopor6ii dear ApasdimiH, xopdse dearer 

6ji^3KiH near 6jiHaidfiiniH, 6jiiaie nearer 

KopoTKiS short KpaTHdnmih, Kopdie shorter 

piAKiS rare p^A^^nmiil, pise rarer 

miip6Kii( broad mHpoHd&mifi, miape broader 

BeA^Kifi (6oABm6&)jgreat Bejiwi&^mlfi, 66]ihme greater 

BHc6KiH high BHcoHiumin, Biicmifi^ Bfime higher 

BAzEiPi low HHsaHiniS, ni&sinii, Hi&se lower. 

Observe also: 

M^Aiii, H&AeHbKiH Small M^Hbinifi,(]feHBin6§),M^HLine smaller 

M0A0A6ii young lodAiniH, M0A6se younger 

CTdpnfi old CTdpniii, CTapiiioifi, crdpine older 

xop6iniii good Ay^miif, JiyHine better 

xyA6ii bad xyAmin, x^xe worse. 

3. By placing the adverb 66jiie, more^ before the 
positive : 

* The form ryme is properly speaking the comparative of the 
corresponding adverb rycio thickly. 

Degrees of comparison. 83 

paAi pleased; ready^ 66jr!be pa;^'B more pleased 

jOBKit clever 66jtbe ndBKilk, joB^&fimiil, jidene 

more clever. 

The saperlatiye of the attributive adjective (full 
termination) is also formed in three different ways: 

1. By placing caMHfi, the same, before the positive: 
cdMiitt c^&Huii ^ejoBiRx the strongest man 

c4Mafl ctxbE&H xenii the strongest woman 

c4Hoe ci&JLHoe ahta the strongest child. 

2. By using the comparative form in ifimia and 
dSniifi; but in this case the words hsi Bcta'B, of all, 
must be understood, as in Enghsh: 

Poccffl (ecTB) CHJiBH^ttmee rocy- Russia is the most powerful mo- 
A^pcTBO Bi> ceiT^. narchy in the world. 

3. By prefixing Bce- or npe- to the positive and 
HaH- to the comparative: 

npe;566pHa very good, hest 

Bcenos6pHu3 very humhle, humhlest 

nasufmidlk the very best. 

The predicative (apocopated) adjective forms its super- 
lative by adding Bcero or Bcix'B to the comparative: 
dtoTb jtflM'b jyqme Betel. This house is the best of all. 

HecTL «op6ae Bcero. Honour is dearest of all. 

For further intensifying the comparative, the word 
ropasAO can be placed before the apocopated termination 
of that degree: Oh-b ropasAO ciiJihwbe Bact He is by far 
stronger than you, — For the purpose of detracting 
from the quality of an adjective, the prefix no is fre- 
quently used with the comparative: Oh-b nocHJiLH'te BacB 
He is a little stronger than you. — The absolute super- 
lative signification of the adjective is expressed as in 
English by means of an adverb, such as BecLMa extremely, 
OHCHB very: Becbiia noji^SHoe HSodpiTeHie An extremely 
useful invention, 6^eHB npiiTHaa BCTpi^a A very plea- 
sant meeting. 

H^xejra, ^%wb than cepe6p6 silver 

36JI0T0 gold SLBJlisO iTon 

noji^sHHH useful cp^ACTBO means 

BipHHH faithful K&MeHb stone 

^ This adjective is not used in its full form. When neces- 
sary, it is rendered by secejiHS joyful, pdAOCTHHif merry, and by 
roT6BHfi prepared. 

84 Degrees of comparison. 

TDihniwb tulip MeTaju'B metal 

cspdHHUH modest ajiMadi diamond 

y^^TejibHHi^a school-mistress o6hkhob^hho usually 

T^Msa the Thames HecpaBH^HHo incomparably 

Xparou^HHHii costly oceub autumn. 
cdxapHHH TpocTH^Ki. sugar-cane 


TeMsa caMaa 6ojihmkii piKa b'b AnrjiiH. Oh-l c^acr- 
jifiBMiniH gejiofiiK'b B'b CBiTt. A ropas^o cqacrjfiB'be, 
^M-B BH AyMaeTe. Mofi nepeBO^t AJitEewb, Bam^b whh- 
Hie, a nepeBOAi* Bamero (Jpaxa caMHfi ;i;jifiHHHfi (nepeBd;!;^). 
Tboa cecTpa npHJieatHie Mo^fi. Becna npiaTflte ocemi h 
3HMLI, HO npiiiTHte Bctx-B — witTO. ^ Posa HecpaBHeHHO Kpa- 
c^Bte ApyrHX'B n.B'fcTOB'B. Bi^HHe jhoah ^acro cqacTJHBte 
eoraTHXTb. 9Ta ^Ma cTapme Bamefi cecTpti. Mofl crap- 
luifi cuH'B oqeHL npHJiemeH'L. 

BpeMa y^eflux'L Jimjij&lk Aparoii.4HHie BpeMeHH neBisKAt 
(of the ignorant). BepjiBHt caMufi KpacHBUH ropo^'B bi. 
TepMaHiH. Moh ynpaKH^Hia Tpy^nie ynpamn^Hifi Mo6fi 
cecTpu. Cepe6p6 j];paroii,iHHl^e mejiisa, ho mejiiso caHufi 
nojL^SHHfi MexajTJi'b. Ajmksiy TB^pme mejiisa. Bejifime 
JTIOAH OfiHKHOBeHHO CKpoMH^e HeBts^tt. Co6aKH Btpflie 
KomeKi*. Kto Ma's Bact CTapme, Bii hjth Bami 6paTb? 
&T0 BHHo ropasAO jiyHine Toro. PasBi Bama cecTpa MOJLoate 
BacL? Moa cecTpa mhofo MOJioate Menri, OHa canaa MJidAniaa 
HS'b Bcero Hamero ceMeftcTBa. 


Your house is high, the house of your neighbour 
is higher, but the house of your friend is the highest 
house in (naiprep.) the whole street. To-day the weather 
is more agreeable than yesterday. Gold and silver are 
costlier than iron, but iron is more useful than gold 
and silver. This wine is worse than water. The morning 
was beautiful, but the evening was more beautiful. The 
richest (use the comparative here) people are not al- 
ways the happiest. Simple means are the best [means]. 
The dog is more faithful than the cat. Stone is harder 
than metal. I am more diligent than you and he. The 
cow is more useful than the sheep, the horse is more 
useful than the cow, but the most useful of all is the 

^ Instead of ecTb a dash ( — ) is sometimes employed. 

Cardinal numbkks. 


The rose is more beautiful than the tulip. The 
happiest people do not always live in palaces and castles. 
The hardest and costliest stone is the diamond. The 
best sugar is extracted from (npHFOTOBjiaeTca h3'b) the 
sugar-cane. Your pen is a little worse (noxyme) than mine. 
The school-boy was modest, the school-girl was more 
modest, but the child was the most modest of all. The 
diligent artist is usually more modest than the lazy [one]. 
The teacher is more rigorous than the schoolmistress. 
This wine will be incomparably better than that beer. 
Which animal belongs to the most useful [animals]? 
To the most useful animals belongs also the dog. 

Xopomee jih 3to dubo? 

IIpiflTHOe JLli 6u JIG BpeMA? 

Etc 6ujub caMug cKpoMHiid 
H cdMuS ^6cTHLig (honest) 
Myffi-B wb AefiHax-B? 


KOJiinHte (magnificent), 

nerepdyprt (urn Ilapfiat-B? 

Ho^eMy PyccKie ^to fobo- 


Etc 6h[jrb BejiHHafimHM'b 
repoeM^ ApeBKHx-L Bpe- 


no^eiiy BH TaK-B ;i;yMaeTe? 

3to nfiBO noxyme, n^wb oH'b m ^ 
^ MHt roBopfijit. ^Jpw 

BpeMa 6hjio caMoe npiaTHoe. fif 

CaMuil CKpoMHug, caMUu > t 

< ^^CTHHft H caMBifl My;i;pHfi i^M^ 
(wise) AeflHflHHHi* 6ujrb ctv^,^^ 
6esi> coMHiHia (undoub- 
tedly) ApHCTHAt. 

PyccKie roBop^T-B, hto IleTep- 
fiypr-B ropasAO bcjihro- 
jiinnte Ilapdaca. 

IIoTOMy WTO Ha ero yjiHi^axt 
He AOMa, HO ;i;Bopi^ii. 

IIo MoeMy MH^HiK) (In my 
opinion), HesapL 6KJi'h 
BCJiHMafiniHM'B repocMTb 
;^p6BHHX•B BpeMen-B. 

R AyMaio 8T0 noTOMy, ^to OH'b ,<. 
6ujub He TOJiBKo 3aBoeBa- 
Tejiewb (conqueror), ho h 





/^J.I.'UUy' ,y^ 

oKkwb^ OXH&, oah6 (page 70) one mecTb six 

xea, ABi (page 87) two ceub seven 

TpH three B6ceMb eight 

HeTiipe four a^bhtl nine 

n^Tb five A^ciiTb ten 

86 Cardinal numbers. 

oAHHHaAi^aTb eleven AeRflH6cTo ninety 

fifi^nkjwBLTb twelve cto hundred 

TpHHdAuaTB thirteen cto oa^hi hundred and one 

HeT^peaAuaTb fourteen cto xBa hundred and two 

njiTHd^uaTL fifteen jifi^CTH two hundred 

mecTH^Ai^aTb sixteen TpncTa three hundred 

ceMH&AUaTb seventeen neTiipecTa four hundred 

BOceMH&jmaxb eighteen nATbc6T'B five hundred 

j[,eBHE2LX0fi.Tb nineteen inecTbc6Ti> six hundred 

AB&AUSiTB twenty ceMbc6T'b seven hundred 

ABaxuaTb oAHH-b twenty one BoceMi>c6Ti eight hundred 

ABdAuaTb ABa twenty two AeBATbc6T'b nine hundred 

Tp^jwaTb thirty T^cjiqa thousand 

cdpoKi forty ;^B•fe TiicaHH two thousand 

nuThjifickT'b fifty ]i,6aiTh Tiicii^'b ten thousand 

mecTBAecAT'b sixty cto Tucsm'b hundred thousand 

c^MBAecATi. seventy HHJuioH'b a million 

B6ceMbAecflT'b eighty nyjb nought. 

In forming numbers the copula is suppressed: 
TacsnaL B0ceMbc6T% xeBiindcTo One thousand eight hundred and 
B6ceMb. ninety eight. 

All Cardinal numbers, with the exception of o^hh'B \ 
ABa, TpH, ^CTHpe, copoK'L, ^^eBflHocTO, CTO, THCsraa and 
MHJiJiioH'b, are declined like the singular of feminine nouns 
in B, such as ji6ma;i;B (page 31) without any regard to 
the gender of the noun that follows them. 

Examples of the declension of numbers. 

N. naTb five B6ceMb eight 

G. UHT± of five bocbmA of eight 

D. n^TH to five BocbM^ to eight 

A. uHTh five B6ceMb eight 

I. oATbi) hy five BOCbMbi) by eight 

P. (o) n*[TH (about) five. (o) (B)ocbM6 (about) eight. 

N. oAHHHajmaTb eleven 

G. oAHHiiaAuaTH of eleven 

D. oAHHHaAi^aTH to eleven 

A. oAHHHaAi^aTb eleven 

r. OA^HHaAn;aTbD by eleven 

P. (061) OA^HHawaTH (about) eleven. 

Declension of ;^Ba, Tpn, HCTHpe. 

N. ABa (m. and n.), ab4 (f.) two xpn three 

G. AByxi of two Tpex-b of three 

D. AByMi to two TpcMi to three 

A. wa, ab4, AByxi two Tpn, Tpgxi three 

I. AByna by two Tpena by three 

P. (0) AByx-b (about) two. (0) rpexi (about) three. 

» See page 69. 

Cardinal numbers. 87 

N. HCTiipe four 
G. HeTup^xi of four 
D. ^CTHpfiMi to four 
A. Heiiipe, HerHp^xi four 
I. HeTHpBMA by four 
P. (o) HGTHp^xx (about) four. 

Declension ofcopoKTb, ^.eRaHOCTO, cto, ab4cth, etc. 

N. c6pos% 40 a6bah6cto 90 

G. copoKii of 40 ;5eBflH6cTa of 90 

D. copoK& to 40 AeBAH6cTa to 90 

A. cdpOKi 40 ;^eBaH6cT0 90 

T. copoKd by 40 ACBHHdcTa by 90 

P. (o) copoR^ (about) 40. (o) ACBAHdcTa (about) 90. 

N. CTO 100 ;tBicTH 200 

G. CTa of 100 ^tsyxicoTB of 200 

D. CTa to 100 jteyjTBCTaM'b to 200 

A. CTO 100 jifiicTiL^ 200 

I. era by 100 AByM^CTaMH by 200 
P. (o) CTa (about) 100. (o) AB^^xxcxaxi (about) 200. 

Declension of Tuca^a, jifii Tuca^H, MHjrjiioH'B. 

N. TricOTa 1000 ;tB* T^csmn 2000 

G. TiicHHH of 1000 AByxi TiJCflHx of 2000 

D. TiicaHi to 1000 AsyMi TiicanaMx to 2000 

A. TiicjiHy 1000 JIB* T^amn^ 2000 

I. TilcuHBi) (-ei)) by 1000 AByM^ Tiica^aMH by 2000 

P. (o) Tiicani (about) 1000. (o) AByxx T^cmBX'b (about) 2000. 

N. MHJiJiidH'b a million 

G. MiujiioHa of a million 

D. MHJijii6Hy to a million 

A. MWiMwh a million 

I. MHJij[i6H0M'& by a million 

P. (o) MHJiJiidHi (about) a million. 

Declension of aggregate numbers.^ 
N. Tilcana BoceMBc6Ti> B6ceMbAec;iT'b B6ceHb 1888 

G. TllCJlHa B0CeMBC6Tl BOCBUHXeCATH B0CBM1& of 1888 

D. Ti&CAHa BoceMBc6rB bocbm^acc^lth bocbmA to 1888 

A. TiicA^a BoceMbcdT'B BdceMBAec^rB B6ceMB 1888 

I. TiicflHa BoceMBc6T'B BoceMBi);tecaTBiD bocbmbk) by 1888 

P. (o) TiicA^a BoceMBc6Ti BOCBM^AecflTH BOCBM^ (about) 1888. 

To the class of cardinal numbers belong also: 
1. the Collective numerals, such as: 
n4pa, XB6e, 66a, o66e, ;(B6fiRa a pair, a set of two, botb, a couple 
TpoitRa, Tp6e three, a set of three, a triplet, three in hands 

^ In the case of animate beings, the genitive form is em- 
ployed according to the general rule. 

3 Generally only the two last are declined. 

88 Cardinal numbers. 

Heieepo four 

n^Tepo, nflTdKi five 

m^cTepo six 

^lecaiepo, ^tec^xoKi ten 

;iK)3KHua a dozen, noj[;iib3KHHu half a dozen 

ABa xec^TKa a score 

cdxHfl a hundred. 

2. the Fractional numerals: 

nojioBiaua a half OARii nAiafl (nacTb) ^/s 

Tpeib a third Tpn naTHxi (h4cth) '/s 

H^TBepiB a fourth jC^snTh n^xux^b (^dcTH) ^^/s. 

ocBMyxa or ocbM^mKa an eighth 
nojixopd one and a half 
ROJixpeTbfl two and a half 
nojraexsepxd three and a half 
nojTTopdcxa one hundred and fifty* 

Examples of the declension of the Collective 

and Fractional Numerals. 

N. 66a (masc. and neut.) 66'fe (fern.) both 

G. o66HX'b o6iHX'b of both 

D. o66nMi> o6iHM'b to both 

A. 66a, o66nxi> 66ib, o6iHX'L both 

I. o66hmh o6iHMH by both 

P. (061.) o66HX'b. {06%) o6iHX'b (about) both. 

N. xp6e three q^xBepo four 

G. xpoHx-b of three qexeeprix-b of four 

D. xpoHMB to three / nexBepiiMx to four 

A. xp6e, xpoAxi three H6xBepo (-rixx) four 

I. xpo^HH by three HexsepiiMH by four 

P. (0) xpoflxi (about) three. (0) nexBepiixB (about) four. 

Jlfi6e and o66e are declined like xp6e; napa, ABdfiKa and 
xp6^a have the terminations of feminine nouns in a (page 27); 
nflxepo^ m^cxepo and A^cjixepo are declined like H^xsepo; AecflxoKx, 
A^sHHa, c6xHH, nojioBHHa, xpexb, H^xBepb, ocbM^xa and ocbM^^niKa are 
regarded as substantives and declined according to their termination. 

Declensionof nojTopa and nojiTopacTa. 

N. nojiiop4 (masc. and neut.) Vl% nojxopii (fem.) l»/« 

G. nojiyxopa of 1V« nojyxopH of 1V« 

D. nojijxopa to Vji uojiyxopi to P/2 

A. nojixopd IV2 noJxopii IV2 

I. noji^xopaM'b by VI2 nojyiopo» by IV2 

P. (0) najyiopt (about) 1V». (0) nojiyxop* (about) !•/«. 

^ Instead of nojixopdcxa one may quite as well say as in Eng- 
lish cxo iiaxbAecaxB. Ilojxop&cxa corresponds to the French une 
centaine et demie, — nojxop& is a contracted form for nojioB^na 
Bxop6ro. Compare the German anbertl^alb. 

Cardinal kumbeks. 89 

N. nojTopacia 150 
G. iiojiyxopacTa of 150 
D. nojiyTopacTy to 150 
A. nojTopdcTa 150 
I. noji]^TopacTaMH by 150 
P. (o) noj^TopacT* (about) 150. 

Examples of the declension of cardinal numbers 
combined with substantives. 

N. ABa CTOJid 2 tables xpii Rop6Bu 3 cows 

G. AByx-b CT0Ji6m of 2 tables^ Tp^x'b Rop6B'b of 3 cows 

D. jifiyiiL'b CTOJikwb to 2 tables TpeMi KopdsaMi to 3 cows 

A. jjBa cTOJid 2 tables xpext Kopdei 3 cows 

I. AByMA cxojfdMH witb 2 tables xpeHa Kop6BaMH by 3 cows 

P. (o) AByxi cxojaxT. (ab.) 2 tabl. (o) xp^xi KopdAaxi (about) 3 cows. 

N. DiixB co6&K'b 5 dogs mecxb ^ejioBiK'b 6 men 

G usT± co6kK'b of 5 dogs mecx^ HejioB^Kx of 6 men 

D. usni. co6&Raui> to 5 dogs mecxn HejcoB^RaH'b to 6 men 

A. naxB co6dRi 5 dogs mecxi HejoeiR-L 6 men 

I. njixLK) co6dRaMU by 5 dogs mecxLK) He^soeiKaMii by 6 men 

P. (o) HHTk co64Rax'L (ab.) 5 dogs, (o) raecxH He.ioBiRaxt (ab.) 6 men. 

The cardinal numbers ;i;Ba, Tpn, ^erape, when used 
in the nominative or accusative, require the genitive 
singular, whereas the subsequent numbers require the 
genitive plural of nouns or adjectives : 

JifiB. nacd. Two hours (two o'clock). 

TpH ji6raaAH. Three horses. 

lexripe Bo^d. Four oxen. 

IlaxB nacoBB. Five hours. 

Ulecxb 6uK6vb, Six oxen. 

CeMb A<^6pHX'b MajbHHROB'B. Seven good boys. 

66ceHb npBu^KHHX'b Atx^n. Eight diligent children. 

Yet, the qualifying adjective which is placed be- 
tween ABa, TpH, ^CTiipe and the noun in the nominative 
or accusative may stand also in the nominative or ge- 
nitive plural, as: 

Jtfli RpacHBHa cecxpii. Two pretty sisters. 

TpH orpoMHUX'b Ropa6jiA. Three immense vessels. 

In compound numbers the noun and adjective agree 
with the last numeral, as: 

;(BaAi^4Tb OAHH-b py6At. Twenty one roubles. 

II*[XbAeci[X'b ABa py6AA. Fifty two roubles. 

C^Mbxecarb B6ceMb pydAiu, Seventy eight roubles. 

* Note that in the oblique cases the plural forms must follow 
ABa, xpH and nexHpe. 

90 Cardinal kumbers. 

A cardinal number used after a noun signifies 
about .... Ex.: 
H AAJii eny uiHJiJiHHrdBi jiBkjs,n,B,Th. I gave him about twenty shillings. 

N. B. After oai&hi, j^bsl, TpH, Heiiipe, the substantive years 
is translated by roA'B, r6Aa; but after hhtl and the higher numbers 
by jiiTi (gen. plur. of Jiiio summer), as: Owb 6£mi> bi> neTep6ypri 
ABa rdxa, a vb MocRBi nsTb aI^ti*. — In the genitive case the word 
ji^Ti is always used: AByxi ji^Tb, ce^t jitTi; whereas in the dative, 
instr. or prep. ro^^H^b, foa^mh, toa^xi are exclusively in use: npn- 
6&BLTe K^b cewk voj^ivn, em,e ABa rd^a. Add to seven two more years. 

When the age is stated, the Russians use: 
Either the dative of the person, and the nominative 

of the number of years, in which case 6T'b-po;^y, since 

hirthy is most frequently understood, as : 

Msi Ten^pL ip^AiiaTL xpn r6Aa. I am now thirty three years old. 
MoeM]^ 6pdTy CK6po 6'jjfiTb ab*- My brother will soon be twelve 
H&Ai^aTB jran (6x1 poAy). years old. 

Or the nominative of the person and the genitive 
of the number of years, as: 
Oh& ABaAiiaTii JTbr-B. She is twenty years old. 


CocTaBJATB to compose, to make sa rpaBHueio abroad 

jHCTi a leaf, a sheet of paper 4>yHTi pound 

M&cjio oil; butter nyA'B pood (40 Bussian pounds) 

HTO cA/ti? what costs? apmi&Hi arsheen {Bussian mea- 

cyRH6 cloth, woolen-cloth sure = 0,77 yard) 

ft^paBKi frank BHC0R6ciiHn roA'B leap year 

npoisx&TL to drive, to travel caHTHM'b centime 

pasi time (with numhersj Bcer6 altogether 

i^unji6H0Ri chicken 6)^AeTb make (with numhersj. 


IlaTiaeciTB jififb ne^tJiH ^Ajh TpAcra mecTMecflrB 
naxb AHeft cocraBjiiorB roAt. 3th ^erHpecra Kon^B^B co- 
craBjiHiorB tojeko ^erjape pyfijii. Bx btowl ropojcfe otb 
copoRd jsfi nHTfi;^ecaTH tucatb isfiTejiefi. Bh oj^kHi> ^aci 
Mu npofoadjH (5aT4e,;^BtaaOTaTH Bepcrb. Ck&ibko aro 
cocraBJiieTi Bcero? 9to cocraBjaeTO xpficra IIy;^6B^ ;^Ba 
4)3^HTa. ^iiftre mh* apinfiHi» xopomaro cyKHa. Hto crofrrb 
^yvnrb M&cjia vh napAst? ^thtl Macja ctohtb bi» 
napA»t TpH ftjH Her^kpe ^p&HEa. Cro caHTAMOBi co- 
craBJfliorL ^paes^. Kx ^inarh jfiSim^T& xp^irb jHcrajrb 
DpHHaA^es&rE emj^ 6rojo naxH^i^aTH jhctobi hhctou 

Cardinal numbers. 91 

Ha CTOjii jiemiTb ^necHTOKi rpym-B h nojiTopa (J)yHTa 
opixoB-B. y BieHfl wkvb nojiyTopa pyfiji^ft. Op4xH ctoiot-b 
OAHOH) TpeTLH) pyfijifl ;iiop6a£e rpymt. Si roBopib o Tpext 
jijiTaxTb, a TH roBopaniL o ^HByx'b y^enHKax'L. Y Te6a 
TpH cuna H jifii AOHepH. Y nac-B Ha ckothomtb ;i;Bopi (in 
the cow-stable) TpMHawaTb KopoB-L, narh 6ujs,6b%, ccm- 
HawaTL j[omB,j[,6& h ^eTiipe OBUiii. Bt j!6H;i;oHi okojlo 
AByx-BCOTi copoKd ;^eBaTH Tuca^B naxHCOT^b ^ijomob'l h 
66ji4e mecTfi MHjijiioHOBt atfiTejefi* Ckojibko cto xpfiOTaTb 
inecTL pas-B ^st Tuca^H ;tB4cTH ^iiBawaxB ;iiBa? Cto TpA^- 
i;aTB niecTTB pas'B 22 22 dpex-B 302192. 


Twelve months make a year. Four weeks make a 
month. Three hens were in the yard. In our school 
[there are] five diligent pupils. We lived ((Jhjih) ten 
years in Paris. Twenty four pupils were do-day in the 
school. In the month of June (Btb mwk Micauit) [there 
are] thirty days. How many years were you abroad? 
My aunt has two dogs and five cats, and thy mother 
has two cats and five dogs. In your copy-book [there 
are] still thirty two clean sheets. How many pounds 
[are there] in three poods? In three poods [there are] 
no more than a hundred and twenty pounds. How old 
is your brother? He is forty years old. 

What cost three quarters (fourths) of a pound of 
good oil? A pound of such oil costs twenty two 
copecks. Give me two arsheens of black cloth. Both 
brothers walked with my two (both) sisters. My brother 
has a hundred and seventy five sheep. In a year [there 
are] three hundred and sixty five days, and in a leap 
year three hundred and sixty six days. Eleven times 
three hundred make three thousand [and] three hundred. 
My uncle will pay (sanjiaTfrrB) six thousand nine hundred 
[and] thirty seven franks and ninety centimes. I have 
four hundred roubles. 


Ckojibko i^epKB^ft Bi» Moc- B% MocKBi okojio ;i.eBaTH- 

KBi? COTB UiepKB^H. 

AcKOJiBKon.epKB^ftB'BCaHKT- B-B CaHKTneTepSyprt ne- 
neTep6ypri ? cpaBHenHo Meate ii.epKBefl, 

92 Ordinal numbers. 

HO saTO (in change) ro- 

pasAO 66ji4e ABopniOB'L. 

Ckojilko mfiTejefi c^HTderca B-l MocKBi Tenept ccmb- 

Ten^pb B-B MocKB-t? coTB THCflH'b mfiTejiePi. 

Ckojibko acHTejieft c^HTaeica Bi> CaHKTneTep6yprS cih- 
Bt CaHKTneTep6ypri ? TaeTca Ten6pL fiest Mdjiaro 

(about) MHjjiioffiB mfiTejiefi. 

Ckojilko (J)yTOB'B (feet) bh- To^hoS (The just) BHfflHHM 

mHHH HMter-B ropa ^yMy- 9T0ft ropHane snaro, ho 

JiapH? ona viu^vb okojlo ab^a- 

UaTH UATfl THCflTB (|)^T0B'B 

Ha^i* ypoBHeM-B (level) 
CKOjibKO 6yji,eTb unih past IlaTB paai cto ABa^aTL naTs 
CTO JiBaOTaTb naxb? 6y;i.eT'b mecTbcoT'b ;i;Ba- 

;i;iiiaTb naTb. 
Mnoro jth bh nojiyqfijrH ji;^- flji.ener'BnojiyHfijrBHeMHoro, 
ner-B? mh* npHCjrajiH TOJbKO ^e- 

caTb ^epBOHUieB'L (ducats). 


OniHdBa. — The mistake. 

HepenficHHK'b, nepenHcdB'b hto-to cb 6ojibin6irb cTa- 
panieMi., BOCKjiflKHyji'b Cb pa^ocTbH): „KoH6i;'b BtH^aerb 
A^jio". CKaaaB-B 3th cjiOBa, oh-l Bsaji-B HepnfijibHHDty bm4cto 
neco'iHHiiiH H BUJiHji'b nepnoe nope na cboh) Tpy^HyK) pa66Ty. 

IlepenHCHHK'b copyist iiepennciBi having copied 

CTap&Hie pain, trouble Bociu^RHyTb to exclaim 

BtH«iaTB to crown CKasdoi having said 

MepHHJiBHBii;a inkstand neco^iHHua sand-box 

BHJiHTB to pour, to cast BMicTo instead. 





IlepBHfi first AGBflTUH ninth 

BTop6fi second ^tecaxHfi tenth 

Tp^Ti3 third oj^i^HHa^uaTU^ eleventh 

HCTBepTHil fourth AB'feHdA^aTHft twelfth 

iiflTHH fifth TpHH^AUaTHfi thirteenth 

luecToii sixth HeTiipHaAii;aTiiri fourteenth 

cejkhiii6\\ seventh naTHdAHiaTHH fifteenth 

bocbm6h eighth mecTHdwaTHft sixteenth 

Ordinal numbers. 93 

ceMuaAi;aTUH seventeenth AeBaHdcTun^ ninetieth 

BoceMHdAuaTUH eighteenth c6thh hundredth 

AeBjiTHaAii;aTHH nineteenth cto n^pRuif 101 ^t 

;^Ba;^^4THJi twentieth AByxvcoTHfi 200*^ 

J^B§LJWBiTb n^pBHfi twenty first xpext-cdTHfi 300*** 

J^BaA^aTb BTop6H twenty second neTHpexi-cdTHS 400th 

TpH/tudTHH thirtieth hjithcotkh 500*^ 

copoKOBoi fortieth laecTHcoxHH 600th 

BHTHAeciiTUH fiftieth Tiic;i?HHfi lOOO^h 

mecTH^^ecaTiiii sixtieth AByxi-THcanafi 2000th 

ceHH;(ecATHH seventieth cioTiicflqHHii 100000th 

BocbMHAecflTHri eightieth MHJiji6HHHfi lOOOOOO^h 

Ordinal numbers do not differ in their declension 
from qualifying adjectives having the same terminations. 
They agree therefore in gender, number and case with 
the noun with which they are used: 
n^pBufi yp6Ki The first lesson. 

Bxopaa nacxL. The second part. 

TpeTifi is declined after the manner of adjectives 
terminating in ifi which are derived from the names of 
animate beings (page 74). 

The ordinal number nepBuft first, when used in 
the sense of best or excellent has the three degrees of 
comparison: nepBuft, nepBtSmifi, caMHfi n^pBufi. 

Here belong also the Circumstancial and Propor- 
tional numbers: APyroft other, second; nocJiiAHifi last. — 
eflfiuufi sole, alone; ;^B0flKifi twofold; ;i;B0nH6fl double; 
TpofiHoft treble, ternary ; ^eTBepnofi quadruple ; CTOKpaTHHft 
or CTopHqHHft centuple, which have the meaning and 
declension of adjectives. 

The Distributive numerals are formed by using no 
with the dative of the cardinal, with the exception of 
ABa, TpH, HCTHpe, which are put in the accusative, as: 
no oAHOMy one a-piece no haxh five a-piece 

n6 ABa two a-piece no copoKa forty a-piece 

n6 xpn three a-piece n6 cxy hundred a-piece. 

no qexiipe four a-piece 

Observe also the following adverbial expressions 
formed with the help of numerals: 

ojifiixm once so nepsux'b firstly 

ABdxAH twice BO Exopiixi secondly 

xp±a;^H thrice b-l xp^xBaxt thirdly 

xpn pdsa three times bt, j^eckTux-b tenthly, etc. 
cxo pasi hundred times 

^ ,l,eBaxHAecaxHH is more frequently employed. 


Ordinal numbers. 

In expressing dates and years the last number 
only receives the ordinal form and inflections: 

Bi T^csma. BoceMBcdrL AeBflH6cT0 In the year 1898. 

boclm6mi> roA^. 
JteaAiidTaro HdpTa.^ March, the twentieth. 

The hours of the day or night are expressed thus: 
KoT6pHH ^&c'b? What o'clock is it? 

Ck6jbko np66Hjio nacdBi? What o'clock did it strike? 

Bb&i'b nexiipe HStck. It is striking four o'clock. 

Ha MO^'B Hac&xi ceMB nacdBi. According to my watch it is seven 


En^g He np66HJ0 leTHp^xi Hac6B:B. 
Ten^pB TpH H^TBepTH Tp^TBaro. 

Gk6po iipo6BgrB hjitb nacds^B. 
Oh-b upiixerB bi ^extipe 6e3% 


Si npiixaji b:b a^batb cb nojio- 



It is twenty minutes past two. 
It has not yet struck four. 
It is now three quarters past 

two (a quarter to three). 
It is going to strike five. 
He comes at a quarter to four. 

I came at half past nine. 


.Shb^pb January 
$eBpaj[B February 
Mapxi^ March 
AnpijiB April 
Man May 
Ik)hb June 
Ipsb July 
AjBrycT* August 
GeHTA6pB September 
0KTik6pB October 
Hofl6pB November 
JleK46pB December 
BocRpec^HBe Sunday 
noHeAiJiBHHKi Monday 
Bt6phhki> Tuesday 

niTHHi^a Friday 

Cy666Ta Saturday 
iipoMuniJieHHHH industrial 
noeA^HOR'B duel 
CMepx^jiBHo mortally 
HBHyxa minute 
Kjraccx class 
ndMflXHHR'B monument 
H&AnHCB inscription 
cjii^yromift following 
poA^jca (he) was bom 
^ue^'b, CKOHH&Jicji (he) died 
n npH^y I shall come 
a upiixajTB I came, I arrived 
xorA4 then 
BceidpHHH universal 
BiicxaBRa exhibition 
oxRpiixHii opened, discovered 
pdHCffiB wounded (apocopated) 
3axB son-in-law 
hhcj6 date. 


Ha naMaTHHKi IleTpa BejrAKaro H3o6paateHa (is en- 
graved) cj^Ayromaa HawHCL: HcTpy Il^pBOMy EKaTepfina 
BTopaa. HMena IleTpa HepBaro, ^pti^pHxa BToporo h 
FeepHxa ^leTBepTaro 6e3CMepTHH b^b HCTopiH. DepBuft jsfiRb 

1 The days of the month have the genitive form. 

Ordinal numbers. 95 

He^tjIH — BOCKpeceHLe, BTOpofl — nOHCA'fejIBHHK'L, Tp^Tift 

— BTopHHKt, ^exBepTHfi — cepe^a, naTiift — ^eTBepTOK'L, 
mecTOH ~ nflTHHii,a, ceABMoft -- cy666Ta, IleTpi Beji6Kiii 
ao6'kfl^jLi> (vanquished) Kdpjia ABinaOTaTaro, Kopojra IIIb^;!;' 
CKaro, npH HojiTaBi bi THca'ia c^mbcot-b j^emnowb tojij, 
nacxa BOCTO^HOfi (eastern) n,6pKBH 6ijifiT'b hhh4 (this year) 
n^pBaro anptjia no noBOMy ct6jih), fijiH ;i;eBaTHaji;ii,aTaro 
Mapxa no cxapoMv. 

JI^BawaTB Kon^eK-B cocTaBjtaroT'B naTyro ^acTB py6jrfl. 
Mofi 6paT^ BacMifi po^AJica HerapnaOTaTaro Maa raca^a 
BoceMBCOTi* naTHAecflTaro ro^a. KaKoe y nacB cero^H^ 
^HCJio? y nacB AGBflToe ;i.eKa6pa TMca^a boccmbcot'e 
B6ceMB;i;ecaT'b ^bocbmofo r6;i.a. JIohaoh-b, 12ro ceHTa6pii, 
1900 r6;i;a. AnrjuficKifi KopojiB JIkob'b Exopofi yMep'B 
6ro ceHTa6pa, 1701 ro^a. Ero satb BtjihveAhWb III ckoh- 
Hajicfl BOCBMoro MapTa, 1702 r6ji;a. Mh atHBeM'B b-b Ae- 
BflTHaTOaTOMi CTOJiiTifl (century). 


The first month in the year is January, the second 
February, the third March, the fourth April, the fifth 
May, the sixth June, the seventh July, the eighth August, 
the ninth September, the tenth October, the eleventh 
November, the twelfth December. John is now the 
twenty third pupil in the class, and Gregory (rpnropifi) 
the thirty first. To-day [it is] the fifteenth of May. 
Schiller (UlHJiJiep'B) was born the tenth of November in 
the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty nine. Peter 
the Great was bom the eleventh of July in the year 
one thousane six hundred and seventy two, and died at 
St.-Petersburg the eighth of February in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and twenty five in the fifty 
third year of his Ufe. 

A month makes the twelfth part of a year. In an 
hour [there are] sixty minutes, it makes the twenty fourth 
part of a day and the thousand seven hundred and 
sixtieth part of a year. Towards (Okojio genit.) nine 
o'clock I come to you. [It is] on the twenty fourth of 
October of this year [that] I first arrived at St.-Peters- 
burg; I was then twenty four years old. The last great 
universal industrial exhibition was opened at Paris in 
the month of May in the year one thousand nine hund- 


Ordinal numbkrs. 

red. The celebrated Russian poet Pushkin (nymKHHt) 
was mortally wounded in a duel on the twenty seventh 
of January in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty seven. 


SnaeTe jih bi> kotopom'b ro^^ 
XpHCT0(|)6pi> KojiyM6'B ot- 
KpHJit AMepHKy? 

KoMy npHHaweasfiTt Hiint 
Mhc-b ^66pofi HaA^^AH 
(the Cape of Good Hope)? 
KtMt H Kor^a 6ujii> OHt 


Kor;i.a yuept 64;i.HHft co.i- 
Airb, KOTopHfl noTepaji'B 
(lost) CBOH) Hory Bt cpa- 
m6HiH npH BajiaEjiaB']^? 

3HaeTe jih bh, Bt KOTOpoMt 
ro^y fiojiBinofi noatap'B 
(conflagration) paapymHJTB 


KaR'B MHoro jnofl,e& norfifijio 

B'B nJiaMCHH? 

OB'S OTnpaBHJicil H3t (He 
started from) Hcnanin na 
Tpext Kopa6ji^x'B Bt 1 492 

Mhcb Ji;66poft Haji;6»AH 

eHJIt OTKpHTl Bt 1486 

roAy nopTyrajTfci^eM'B Bac- 
KO Ae TaMa; noTOMt owb 
npHHaAJreacajit FoxaaHA- 
i^aM-B H 6uji% oTHart 
(taken) y HHXt AnrjiH^a- 
HaMH Bt 1806 roA^. 
Oat yjiept 12ro ^eKadpfl 
1856 ro^a B'B JIoHAOHi. 

Jifi'dAmTb ceAbMoro c.eHTa6pH 
1702 ro^a, noasap'B pas- 

HOnOJI'fe 12000 AOMOB'B. 

Bojite qticB 7000 qejOBtK'B 
norafijio b-b nJiaMenn. 

a KynHJi'B ABa cb nojiOBfiHOio 
(j)yHTa K6(j)e, ^eTiipe (j)yHTa 
CB qcTBepTBH) cdxapy. 


roJiOAHuft ApaBHTflHHH'b. — The hungry Arab. 

Oji,iiwb rojiOAHBEfi ApaBHT^HHH'B 32L6jiYJi,fLJLC& B'B ny- 
CTKLHt. B'B npoAOJiHeme AByx-B ^nefi oh-b ocTaBajica 6e3i> 
BCflKofi nnmH H 6hji'b B'B onacHOCTH yiiep^TB ot-b rojiOAy. 
HaKoneu'B oh'b ;i;ocTfir'B OAHoro KOJiOAi^a, hs^b KOToparo 
npo' nofijm cboAx-b Bep6;iH);i;oB'B, h na necK'fe yBH- 
j^iJl'B MajieHBKift KoatanHfi M'femoK'B. «CjiaBa B6ry>, BCKpn- 
HajiTb OH'B, no;iiHflB'B H omynaB'B ero, «a AyMaio, hto B'B 



wdwb (|)HrH HJiH opixH: Tenept a Mory nacHTHTBca!* Bt 
npiiTHOMt ccMt oatHAaHiH, owb pasBaaajTb MiinoKt, ho 
jBfijiii^wb, HTO Bt HCMt Haxo;i.6jiocfc, BCKpHqdjL-B ct Heyj^o- 
BOJiLCTBieMt : «axi>! 3to tojibko aK6M^r'B!» 

3a6jiyAi^TBCfl to lose ones way 
Bi npoxojix^Hie during 
n±ii^ food, nurture 
&03i6ji,evi,'b (masc.) well 
doAtb to give to drink 
nec6R'b sand 
M'lni6R'b purse, bag 
noAHjiTb to lift up 
HaciiTHTBCfl to satiate oneself 
HaxoAi^TBCA to be found 

nycTiisA desert 
ocTaB^TBCA to remain 
AocT^^b to arrive 
npo'&3x&K)]iii& traveller 
Bep6jis)]s,T» camel 
K6xaHH3 leathern 
cjidBa glory 
omynaTb to feel 
pasBJisdTB to open 
atCMHyrB pearl. 




Russian adverbs are, like those of other languages, 
divided into different classes according to their mea- 
ning; there are: 

1. Adverbs of quality or manner, as: 

TaKi so, thus 
xopoiii6 well 
x^AO ill, badly 
CKopo quick, rapidly 
Hanp&CHo in yain 
HH^^e otherwise 

Hap69Ho intentionally 
Hayr&jC'B at random 
3aoAH6 by agreement, jointly 
no-CBOOMy in one's own way 
nimRdH'B on foot 
Bepx6Mi on horseback. 

2. Adverbs of time, as: 

cer6AHx to-day 

B^epi yesterday 

Tp^TBflro AHfl the day before 

34BTpa to-morrow 

n6cjii s&BTpa the day after to- 

p4ho early, soon 

mini, Ten^pB at present, now 
n63AH0 late 

jTpoM-B in the morning 
B^^epoHi in the evening 
TOTiici, ceSH&CB directly 
np6jK«e before, formerly 
n6cji4 afterwards. 

SA^CB here 
TaifB there 
HHrA^ nowhere 
Bea^i everywhere 
CK)A& hither 
TyA& thither 

Adverbs of place, as: 

AOMa at home 
Aom6£[ home 
H3BH^ from without 
0T0Bci)jy from all sides 
OTci);(a from here, hence 
oTTf fijBL from there, thence. 

Russian Conv.-Grammar, 

98 Lesson 23. 

Certain adverbs of place goyern the genitive case when they 
are used as separable prepositions. Such are : 6jih3i near, at, 863^*^ 
beside, n6Aji^ along, 6kojio about, np6THB'b opposite, mj^mo by, near^ 
cpex^ in the midst, Bnepe;^ in front, nosa^^ behind, etc. 

4. Adverbs of qnantity, as: 

v&jLo little T^Rse also 

MH6ro much t6jibko only 

H^CKOJiBKo some noHT^ nearly, almost 

Aob6jbuo enough bccbh^, 6^eHB very much 

cjii&niKOMi too, too much ^pesH^dSno excessively 

Bdsce entirely hto-to somewhat. 

5. Adverbs of affirmation, interrogation etc., as: 

Aa yes hhcrojibko not at all 

H'bT'B no 6ez'b coMHinifl undoubtedly 

Bi cdMOMi A^i'b indeed koia^? when? 

KOH^^Ho of course aor6ji'6? how long? 

npfi^B^a in truth Tjt,% Kj^k? where? 

MoaeT'b 6htb perhaps OT&jjtfi^'f whence? 

There are also a great many more adverbs which can easily 
be learnt by practice and reading. 

It will have been seen that adverbs are for the 
most part nouns in the instrumental, and adjectives in 
the apocopated termination of the neuter singular. 

Such adverbs in o which are derived from adjec- 
tives, have degrees of comparison: 
B^cejio joyously aecejiie more joyously Bcer6 Beceji^e most joyously 
xopomd well Jiy^ine better Jiy^nie Bcer6 best. 

Some adverbs, too, which denote quantity, place, 
and time, have likewise degrees of comparison, such as : 

HH6ro much 66ji'&e more 66ji'6e Bcer6 most 

<5ji^3ko near <5jHxe nearer Bcer6 6skx,e nearest 

p^HO early p^eie, p&HBme earlier Bcer6 T^knie earliest 

AajieR6 far A^^e, xajiBme farther xliBme Bcer6 farthest 

M^o little M^uie, n^HBine less M^HBme Bcer6 least. 

To the adverbs of manner belong also certain 
locutions formed by means of the preposition no, as: 
no p^ccRH in Russian no ^ejiOBi^BH like a man 

no APJ^secRH as a friend no 3BipnH0My like a beast. 


Bii<niCTHTB to clean a yixaii I started 

8jieRTpiHeciufi electric seiisHaA xop6ra railway 

npoHsomjid (it) took place Bapm&Ba Warsaw 

npHUD^^nie event Tejierp44)'B telegraph 

T6jicTHfi big, fat CTp&mHH^ terrible 

Mom±Th<M cnaTb to go to bed o6HRHOB^irie habit, custom 

Adverbs. 99 

MHorojiH)ACTBO populousness ABtcTlk to blossom 

KhtM China BCTyn^TB to mount 

CTOJiiTie century ynoxpe^jiaTB to employ 

<5jiaiK^HHHS blessed nomejii (he) went 

KpecTLjiHHH'b peasant cnpoc^xb to ask for 

o?R]& spectacles B^rjuiHyB'b having looked 

6nTHR'b optician H^sHsff necessary 
^To6'b owb Mori in order that 4>Pyi^^<^BKfi ^I'uit . . . 

he might nlvaTb memory 

sa^iMi why, wherefore npAsHaKi mark, sign. 
niuayTb (they) write 


SnaMeHfiTUH ^panKJDiH'B nwbji'b o6HKH06^Hie roBopiSiTL, 


CoraTHMt, SAopoBHM'B H yMHHMt. H hottA BOBce He b6- 
AtJit r6po;i;a H.; KO^j^a a Ty;iia npiixajit, 6HJia HO^rt», a 
yixajit a pano yTpoM'B. UocjA ate a HHKor;iia TSiWb ne dHJit. 
HHrAi Hirb TaKoro MHorojribjiiCTBa, KaKt Bt KHTai. Mhofo 
roBopfiTB H Majio ;i;yMaTB ecxB npfisHaKt jierKOMiicjiia (light- 
mindedness). IIoqeMy ne Biiy^HJiH bh CBoero ypoKa? Y 
Bact AJiA 3Toro fiujo ;i;ob6jilho BpeMenn. — EpomafiTe 
(Good bye)! 

MHorie jik)ah nnniyT^ jvfuaie ^tM^ roBopaTt, a Apy- 
rfe jiymae roBopaT^ ijkiiL% nfonyro. Xopomo jih i^Btjrfi 
(j)pyKT6BHa ;i;ep6BBa? Jl^a, ohh i^b^jiA Jiyraie ^tM-B b^ 
npomjoiirB (past) ro;i^. KaK-B tboS 6paT'B roBopfiT'B Te- 
n^pB no aHoificKH? Ten^pB off& roBopfiirB h^ckojibko 
Jifmne, "rbwb toa'b tom^ nasaA'B. SaniMt bh TaKi rpoMKO 
roBopflTe, ;i.4th? ToBopHTe Tfime! Ectb jm KT0-HH6y;i;B 
WMa? Jl^a, nocTyq^Te ,t6jibko jieroHBKO (softly) b-b ;i,BepB. 
Btoti MajTBHHK'B Tpy;i.HO say^HBaeiTB HanaycTB, noTOMy hto 
y Hero Aypnaa naMaxB. 


Your servant cleaned my boots early in the morn- 
ing thinking (;i;yMaa) that I might start for (a OTnpa- 
BJiaiocB Bi ace) Warsaw. Formerly they knew neither 
railways nor electric telegraphs ; the latter were inven- 
ted only towards the first quarter of our century; the in- 
vention of the former took place at about (b'b to ate) 
the same time. The Winter Palace (36MHift ^Bop^i^i)) 
is extraordinarily large. You speak too rapidly for me. 
I am sorry you related to her such terrible evew-t«s.. XSx^ 


Lesson 23. 

you ever see such a man? Indeed, he is very fat I 
Dress yourself sooner, my children; it is very late I 
A peasant, having seen (saMixHB'b) that old men 
employ spectacles in order to read, went to an optician 
and asked him for some (cnpocfijnb y Hero Hxt). — The 
optician gave him the spectacles and a book, in order 
that he might read. The peasant having only looked 
into the book, said that the spectacles were not good. 
— The optician gave him others, but the peasant found 
them all no good (instr,). Then the optician said: 
"But, my friend, can (yMicTe) you read?" — "Helasl" 
cried the peasant, "if I could read, wherefore should I 
require your spectacles (na ^o 6u mh^ 6wik Hy»HH 

BafflH O^Kfi)?" 


IIoqeMy Bh Bcer^a TaK'b 
n63;i;HO BCTaeTe? 

KaK'b jsfiAvo n;apcTBOBaji'B 
(reigned) HMnepaTop'b Hh- 

KOJllfi I.? 

Korflid OHt BCTyn6jit na npe- 


A iiOTjs,k owb yMep'b? 

Ont AOJiro no STOMy, sna- 
msTb mapcTBOBajTb ? 

yMHmjieHHO jm Bh pa36HjrH 

(did you break) CTeKJio 

Bt TOMt okh4? 
He xoT^Te jih (Let us go) 

Ten^pB nodrd e'b Bameny 

Ckojubko past bh ^htsuih Eb- 

r^ma OnirHHa IlyinKHHa? 

Cer6;i;Ha k BCTajiPb n63;i;HO, 

noTOMy ^TO a. ho^bh) hb 

MOFB cnaTfc. 
Bjiam^HHod naM^Ts Hnne- 

paTopt HHKOJiafi I. ii;ap- 

CTBOBait TpfiOTaTB jrferb. 
Owh BCTynfiji-B Ha npecTOjrb 

Bt j^eKa6p'fe Micfflo;* 1825 

Oh-b yMept Bt (j)eBpajTi 1856 


Jl^a, HHKTO HS-B CFO npC^- 

m6cTBeHHHK0B'B (prede- 
cessors), nanHHaa (be- 
ginning) ct IleTpa Beji6- 
Karo, TaKb ;i;6jiro ne ii;ap- 



!^T0 6hj[o 6h HanpasHO, oh'b 
B^^epoM'b HHKor;i.a ne 6h- 
BaeTi AOMa. 

Past 6JH ABa, HO Moi cecTp4 
npoHjia er6 6 pas's. 

Impersonal verbs. 101 


Hsotip'bTeBie cxeBJii. — The invention of glass. 

Ctckjo 6hjio HSodpfoeHO npn CJIi;^yroI^HX•Bo6cToaTeJrL- 
CTBaxt: $HHHKificKie kjei^h, ToproBaBinie cpfiTpoH), npn- 
CTaBniH o;i;Ha»;i;H m, ciBepnoMy 66pery A^phkh h, ne 
HaI^6j^•B KaMH^fi, na KOTopHxt 6u oh6 mooh nocTaBHTB 


TpH. Ha MicTi, ^j^'fe oh6 pasBCJifi oroHB, HaxoAfiJica M^jiKifi 
necoK'B. CAjioh) orHi pacnjiaBHjiacB cejifiTpa h, CKrhmdB- 
nmcB CB necKOifB, o6pa30Bajia CTeKJio. — Hck^cctbo o6pa- 
66THBaTB CTeimo, npeHMymecTBenHO b^b AnrjiiH, ;i.0B6ji;eH0 
HHHt ;i;o BHCOKoft CT^neHH coBepm^HCTBa. 

4)HHHRlicKi& Phoenician xoproedTB to deal, to trade 

ceji^xpa saltpetre npHcxaB^xB to land 

Ham^A'b having found nocxdenxb to place 

roxSjii kettle yxBep^xt to fix 

rjiii6a clod, block passejiA (they) lighted 

M^jiKift fine paciudBHXBCii to melt 

HCByccxBO art cMtin&XBCA to mix 

npeHM^]ii,ecxBeHHo especially o6pa30B4xB to make 

JOB6;^eHo carried, brought o6pa66xHBaxB to work 

cx^neHB degree coBepm^ecxBO perfection. 



Besides the impersonal verbs denoting meteoro- 
logical facts, and those common to other languages, 
such as : j[,ossiji,h TijijeTb it rains, CHirt na^^aex-B it snows, 
MoposHTTB it freezes, TaeT^ it thaws, KaateTca it appears, 
cjiyqaeTca it happens a. s. o., there are in Russian a 
great number of impersonal expressions of very 
frequent occurrence which are formed by apocopated 
neuter adjectives. 

By far the most important of them are nyHHO and 
jiiOjatHO to he necessary, mmt, 6b[tb signifying both 
to he ohliged; and as they require a peculiar con- 
struction of the sentence, their apparent conjugation 
is here exhibited in full. 


l^ESSON 24. 

0H% fl,6jlX.QWb 

oh4 ;^0JiacHa 
oh6 flfiJiXMd 

MBI fifiJ[X.HA 
Bbl ;^0JI3KHI^ 
0H6^ OWk flfiJlSRE^ 

n flfijix.GE'b 6ujrb 

OWb flfijlX.GWb 6hlJUb 

oh6 xojixh6 6Etio 

MH XOJISBli 6e^h 

oeA, OHi ;(0JisHi& 6iLiH 



I must, it is necessary 

I am obliged, 
thou must, it is etc., thou art etc. 
he must, it is etc. 
she must, it is etc. 
it must, it is etc. 
we must, it is etc. 
you must, it is etc. 
they must, it is etc. 


I was obliged to. 
thou wast obliged to. 
he was obliged to. 
she was obliged to. 
it was obliged to. 
we were obliged, 
you were obliged, 
they were obliged. 


n flfijin&eE'b, -»H§., -6 6tfly 

TH ;^6jlxeH•b, -and, -6 6fAemh 

OHT, ;^6jiaeHT» df^erb 

OH^ pfijiXEk 6YAeTh 

oh6 flfijissMd 6ifl,eTb 

Mbi AOJiacH^ C^A^u-b 

BM ;^0JIaH6 6y;^eTe 

oeA, OHt ;i;oji3KHii dyAyn. 

I shall be obliged, 
thou wilt be obliged, 
he will be obliged, 
she will be obliged, 
it will be obliged, 
we shall be obliged, 
you will be obliged, 
they will be obliged. 


MH* Hyacen-B, -»h§., -o 
Tedi HyaceHT,, -acn^, -o 
euf Hyacern,, -3Kh§., -o 
eg HyacGHT,, an^, -o 
EaMii HyaceHi>, -acH^, -o 
Bain, HyacGHT,, -acnd, -o 

HMT, HtaceHT>, 'MEk, -0 

I want, I require (him, her, it) 

thou wantest, etc. 

he, it wants, etc. 

she wants, etc. 

we want, etc. 

you want, etc. 

they want, etc. 


MH* HyaCGHT,, -3Kh4, -0 

-&, -6 


I wanted (him, her, it). 

MH* HyacGHt, -SREk, -0 6yj^en» I shall want (him, her, it). 

Next in importance are MomHO it is possible, nejiLsa 
it is impossible which are construed as ;i;6jrateH'B. Those 
which follow the model of H^atHO are more numerous. 
We quote Ha;i;o, Ha;i,o6HO it is necessary, yro^o it 
is agreeable, it is comfortable, msuih it is a pity. 

Impersonal verbs. 103 

Many verbs have, besides their usual conjugation, 
also an impersonal form such as: 

MHt x6qeTca I have a mind. 

MHt y^aeTca I succeed. 

Mirfe cn^Tca I want to sleep. 

MHt CH^TCA I dream. 

viE^ ApeMJieTCfl I am falling asleep. 

The number of impersonal forms, especially in 
the spoken lang:uage, is so great, and their turns are 
so varied, that no fixed rules can be established. The 
reading of popular authors and the study of proverbs 
can alone enable the student to master this difficult 


Otahx^tl to rest t^hb shade, shadow 

noKas^TBca to show oneself nyTenreciBOBaTB to travel 

HncJi6 numher npe^Jiosi^TB to offer 

nosBOJi^Hie permission pascTOflHie distance 

n6rpe6L cellar npocAiB to heg, to pray 

^oJ^oa;^liTe wait (you)! 6iraTB to run 

y^dqa luck, success mph play, gamble 

npom^Hie petition HSjar^TB to explain 

Hec^&CTBe misfortune n6Moii;B assistance, help 

Tap^jisa plate Kap^xa carriage 

Rpyr6M'B round, around CT^Bsa stake 

y^HHo successfully, luckily ceR3^HAa a second 

iiojiosiTB to place hochj^tb to send 

npH6isHi^e refuge ji6js,ts.b. boat. 


BsLWb HyjKHO bhAth, a MH-fe Toate xoneTca BufiTH. IIo- 
jiom^me tojibko o;i^^ MHHyTyl Btot'b rocno^i.HH'B ;i;6jiaKeH'B 
6huub MHoro iiyTeni6cTB0BaTB: owh 6ujrb b% TepManiH h 
HTajiiH; xen^pB eM^ nyatHO B03BpaTfiTBca b'b Bepjifimb. 
H^pes'B H^cKOjiBKO j^Hefi offib j^ojifflteH-B 6y;i;erB onaTB OTnpa- 
BHTca B'B MocKB^ H HfiaKHiS-HoBropo;!.!). Mh nyTemecTBO- 
BajiH no ateji43Hoft j^op6^t. Mh ;i.ojr»HH 6wni npoBecTfi 
;i;eHB BH-fe ^OMa, xota nor6;«;a 6HJia ne o^chb xopoina. JI ch- 
;i;'k!i'B M^at^iy mo6m'b 6paT0M'B h Mo6fi cecTpoio. Ha ;i;Bop4 
Hrpajo MHoatecTBO y^enHKOBt h moh MajreHBKifi fipaxTb 
6'hTSun> M^3K;i.y ;i;pyrfiMH A^Thmk, 

BjEHSi IIIa(j)ray3eHa naxoAHTca HSBicxHHfi P^fincKifi 
Boji;ona;i,'B. Y^^me cjrfmm:i> HejiOBtey b% c^acTin yKpa- 
m^HieMX, a B'B necHacTiH npH64asHin;eM'B. YpajiBCKia ropH 
OTj^ijaroT-B Efipon^ficKyio Pocciro orb CnfifipH. Cj^ijiajiH 

104 Lesson 24. 

JH Bh ycnixH b-b pyccKOMt asHKi? JI,a, a Hsy^ajit era 
dest y^Teja ct noMoroibH) rpaMMaTHKH h cjiOBapa. Ilocjii 
AOseiji,A xopomaa nor6;i,a, roBop6rb (j)paHii;y3CKaa nocjiOBHi^a. 
KaKi* BH npiixajiH: wb Kap^Ti 6jih Ha Jio^t? Mh npii- 

XaJIH Ha JLO^ptt H MOfl TCTKa OCTdBHJia Bt JIOOT'fe CBOH) majL. 


We were obliged to rest in the shade tinder the 
oak. The enemy showed itself from behind the moun- 
tain. In many countries one can travel (nyTemecTBy- 
¥)Tb) on railways from one town to another, across rivers 
and mountains. I want a certain number of beautiful 
birds. At this moment he asks me (y Mena) for a book 
in order to offer [it] to you. The boys must not go out 
(bhiilih) without my permission. From the river up to 
the house [there are] five versts. At some distance 
from the shore [there] is a ship. The cellar must be 
situated (naxoOTTcfl) under the house. 

General Schott so celebrated for his success (instr.) 
in gambling, was playing one evening very high {transL 
into great gamble) with the count of Artois and the 
Duke of Chartres, when they brought up (npHHecjifi) 
a petition from the widow of a French officer in which 
she explained her various misfortunes and begged [for] 
assistance. A plate was handed (ofiHecena) round, and 
each put into it one, two or three louis d*or; but when 
it was held (npHHecena) to the general, who was playing 
for a stake of five hundred louis d'or, he said: "wait, 
please, [for] a second, here goes (sto 6y;i,e'ra») for the 
widow". He played successfully, and immediately 
placing the whole into the plate, sent it to her. 


Ha CKOjcbKO BpeneHH Bh M- ^ AaJit Hxt BaM^ tojtbko 
jm MHt 6th KHfirH? Ha Tpn ne^iJiH. 

J^jLSL Koro TH 3T0 CA'fejiaji'b, H c^'kiaji'B 3T0 A^^ Moero 

Moe ;i;HTfl? ^ jiH)6feHaro OTiiia. 

Bo CKOJCbKO BpeMCHH Hpois- 9to npocTpancTBO npois- 
T&kfQVh npocTpancTBO ot'b ataiOT'B Ten6pB Bt ceM- 
EeTepCypra j^o Mockbh? nawaTB nacoBt. 

r;i.t BH BCTpiTHJiH CBOcro Si BCTp^THJii ero y ;i;Bep^fi 
npiaTeja? K0(|)6fiHH (coffee-room). 

Impersonal verbs. 


OTKy^a BH[6'63Kaj[a co6aKa? 

KaKt Bh nonajiH (did you 
come) HBi ropo^a na 3Ty 
CTopoHy ptK6? 

Ha KaKofi piKi jeacfiTt 

Ta* MOft CJIOBapB? 

YBHSKy (Shall I see) jih a 
BacB eme )if> Bamero ot^- 
t3;«;a (departure)? 

3a^iMi Bh ;i.ij[aeTe 3Ty 

Ona BH6t3Kaj[a HSt-noAt 

KycTa (bush). 
fl nepeixajii ^pe3t ptKy 

J^pesAeH^ jieacHTt na ptKi 

Ohx y Bact wh KapMani. 
HaBtpHo He Mory BaMt odt- 
maTB 3Toro. 

Y^AnejLh Mofi sd^ajTb mh* 
ee Bt HaKasanie sa to, 
^To a cer6;i;Ha ho Biiy^Hjrb 
CBoero ypoKa. 

MoJiHTBa* — The prayer. 

Bt MHHyTy 3K63HH TpyAHJHK). 

TicHfiTCfl-jib Bi cep;i;B[i rpycTL, 
Oji,Ef MOJifiTBy ^yAHyjBO 
TBepaty a HaaaycTB. 

EcTB cfijia fijiaroMTHaa 


H jiiHineTB HenoHflTHaa 
CBHTdji npdiecTB btb HHXt. 

CTb ;iiyin6, KaK-B 6p6Ma, cKaTHTca 

CoMHiHbe AaJieKo, 

H B^pHTca, H HJiaHeTca, 

H TaK-B jierKO, JierKo! MpMOHmoe%. 

T'ibcH^TBCA to press close 
^jjmsxL miraculous 
6jiaroA&THHfi blessed 
sHsdfi living 
rpycTb ^/my) sorrow 
TBcpA^Tb to learn, to recite 
cosBy^be harmony 
HeaoHATHafl incomprehensible 

CBaT6ft holy 

CKaxAxbca to fly away 

Aaj[eR6 far, away 

ujidKaTbCJi to complain to ery 

np^JiecTb (fern.) charm 

coHH^nie doubt 

BipHTbCA to trust, to believe 

;iyina soul. 

106 Lesson 25. 



The conjunctions most frequently used in Russian 
are the following: 

a and, but hh . . . hh neither . . . nor 

6ywo, 6y;i;To 6u as if ho but 

Aa and, but oah&ko but, however 

Aa6t^ in order that noceirf therefore, accordingly 

^xejra, ^ciH if hotom^ ^to because 

se (x.'b) then, also nycKd& or nycTb let 

H and, also crojib hh whatever 

ia5o because, for to then 

^JH (hjib) or Tor6 p4;tH therefore 

H TaRi no dTOMy therefore xota (xotb) although 

KaKi as, when xota 6ti even though 

KaK'b-TO for instance hto that 

KOFA^ when, whenever ht66h (HTo6'b) in order that 

JTH (jib) if, whether (interrog.) h^m-b than (compar.) 

jih6o either, or Hiirb . . . tAm-b the more ... the 

jiHniB t6jibro just, as soon as more 

He t6jibko ... HO H not only ... n . . . h both . . . and 

but also TO ... TO sometimes . . . some- 
H^iRejE than times. 

For and, the most important of all conjunctions, 
there are three words in Russian: u, a and da. 

H indicates a simple copulation, whereas a and 
especially da join to it the idea of contrast or oppo- 
sition, as may be seen by the following examples: 

Bparb H cecTp4 diijiH ;^6Ma. The brother and sister were at 

Bparb yfexajFb, a cecrpd ocTdjiacB The brother started and the 

A^Ma. sister remained at home. 

Offb Bcer^^. deperB, ^a HHKor;^a He always takes and never gives. 

He OT^^aeTB. 

Besides this, when used adverbially da, signifies yes. 

To express or there are fijiH and jih6o, but the 
former is by far more frequently employed. 

The interrogative particle jih must always be pla- 
ced behind the word to which the interrogation refers : 
BordTT* JH OHT>? Is he rich? 

OffB JIH 6or4rB? Is it he who is rich? 

With HH . . . HH the sentence must assume* a ne- 
gative turn: 
He mbi he OHi* He 6liji6 laMi.. Neither we nor he were there. 

Conjunctions and interjections. 


Su may sometime occur in positive sentences to 
denote that no exception is admitted: 

Ky^S. HH nocM6TpHmb, Bea;^* Wherever you look, you see life. 


^TO 6h hh cjiyq^jiocB, si BaMi, Whatever may happen, I shall 

HanHiny. write you. 

EaKT. 6m to h6 6mjio. However it might be. 

The principal interjections are: 
BOTb! BOHt! see there, lookl 
ypa! ra! express joy 
axi*! ox'b! jBHt axTfil express pain 
aft! yx'bt oft! express fear 
TL^yl expresses aversion 
y^Tb! expresses fatigue 
ct'b! tcb! to impose sUenee 
.3ft I reft! to express wonder 
Hy! Hyate! come on! 
:Bal there you havel 
maiJLhl what a pity I 
npo^Bl away! 


IIoc4tAtii to visit, to see 
HanHCdTB to write 
xdHCT'B (he) wishes, desires 
npHHHMdTjb to accept 
6jiarop6AHHg noble, of noble birth 
y;^6paHBaTI. to refrain, to restrain 
nisufi whole, entire 
6e3noK6&CTBie anxiety 
orop^^nie sorrow 
3a6BiTHM forgotten 
HSBicT^TB to inform 
cepA^THH angry 
a MiicjiK) I think 

A Mor'b I could 
CRyn6ii avaricious 
xoT±Te you wish, desire 
iipeAJiox^Hie proposal 
r6pA0CTB pride 
hb4hctbo vanity 
HSfiicTie news, information 
y6i»AeHt persuaded 
bo3m6xho jih? it is possible? 
c^TKH twenty-four hours 
yBipflTB to assure 
nepeM^HiTB to change 
n^a^HTB to spare. 


Bjiarop6;i;Haa rop^ocTB nacTO yKpamaeTTb ^ejiOBiKa h 
HacTO yA^pa&HBaeT'B ero ovh MHornxt nopoKOBt, ho ^Ban- 
CTBO He TOJiBKO CMimHO, HO H Hep4;i;K0 Bpe;«;ft'irb naM^ na 
HameMi seMHOMi nonpHni;*, fi6o oho ocjrkujiAeTb (it dazzles) 
Hacx TaKTE., HTO MM Hc bh;i;hmi> cBofixt HopoKOBt H ji;yp- 

108 Lesson 25. 

HKLxt npHEHHeKt. FopAOCTB MoaceiTb vh HHiix'B cjy^aax'L 
6htb Ao6jf0jijy£ejihjo, tota& KaKt ^BancTBO Bcer;i;a nopoKTb. 
ficjiH CKynoft OTKasHBaers cedi B'b noji63HOMi h nyaKHOMt, 
qTO eMv ;i,ocT3^nHO (accessible) no ero cocToaHiio, to ero 
CKynocTfc A^JiaeTca rjrynocTBH). 

. A MucjiH), H cJitjiiOBaTejibHO a cymecTByio. Cmcptb He 
miaAHT^ HH 6oraTaro, hh fii^naro. Hsfitrafi npa3;i,H0CTH, 
fi6o OHa (ecTB) hctohhhk'b mhofhx'b nopoKOB'B. Ybki, ckojb 
HenocTOflHHo c^acTie ^ejiOBi^ecKoe! ^acTO nejiOBiKy He 
cjiiAyeTTb BipHTB (must not trust) j^ame cboAm'b coficTBeH- 
HMMi) rjiasaMTb. Oh'b to BCJiHKOAynieH'B, to CKynt. Bh 
Bce atajiyeTecB (You incessantly complain), Tor^a KaK-B. 
MHorie 6ujm 6u BecBMa ctoctjihbh, 6cjih 6h hm^jih bocb- 
Myio ^acTB Bamero cocToriHia. 


Although he was in town, he did not visit us. I 
could not write the exercise, because I had no dictionary. 
He is rich, but he is very avaricious. [Either] thou or 
he must (;i,6ji^eH'B) remain at home to-day. They speak 
sometimes in the (na prep,) Russian, sometimes in the 
English, but never in the German language (plural in^ 
Euss.), Let him do what he desires; this is not my 
affair. What does this boy desire? He desires some- 
times one [thing], sometimes another. If you have not 
them, then I shall give them to you (a BaM-B ^aM'B). Do 
you desire [them]? I thank you; [it is] with pleasure 
[that] I accept your proposal. 

My dear sister, — Three whole weeks have passed 
(Epomjio y»6 i^'tjHX'B Tpn hca^jih), since (KaK-B) I received 
any news from you, and all this time I have awaited 
a letter [of yours] with great anxiety. You must no 
(des'B) doubt be persuaded (y6i3K;i.eHa) that your silence 
gives me great sorrow. Is it possible that I [may] so 
soon [be] forgotten? Can you not find some minutes 
to inform me of your health? I assure you that I am 
very angry. If you wish me to change my (Tro6'B a 
nepeMtH6j['B) opinion of you (o Bact) send me your news 
(HSB-fecTfiTe ce6i) in order that I may remain your 
affectionate brother N. N. 

Conjunctions and interjections. 



Bfci cerojpia He saBTpaKaiH, 
pkdwk Bu He rojojiiHii? 

He xoTBLxe jih Bh bhhhtb 
CTaKant xojioAHaro n6Ba? 

OT^ero TaK'B xojioaho bt> 

; Bamefi KOMnarfe? 

Bh HHHero ne cjHxajiH 06^ 


^ojLTO JIH MH-fe eni;e m^aTB 
Bamero 6paTa? 

BHj^'feJIH jm Bh ceronna ko- 
pojii H Haniy Aofipyio, ;i;o- 
6po;i;iTejiBHyH) Kopoji^By? 

H npaB^a ne 3dBTpaEaj!rB, 
HO K TaKTb ycTajFB (tired) 
OT-B CBoero nyrem^cTBia, 
HTO BOBce He ^^BCTByro 

Bjiaro^apH) BacB, a 6oh)cb 
(I fear) npocTy;i;6TBCfl (to 
catch cold), ^cjih a b^ihbk) 
xOji6;i;Haro nfoa. 

a He BejAji'h TonfiTB ee. 

H a n&KSRe HH^ero o6t> 


K 6llJL'b B'B caMoft KdMHaii. 
HtTi, BaM'B ero 66jrfee »^aTB 
He Hya^HO, H euf cBa^y, 
TTO Bh ;i.6jiro 6hjih 3j^tcB, 
H m,j[j8ij[ii ero. 

H He B^A^Jn^ HH KOpOM, HH 

Kopoji^BH, KorM « npH- 
mejPB, 6hjio yace noawo. 

CBBOp^il.'b. — The Starling. 

y ca^oBHHKa M6pHii;a 6ujrh CKBop6ii;'B, KOTopnfi yM^ji'B 
roBopfiTB HiKOTopHa cjiob4. Ecjih, HanpHMtpi, KTO-JI660 
3BBJVb: «CKB6pyniKa, r^t th?» to CKBop6ii;'B OTB^^&jvb mim,- 
j^ifi pas'B: «a sa^cb!* 

&Ta HTH^oca o^eHB 3a6aBjiijia MajieHBKaro IlaBjia, CHHa 

COCb^a, H OH'B 7&CT0 HpHXe^^JTB K^B CaAOBHHEy. Oa^^A^ 

HaBCJi'B npHmeJi'B KTb Mopmiy, Kor;i;a nocjiiAHaro h6 6hjio 
AOMa. MajiB^HETb cxBaTfiji'B HTfiHKy, cnpixaji'B ee B'B Kap- 

Uiwh H TOJIBKO HTO XOT'hjUb yfirfi ^OMOft, KaK'B CaAOBHHK'B 

Bonreji-B kb KOMnaxy. 

M6pHii;'B xoTiji-B no3a6aBHTB ndjiBHHKa, Koxoparo OffB 
BOo6nii6 jh)66ji'b, h BCKpn^ajcB: «CKB6pyniKa, pa* th?» B'B xy 
me MKH^xy HxfiHKa oxfiixHJia bx» KapMant UaBJia : «a ba'^cb ! » 

MajieHBKifi Bop'B AOJiaten'B 6ujL'h B03Bpax6xB nxfi^Ky, 
H ji;6jroe sp^Ma nocjii xoro ne moi-b ox'b exH^a noKa- 
saxBCH Ha rjia3a caAOBHHBy. 

no Lesson 26. 

yH^Tb to be able, to know how nanpHMipi for instance 

SBaTB to call CKB6pyniEa little starling 

3a6aBJ!^Tb to amuse nx^^Ka little bird 

cxBax^Tb to take cnp^TaxB to hide 

yfixA to go no3a64BHXb to please, to amuse 

CTUKh shame rjaai eye. 




A feature peculiar to the Slavonic languages is the 
subdivision of verbs into various aspects. These aspects 
are different forms of one and the same verb with regard 
to the time required for the performance of an action. 

The Russian verb has three principal aspects viz, 
three different conjugations, which fact amply atones 
for the apparent poverty of moods and tenses it exhibits 
at first sight. 

These three aspects are called: imperfeetive, per- 
fective and semelfactive. 

The imperfective aspect generally ends in tb 
preceded by any of the vowels a, e, h, o, y, h, t, a. It 
denotes that the action is going on, that it has not 
altogether ceased, or that it not going to finish: CTjHdTB 
to knock, OH'B cxy^ajit he was knocking {Fr, il frappait, 
Lat. percutiebatj.i 

The perfective aspect shows that the action has 
been quite completed, or that it will definitely cease. 
The termination of this aspect is likewise tl preceded 
by one of the above vowels ; but it is easily recognized 
either by a prepositional prefix or a quite different (ir- 
regular) form: nocTyHdTB to knock; owh nocTyqajit he 
knocked {Fr. il frappa, Lat. percussit); owb nocTy^T^ 
he will have knocked. ^ 

^ The imperfective aspect of a few verbs admits of a double 
form, such as xo^Axb, hxiA to go, hocAxb, necxn to bring, Jiex4xfc, 
jex^xB to fly, nidsaxB, njnixB to swim. The first form, called in- 
definite, denotes the faculty or habit of performing an action: 
IlTAi^i jiexiroii, a pnCii uAkB&nrb. The definite form of the imper- 
fective aspect denotes that the action, ' though vague, takes place 
at some particular time: IIo H^6y nojyHoin dHrejrB Jiex^i. Mh'6 
nysHo Hxxi. 

2 Verbs of perfective aspect have no form for the present. 
Their apparent present form corresponds to the 2nd future of Eng- 
lish verbs. 

Aspects op tho verb. Ill 

The semelfactive aspect which shows that the 
action has taken place, or will take place, once and 
rapidly, ends in nyTB: CTjKHyTBto knock, oh'b CTyKHyjii* 
he knocked (for that only time, and then no more), owh 
CTyKHeTB he will soon knock, he is going to knock. ^ 

It must be observed that only a few verbs have 
all three aspects. In this respect they are nearly all 
defective. Nor does the distinction of the aspects em- 
brace the whole conjugation: the past tense alone 
exhibits all the three aspects, but the future has no 
iterative aspect, whereas in the present the distinction 
of aspects is possible only for verbs of the imperfective 
aspects. (See footnote 1 page 110.)* 

The wanting aspects are however easily expressed 
by having recourse to a circumlocution, as in English, 
whenever a necessity arises. Let us take for instance 
the verb ^HTaTL: 

Oht* t6j[lko paax HHTdji. He read only once. 

OffB ^acTO 6yAeTi ^ht^tb. He will often read.' 

Thus are expressed the ideas conveyed by the past 
tense of the semelfactive aspect and the future of the 
iterative aspect of HHTaTB, which are both wanting. 

A thourough knowledge of the preceding rules may be of 
great use to learners, but the proper use of aspects can only be 
learnt by practice. 


Typn;iii Turkey HanHcAxB to write 

cBHBHHa pork Haiep^si continent 

HssdpHTB to roast 6E6jiioT^KapB librarian 

3RapR6e roast meat Bonp6c% question 

^pnapsa fair, annual market AOCxdxo^HHfi sufficient 

^ The so called iterative aspect, denoting that the action has 
taken place several times, ends in EBaxB and HBaxB: cx^KHsaxB to 
knock; ohi cx^KHBajii he used to knock, he often knocked. Yet 
not all verbs ending thus are of the iterative aspect; their number 
is very small. 

2 Many imperfective verbs have also a fifth aspect called in* 
choative, denoting that the action has merely begun; sacxyqaxB to 
begin to knock, sanixB to begin to sing, sanrp&TB to begin to play: 
KorA4 BH sacxy^djiH? when did you begin to knock? (also Korx^ bh 
HanajH cxy^dxB?), a saniji I began to sing (also & Handj'B h^xb), 
OH'B sanrpderB be will begin to play this minute (also ohi HaHHSxi 
HipaxB cii) MEH^xy). It use presents no difficulties. 

" PaacqAxHBaxB, though derived from ^HxdxB, is a distinct verb 
signifying not to read repeatedly but to rely upon. 

112 Lesson 26. 

ImperfectiTe. Perfective. Semelfactiye. 
CTyndTB nocTyndTB CTyKHjTB 

to knock. to have knocked, to knock once. 

Present. | 

& CTy^y 
TH CTyqfanb 


OHH CTyqaTi». 



Past. 1 

a CTyq^JiTb 
TH CTyqajii» 
OffiB CTyiajn 
MH CTyHajffi 
BH cTyqi?iH 

OHfi CTyiaJIH. 

a HOCTyqajii 
TH nocTy^ajii 
OWh nocTy^aji'B 
MH nocTynajiH 
BH nocTy^ajiH 

OHfi HOCTyqajIH. 



a 6fjij CTy^aTB 
TH 6y;i;eHiL CTy^idTL 
OH'B dy^eTi cTy^aTB 
MH CfflfiWh cryndTB 
BH 6ffl<&re CTyiaTB 
OHfi 6YAyrh CTy^aTB. 

a nocTy^iy 
TH nocTyqfimB 


BH nocTy^fiTe 

OHfi HOCTy^arB. 

a CTyKHy 

OffiB CT^fKHerB 
OHfi CT^KHyT'B. 





Participle present. | 


1 wanting. 

wanting. \ 

Participle past. | 



CTyKHyBfflifi. 1 

Gerund present. | 



(CTyKHyff). 1 

Gerund past. | 


/ CTfwdBmH. 



Aspects of the verb. ' 113 

CBAD^^HHHK'b clergyman TUB^uia Sweden 

Bda^yxi air Hope^ria Norway 

oTJi^^HHfi excellent ^paHi^cKi Francis 

npnrjiac^TB to invite npHxedpsHft courtier 

TaiiTEHa veal en^csoni bishop 

jiK>6iiTb to love nosxpauiTB to congratnlate 

Bpa^i physician, doctor, surgeon npHxdxi parish 

fiap^TB to boil, cook, prepare miTdTBCfl to nourish oneself 

r6Aiiii& good, suitable pasroBdpnBaTB to talk 

B^nrpia Hungary CTaxBi article. 


Haii£ineTe-j[H Bu iihcbmo 6iTJomjA7 SI jx6 nann- 
cajTb dTO nHCBMo, Ten^pB & Hannni]^ iihcbmo CBoeMy 6pa- 
Ty, EOTopHfi BecBMa AABHO TBisBeTh B'B GaHRTneTep6ypri. 
6cTpoB'B jra niB^i^ia cb HopB^riero? Bi,Th, 66i 3th cTpaHH 
cocTaBjiflDT^ nojyocTpoBi H coe;i;HHeHu cb HaTepHROHi. 
loBopHjiH jiH Bu CB HMnep^TopoifB BcepocciitcRHifB (of all 
the Russias)? Wkrh, a Cfb hhitb ho roBopfiji'B, a ero 
HHEor;i;a ne Bfi^'^jr^B. Tji,i bu KyndjH cbo^ ^acu? A 
icynHJi'B HX'B b'b MocEB'Jb, Bor;i;a 6ujn> TaifB vb nepBuit 
pas'B. Hama EyxdpRa otj^^ho Bapi^Ti cyn'B. GRam^TO 
cjiyr4, ^Tofi'B owh mh* npHnecB CBHHfiey, a o^ohb vojLOjsfiWb. 

AerjinqaHHH'B, cb ROTopHMi Bani'B gpaTi pasroBdpH- 
BajTB, Bpaq'B RopojieBH. He cry^ajr* jin KT0'UK6fjs,h vb 
;i,BepL? Po;i;fiTejiH j[¥)6iiTh cboAx-b a^t^S. Kto nocTpoHjPB 
dTOVb ABop^ii;^? He naRasuBaitTe Ho6it cecTpu, cy;i;apHHA, 
noTepnHTe eme, ona fiy^ei^ npHJi^atna. OTiero th He 
OROHHHJ'B CBoero (|)paHiiiy3CRaro nepeB6;i;a? Mni naUo 66jio 
pafioTaTB Kh dHTJiificROMy ypoRy. Th 6ojiTaeinB cjifimROirB 
MHoro, MOfi Apyr^, 6yAB, HaROH^nj'B, cnoRoen'B! Ho^cm^ 
Bh He OTBt^doTe na moS BonpocB? H ne hohhji'b Bainero 
Bonpoca: Bh roBopfixe cjiAinEOM'B CRopo. A cero^Ha ne 
6y;i;y o64AaTB A^Ma, Mena npnr.iacHji'B na o64;ii'B ^ofipHft 



Where you already in Turkey? Does your father ^^ 
like pork? Go (Cxo^fiTe) please to the doctor and tell 
him that my sister is ill. Our cook understands better 
[how] to make soup than to roast the meat. Have our 
children already taken a walk? No, they have not yet 
taken a walk, they played in the yard with the son of 
our good neighbour. I bought [some] paper, but it is 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. '^ 


114 Lesson 26. 

not good; I must (a ;i;6jiateH'L) buy [some] better (geni- 
tive). Did these gMs weep? Did you already see the fair 
of Nizhny-Novgorod (HHaceropoACKyK) flpnapKy)? I often 
saw the fair of Frankfort. Will you not buy an estate 
in Hungary? No, I shall not buy (kjujiu)) an estate 
in Hungary, I have bought a house in Vienna(B'BBtHiV 
The celebrated Duval, librarian of the emperor 
Francis I. often answered: **I do not know" to the 
questions that were put to him (cb kotophmh E'b HeMjr 
o6pam,ajiHCb). "But, sir, they pay (to) you, to know", 
said a courtier to him once. "Yes, the emperor pays- 
me only for what (sa to, ^to) I know", answered the 
modest scholar, **if he wished to pay me for what I do 
not know, all the treasures (6oraTCTBa) of the monarchy 
would not be sufficient." — A very rich bishop con- 
gratulated a very poor clergyman on (ct instr,) the ex- 
cellent air of the place where his parish was situated 
(Haxo;i;6jica). "Yes", answered the clergyman, "the air 
would be excellent if one could nourish oneself with 
it (6cjiH 6u MoatHO 6hjio hitb nHxaTbca)." 


KaKoft xjvb6i> Bh npe;i;no^H- H npeAnoHHTaH) 6'bjiun 

Taexe ? xjiiSi. 

^lacTO JiH Bh fiuBajH e'b K 6ujrh xaM'b tojebko o;i;Hinb. 

JIoHAOHt? paax. 

KypHTC JTH Bh Ta6aK'L? npem;i;e a Kypnji'B o^ens. 

MHoro Ta6aKy, ho xen^pt. 

& 66j[ie He Kypro. 
Koro Bu BH;i;Hxe na ropt? A na rop4 HHKoro ne Bfiaty,. 

HO vb AOJiAfffe a Bfimy 

66ni;ecxB0 nyxem^cxBeHHH- 


Kxo atapHjTB 3xy xejraxHHy? Moft ndBap'B acapnji'B ee. 
PasB* oh4 He xopoma? Mnt Kaaexca, tto oh'b ee 

OTjrftqHO cadpHjit. 
Xopomyro jh pii6y lipoma- V nero HHor;i;a oxjifi^Han 
exi dTOTb Kyn^ni'b? pH6a, HHor^a ate o^enih 

OxKy^a nojryqaexi oh'b Oh* ee nojiy^aexi hs'b. 
pik6y? AcxpaxaHH. 

Formation op the present, past and future. 115 

CaMH jiH BH HaiiHcdjiH axy Hii^, a ee ne cant Hann- 
cxaTBH)? caax, ho cnHcii'L (copied) 

ee ct TOTpa^H ;i;66paro 
Moero npiflTejifl. 


IIponcxo»eA^Hie pyccKOfl A36yKH. — Origin of the 
Russian alphabet. 

^0 BTopofi nojiOBHHH ;i;eBHTaro Bina CjiaBiine iie 
miijm HHKaKOfi a36yKH. Kor;i;a KieBCKie xpncTirfHCKie 
KHflSBH o6paTfljiHCB E-L HMHepdiopy MnxaHjy cb npocL- 
6ofi, ^To6'B OHX viwb nocjiaji'L TOJiKOBaTejrH Cfiflini^HHaro 
IlHcaHia, TOTB OTnpaBHJi'B k-l hhm^ MOHaxa KHpnjiJia h 
6paTa ero MeeoAiH, KOTopne, ct noMomiH) rp^qecKoS, 
H3o6p'hj[H cjiaBHHCKyK) a36yKy, ynoTpe6jiHeMyH) ;i;o HBini bx 
ii;6pK0BHHX'L KHfirax'L no;!;^ nasBaHieM'B KHpfijiJiHii;H. — 
IIocp6;i;cTBOM'B 3Toro iracLMa oh6 nepeBejiA, cb rp6^ecKaro 
a3HKa Ha cjiaBAHCKiS, ^eTtipe EBanrejiia, Ahoctoji'b, IIcajB- 
THpB H eni;e Apyrifl KHAra. TaKfiM-B 66pa30M'B pacnpo- 
CTpanftjiacB KHpftjrjrHn;a M^ac^y cjiaBKHaMH; h tojibko npH 
IleTpi BejfiKOMT* 6Hjia BBe;i;eHa Ten^pemHaa: p^ccKaa 
a36yKa, KOTopaa OTjaqaeTCH otb KHpfljij[Hn;H eAfincTBeHHO 
66jihmeJ0 H3flni;H0CTBH) h npocroToro. 

o6paT^TBCfl to apply np6cb6a request 

nocji&Tb to send ToiKOB&TejiB interpreter 

oTnpdBHTB to send, to direct pacnpocTpaH^TBCA to spread 

CB n6Moii;ix) with the aid CBani^HHoe nnc^Hie Holy Scrip- 

RHpi&jiJiHi^a a Cyrillic (alphabet) ture 

oTJinq^TBCA to be distinguished npocTOT^ simplicity. 

H3^u^H0CTB elegance 



With regard to their inflection, Russian regular 
verbs have been provisionally divided into two conju- 
gations (10. lesson). But this division, which will no 
doubt have proved very useful from a practical point 
of view, must now be given up as unnecessary and 

116 Lesson 27. 

Besides what has already been said concerning 
regular verbs, there are many other rules and excep- 
tions. But to assist learners without embarrassing them, 
only those rules will be given here which are most im- 
portant and admit of the least number of exceptions. 
The rest may be easily learnt by practice and analogy. 

Formation of the present. 

Some verbs in aTL preceded by a consonant, or in 
ATb preceded by a vowel, lose their a or a throughout 
their present: 
op&Tb to plough^ a opib, tu opemb ... oh^ opibTL.^ 

T&flTB to tbaW H T^K), Tbl T^emb ... 

ciflTB to sow a cfeiD, TH c^j^emb ... 

Verbs in axL preceded by a labial (6, b, m, n, <j)) 
insert ji before the inflections of the present; whereas 
those in htb (and also a few in aTB) have the insertion 
of JI in the first person alone: 

jipeMdTB to slumber a ;y)eMjii6, th flp^Mjiemb ... 

jao6iiTh to love, to like a jik)5jii&, tu jiib6Hinb ... 

TonHTB to heat a Tonjii6, tu T6nHinb ... 

BOSBpaxiaTb to return a B03Bpa.m.f, th BOSBpaxi&nib . . . 

cnaxb to sleep a cmuo, tbi cnnnib ... 

The consonants ;^, 3, k, c, t, ct, ck, x, which precede 
the termination etb, are very frequently changed for sk, 
^, m, m, throughout the present: 

jrH34TB to lick a Jiiftxy, tli MHcemb ... 

KjAKaxb to call a ofiqy, tm KMqemb ... 

TonxdiB to tread si Tonqy, tu T6nqefflb ... 

nHcdTB to write h nnmy, tbi n^memb ... 

HCKdib to seek n lanj, tbi fimemb ... 

This change is restricted to the first person in those 

verbs which end in fob and htl : 

BepT^TB to turn a sepqy, tbi sepTHmb ... 

CHAiTB to sit SI enact, tbi cH;^limB ... 

BHc^TB to hang si BHint, tu sHCliinB ... 

KpyT^TB to twist a Kpyqy, tu KpyrHim, ... 

jibCTHTB to flatter a JK>n;y, tu jiBCTnmB ... 

1 Observe that opdxB when signifying to shout makes a opy, 
TH opemB . . . OH^ opyxB. 

f^i£| ^ The third person plural has the same vowel as the in- 
flection of the first person singular; the other persons have the 
same vowel as the second person singular: ohb opex'B, mu op^Mi, 
BEi opexe. 

Formation of the present, past and future. 117 

Verbs ending in aBaxB have in the present tense 
the endings aro, aemB . . . aiOT'b: 
OTAafidTb to give up a 0T;^aI6, tu OT^aeiub ... 

BCxaBaTB to get up a Bcxaib, tli BCTaemb ... 

ysHaB^TB to learn a yana^, tu yanaemb ... 

Most verbs ending in eBaxb and oBaxb undergo the 
following contraction : 

ToproBdTB to trade a Topryio, tm TOpryemb ... 

ropesaTb to be afflicted a ropibio, Tbi ropibemb ... 

Verbs in epeiL are likewise liable to contraction: 
xep^Tb to rub a ipy, th Tpemb ... 

Mep^Tb to die a Hpy, Tbi Mpemb ... 

Verbs ending in HjTb form their present thus: 
c6xHyTb to dry si coxny, th c6xHemb ... 

Formation of the past. 

The form of the past is properly an ancient par- 
ticiple past with an active signification. H jiio6uat> 
= I (am he that has) loved, a jiK)6HJra = I (am 
she that has) loved. The distinction of the three genders 
becomes thus evident. 

Those verbs which in the formation of the past 
depart from the general rule will be ranged among the 
irregular ones (29. and 30. lesson). 

A few regular verbs in epexB and nyTL undergo 
however a contraction in the masculine singular: 
yMepeib to die m. ynepi, f. yjiepjra, n. Jnepjio 

c6xHyTb to dry „ coxi „ coxjia „ c6xjio 

6yxHyTb to spring „ 6yxB „ 6yxjia „ 6fxjio 

rA6HyTb to perish „ rH6'b „ rH6jia „ r66jio. 

Formation of the future. 

Instead of 6y;i;y, 6y;i;einL . . . the present of cxaxb, 
to become, is sometimes employed to express the future. 

This is generally the case, when the Russian fu- 
ture corresponds to English to be just going: 
K CTaey adBTpasaTb. 1 am just going to breakfast. 

Bh CT^HeTe roBOpiaTb. You are just going to speak. 


Cjid^Kifi sweet sacTasjiaTb, aacTaenib to compel, 

KaaoBi what sort of, how to oblige 

AHTJiH^dHHHx Englishman yB'fe;ioMjiiTb, yBi^oMH to inform 

TiecTb (fem.J honour y6eBaTb to kill 

CTpdHHiiS extraordinary ociaBaTbCJi, ocxdibca to remaitL 

118 Lesson 27. 

MijocTHBHSL gracious cxeq^Hie concurrence 

ocTdTOKi remainder 6e3noK6HTB, no6e3noK6HTb to di- 

o6cToaTej[bCTBO circumstance sturb 

onHcdHie description 6j[aroA^pHH& grateful 

Cb n^pBoii DOHTOK) by return of noK6pHu» humble 

post cnimi^Tb, nocn'linHTB to hasten 

noHT^Hie respect nasjia^^HdA bill, invoice. 


JIib6HiiiL jiH TH cjia;i;Ki« B^na? A ohghi. jih)6j[io 
cjiiji^KisL Bfina. KaKOBO 3;i;op6BBe Bamero fipaxa? Oht* 
yMepx yace ;i;aBH6; Bh KameTC^, cnnTe, Moft APyr'b. KaKyro 
KHfiry Bh Ten6pb noKynaeTe? K Kynjiio onHcanie Poccih 
SHaMeHHTaro aHrjiH^anHHa MaKensH Yojijieca (Mackenzie 
Wallace). A BaMX Hanniny cb n^pBOft no^Toro. Ona yMepjia 
npH CTpaHHOMt CTe^eniH o6cTOiiTejibCTB'B. H TenepB cnacy, 
r;!;* B^epa CH^i.iji'B aHrjiH^anHHt. ^ecTb hm4h) ocTaBaTca 
CB rjiy66KHM'B noqrenieM'B, Bamx noKopnufi cjiyra. 

M6jiocTHBB[t rocy;i;apB, — Cntiny BacB yB4;i;oMHTB o 
nojiy^eniH Baniero imcBMa oti BOCBMaro ^acjia 3Toro m4- 
can;a, co;i;ep»aiii;aro b'b ce64 ;i;Ba BeKcejia na cyMMy inecTH 

TUCff^-B HflTHCOT'B TpHWaTH meCXA ^paHKOB-B H HflTl'l- 

fl,ecaTii caHTfiMOB'B no HaEjra;i;HUM'B ^cTBepxaro h n^iTaro 
9Toro Micanja. A Bnecy no bthm^ B^KcejiaM'B h saKpeAHTyro 
3Ty C]fMMy 3a Bam-B c^ct-b. B-b Ha;i;e»A* na nojEy^^nie 
CKopHX'B BauiHX'B saKasoB^B, ^ecTB hm4h) BaMx mranaTBca. 

I buy a book, and you buy [some] paper. What 
is the peasant doing now? Where do you sit? I sit 
on the table. Do you sleep? I do not sleep, I slumber. 
Who shakes the table ? We shake it. They write [some] 
letters. His aunt died, when he was in Russia. I am 
going to write to him. I like black bread. The hunter 
kills the old wolf. Do you like sweet wines? No, I 
do not like sweet wines. 

To the Postmaster General (rocno;i;HHy JI^np^KTopy 
noHTTB). — I have the honour of requesting you to cause 
a search to be made {n:66hL bh BCJiijiH OTHCKaTB) in the 
offices of your administration, [for] a letter addressed 
to Mrs. J ... at Moscow, which I placed in the box of 
the Post-office of (s OT;i;ajn na noHTy b'b) . . . the 15*^^ 
instant (cero Micania) and which has not yet been han- 
ded to her. With deep respect, I have the honour to 
remain your humble servant N. N. 

Formation op the present, past and future. 



Ilrpaeie jth Bh bx KapTH? 

3sm.iwb me Bu Tor;i;a nrpa- 

^UBevh JTH Baini» APyr'B 

emjd y BacL? 

MHoro JiH ;i;fo6fi, KOTopHa 
He xotAtb HrpaTb? 

064;i.ajiH jik bh yme? 

Mnoro jir Bani'B fipax'B 3a- 

HHMaeTCa My3HK0H)? 

^TO BH AtjiajiH ceroAHa b'b 

a nrpaH), ho a ne j[¥)6jii> 

fl; HrpaH), ^To6'B ;i,4jiaTi> ^py- 

rfiM-B y;i;0B6jibCTBie. 
Ohx 66jrie ne »HBeT'B y 

Menii; owh ffiKBeT-L Ten6pb 

Ha yjiHii;^ Mflpa. 
EcTB MHoro TaKftxi, KOTopna 

He xoTflTb y^HTbca, ho 


Mlt BacL oatH;i;ajiH ^o ceMfi 
HacoKt ct ^exBepTBK), u 
Tan's icaKx (but as) bh ne 
npHxo;i;HJiH, mh noodt- 
;i;ajiH 6e3'h Bact. 

Jl^a, OHX ^K) MHoro saHH- 
Maexaa, ho ne ctojibko, 


Mh y^fijiHCb H noTOMt mu 
HrpajiH; mh ne ^HTiUH 
noTOMy ^To y Haci» ne 
6ujio BpeMeHH. 




Be^epnlft aBOHi. — The Evening-Bells. 

(Imitation of Moore's well known ballad.) 

Be^epnift sbohi, BenipniH sboh-l, 
Ra.KT> MHoro jijwh naBO^HTB ohx! 
O lonHX-B AHaxi bx KpaK) po;i,h6m'b, 
Tjijk a jih)66ji'b, tjh^I^ OTqiS ;i;ojirb, 


TaM^B cjiymajTB sboh'b b% uocjiijifliA pas's! 


ym6 He spiTB mh^ cb4tjihx'b ^efi 
BecHu oSMan^HBOfi Mo6fil 


Tor;i;a Becejinxi, mojio;i;hx^! 


He cjTHnieH'B mi's Ben^prnfi sboh-b! 

120 Lesson 28. 

JlemaTb h mh^ b'b seioi cupofi! 
Hanisi yHUBHui najco MHoit 
Bt ji^ojiiwk sfoep'b pasHeceTt, 
JlipyroS irfeB^ni'B no neS iipoft;i;eTi, 
H yati He a, a 6y;i;e'Fb ohtb 
Bi pasA^Mbi niTL Be^^pnift sboh'b! 

^. EdsAoeh. 

poAH6ff Kpat native country npocxHTBCfl HaBiRi to say good 
spixB to look at bye for ever 

o6m4h^hbhS illusory ' cBirjiErg bright, serene 

MorHibHii^ sepulchral Kpinsifi cohi profound sleep 

CHp6& damp, wet Hanisi melody^ song 

AOJi&Ha valley ynubRHH mournful 

paoA^^be meditation pasH^ciB to carry about. 




(Passive and impersonal verbs.) 

Formation of the imperatiye. 

This mood has but the second person of both 
numbers. Their terminations, when accented, are 6, 
HTe; when unaccented they are h, fixe if preceded by a 
vowel, and l, btc if preceded by a consonant. 

The wanting third person of both numbers may 
be expressed by means of nycTL (let) followed by the 
present. The first person of the plural is supplied by 
the indicative future. 

We have thus a Russian imperative just as com- 
plete as in English: 

roBopia, CTyqH, B-fept! speak, knock, believe (thou) I 

nycTb OHT. roBop^Tb, etc. let him speak, etc. 

dy^eMt FOBopfiTb, CTyqaTb, B-t- let us speak, knock, believe. 


roBopAxe, cxyHHxe, BipBxe! ' speak, knock, believe (you)t 
nycTb oh6 roBOp^rb, etc. let them speak, etc. 

Sometimes tc is added to the first person plural, 
and the particle ji^sl is employed before the third person 
of both numbers, to express the imperative: 
ciyq^MTe. let us knock. 

;^a cxyq^Tb. let him knock. 

Aaciyq^Tb. let them knock. 

Formation op the imperative, gerunds and participles. 12 1 

The infinitive is also sometimes employed instead 
of the imperative, both with and without a negative: 
CTyqaTL ! knock I 

roBOp^Tb ! speak ! 

He B-fepHTb! do not believe I 

Formation of gernnds. 

In Russian, there is a gerund present and a 
gernnd past. The termination of the former is a, a 
or y^H, K)HH preceded by the vowel which is met 
with before the inflection of the third person plural of 
the present of the same verb: 
main J nwtkionE. in reading. 

nHm^, ntoyqn. in writing. 

The termination of the gerund past is b^ or boih: 

iHT^Bi, ^HT^sraH.^ having read. 

OHcdBTj, nnc^BniH. having written. 

It need not be added that gerunds are invariable, 
whereas participles are declined like adjectives. 

Formation of participles. 

The active participle present ends in mift (maa, 
mee) preceded by the same vowel which is met with 
before the termination ti of the third person plural in 
the present of the same verb: 

qHT4iom,ift, -man, -mee. (he, she, it) that is reading, 

n^mymift, -n^aa, -iii,ee. (he, she, it) that is writing. 

The active participle past ends in Bmifi (Bmaa, 

qflTaBinifi, -Bmaa, -Bmee. (he, she, it) that has read. 

nHcaBinifi, -Binaa, -Bmee. (he, she, it) that has written. 

The passive participle present ends in mhS or 
Ml preceded by the same vowel which occurs in the 
first person plural of the present. The former is the 
full, the latter is the apocopated termination: 
qHT^eMHfi or nwrkewh. that is being read. 

xBaji^Mufi or XBaji^T). that is being praised. 

The apocopated form of the passive participle pre- 
sent is sometimes combined with the verb 6htb (ex- 
pressed or understood) to form the passive conjugation : 
H XBaji^HT). I am praised. 

Tm XBaji^t, etc. Thou art praised, etc. 

* The terminations a, n and bi are generally preferred in 
writing, whilst in colloquial language y?H, k)?h and bbih are most 
generally used. 

122 Lesson 28. 

In the present this mode of forming the passive 
voice, is now rather obsolete. It is usual to convert 
the passive into a reflexive or even an active form: 
Sia KHiira BciMH ^WIkeTCS^. This book is read by everybody. 

MeH^ Bcife XBkJisiTb. All praise me. 

Te6A XBkjisiTb, etc. They praise thee, etc. 

The passive participle past ends in hhuS or hi, 
preceded by the same vowel which occurs before the 
termination of the infinitive: 

nEcaHiiuM, ni^caHi. written 

H±T&EEu&, ^^laHi r^ad. 
Some verbs, for the most part irregular (29. and 
30. lesson)!, have in their passive participle past the 
termination Ttift. A few others have ennnfi, whilst their 
infinitive ends in htb or axt. Such are: 
xBdjieHHHH praised from xsajiHTB 

iidmeHHUH carried » nocHTb 

3a5B6HHufi forgotten » 3a5iiBdTb 

iipoii;gHH£ra forgiven y> npou^&Tb. 

Beside the impersonal verbs denoting meteoro- 
logical facts and those conunon ta other languages, such 
as Mop63HTi» it freezes, Taerb it thaws, KaateTca it 
appears, and on, there are in Russian a great number 
of impersonal expressions formed by apocopated neuter 
adjectives preceded by the verb 6uTh which in the 
present is nearly always understood, such as: 
H^sHo it is necessary aoct4to?ho it suffices 

A0jaiH6 it is necessary upHJ^qeo it becomes 

h62cho it is possible ^cho it is evident 

HeB03M6»H0 it is impossible nji6xo it is difficult. 


06HTdTi. to inhabit cyAB(5a destiny, fate 

c6jiHeHHHH solar npejiHasH&HHjia (she) destined 

HapdAi nation, people ocMijiHXLca to dare, to venture 

pa;^0BaTBCJ^ to rejoice yCnpafiiecB bohiI be gone! 

no 6nHTy by experience n^san^xa planet 

aKHB6THufi animal CHCx^Ma system 

Maco meat ysaxdxB to respect 

K0HxpH6Ji;ia tribute BHEManie attention 

jinmAxB to deprive HSBicxno it is known 

ceMbaH^Hx father of a family pacx^nie plant 

» Monosyllabic verbs (except those ending in axb), also ending 
in nyxB and ep^xt. 

Formation op the imperative, gerunds and participles. 123 

lOBdpH goods ycjiyra service 

nos&pi conflagration HHiuiii beggar 

KpoB% shelter, house Bospaa^ib to repartee. 

osaa^TB to render 


EcTb aLHBOTHHa, nHTaiomiaaa TOJibKO pacTeHiaMH, ii 
atHBOTHHa HHTaiommcH TOJIBKO MflcoM'B. ^ejioB^Ky, roBopri- 
meny Bcer;i;a iipaB;i;y, Bci BipaT'B. y^eHfiKi., Jiynnie Bcix'B 
pascKasHBaBinifi HCTopiro, 6hji'b Kapji-L HBanoBH^'B. To- 
BapH, CAiJiaHHHe wb Anrjim, caMHe Jiy^mie. He roBopri 
HH cjiOBa, HaniH Ao6pHe cjryrn A^J^aroTt to, ^ero mh ace- 
jiiewb, HeMHoro OT;i;oxHyBinH, mh npoAOJimajiH CBoe nyTe- 
mecTBie. OffiHAaa nftcbMa ot^ BacB, a ne 3Ha.Ji^ ^to ^i-^aTB. 

Ojijkwb K2iEjijifl,iTh npocfljit y npyccKaro KopojiJi MicTa. 
KopojiL cnpocfijn y nero, ta^ owl po;i;hjicji. «a po- 
ji^fijLai Bt Bepjfini*, oTBiTHj-L ohx. «y6HpaftTecB boh'bU 
CKaaajit MOHapxi, «Bci BepjrHHii;H HHKy;i;a ne ro;i;flTca (are 
good for nothing).* — «a nponiy HSBHHeHia y Bamero 
BejTB[^ecTBa», oTBiTHjr'b KaH^i.H^iiaT'B, «ecTB Meat^y h6mh h 
xopoinie, a. SHaio ;i;Byx'B.» — «Kto 3th ABa?» cnpoc6;i'B 
KopoJiB. «nepBHft», BoapasHji'L EaH;i;HAaT'B, «3to Banie 
BejiHHecTBO, a BTopoS 3to sl. » Kopojib ne mofb y;i;ep3KaTfi- 
Ch OTb cMixa npH dTowh OTB^Tfe H ^apoBajTB CMy m4cto. /W,^ 


The earth inhabited by us is a planet belonging 
to the solar system. Men speaking one language (instr ) 
form one nation. A man that does not respect (not 
respecting) the laws does not respect even God. Win- 
dows ornamented with flowers delight us. Pupils not 
listening with attention know little. It is difficult to 
believe people who chatter much. By experience it is 
known that people who have incessantly wished (to 
themselves) something new, were unhappy. 

Honourable Sir, — He that presents (part, pres.) 
you this letter is the father of five children. A con- 
flagration deprived him of his house; but he was a 
rich father of a family, always disposed to render ser- 
vices to everybody; his house was always open to all 
poor [people]. Fate destined otherwise, and he is now 
a beggar. Relying on your good heart, I have ventured 
to disturb you and send him to you. Your humble 
servant N. N. 


Lesson 28. 


B'B Hefi Ten^pB msBevb moh 

Oh'l no(Am,ievb tojibko a6- 
fipHxi Jra);^6ft, noTOMy ^ito 
owb SHaeTi nocjiOBHiiy, 
KOTopaa rjiacfiT* (says): 

SHaEoiTB, H a Te6^ CKa- 

»y, KTO TH. 

HirB, oh6 eme otkphth, 
xoTi a BejiijirB exx 3a- 


MajiB^HKH Bce nocji'£o6i- 
;i;a 6irajiH no homm-b. 

nepBOHaqajiBHuS h rjiasHid- 
inifi HCTO^HHK'B o6oraiii;e- 
hIa PHMa 6HJI& BOi^Ha, 
;i;ocTaBjiHBinas orpoMHUA 

K0HTpH6yiliiH CB SaBOC- 
KHprfiBBT 60flTBa KaJtMHEOB-B, 

Bipa CKasKaiffB, ^to Kajt- 
MUKH i;!;^!^ (eat) ^ejio- 
- " . Kit \ n si^ecKoe Maco. 

A c^i ^'' •>- d^^-^'-- ^'^'^^ A^^^ '^'^^ A<^>t< 

Tk^ V / ^- / ^ , / f .' "^ I^EADING EXERCISE. 

HeotfuBHOBeHHafl CH^a. — Extraordinary Strength. 

AfirycPB n, Kyp^ibpcTi caKconcKiS h KopoJiB nojiBCKifi, 
OTJiH^ajica Heo6BiKHOBeHHOH) TijiecHOH) c6j[oh). 0;i;Haac;i,H, 
BO Bp^MA ero nporyjiKH BepxcMX, ji6iiia;i;B noTepiJia no;i;- 
KOBy; n03T0My oh'b saixajTB B'B dmwsxm ;i;ep^BHK) k-b 
Ky3Heii;y. Kor^a tot'b npanecB nojtKOBy, to Kyp(j)H)pcT^ 
3axoT4ji^ iip6ac;i;e HCiip66oBaTB, aobojtbho jih KpinKO ona 
CAiJiana. Oh^ bsmi ee o64hmh pyKaMH h nepejiOMnji-B, 
KaKi MopKOBB. «9Ta no^iiKOBa HHKy;i,a ne roAiiTCfl», cna- 
sajTB OHi Ky3Hen;y, KOTopafi BCJii;i;'B sa t^m^ npHnecB 
hAckojibko Apyriix-B. Ho Kyp^ibpcTB nepejiaMHBaji'B hx'b 
oAHy 3a ApyroK). Ky3Heiii'B npHsaAyMaJiCH, a TOBapani;!! 
ero CB H3yMJi6HieM'B norjra;i,HBaj[H Apyn na ;i;pyra. Ha- 
KOH^ni'B Kyp(|)K)pcT^ c^iiijiaji-B bh;!;^, hto nainejrB o;i;Hy no^- 

KfeM-B o6HTaeMa ;i,a^a Banie- 

ro A^AH? 
CKaatHTe MHt, nomajiyficTa, 

Koro noc^maeiTB Baint 


3aKpuTU j[H TaRme OEHa? 

^TO ;i,'hjiaj[H MajBHHKH Bce 

KaKOBX 6hjI'b rjaBH^fiinig 
HCTO^HHK'B o6orain,6Hiff 
P6Ma (of Rome's wealth)? 

Uo^eMy KHprii3Ki 6oaTca Kaji- 


Irregular verbs. 125 

KOBy, KOTopaH 6njra ^hobojibho KptoKa. JI6ina;i;b 6ujia 
noAKOBana, h KO^;^a KysH^ni'b koh^hji^ CBoe a^jio, to Kyp- 
4)R)pcTi jifiiJiii eMy Tajiep'B; ho KysH^ii;^, BsaBt ero, corH^JTB 
Meat^y n&jihujmji. — ^^Toirb TsLiep'B ne roA^Tca, Bame 
BHc6^ecTB0», CKasaj'B KysH^ii;^, «ohi raeTca u6mj]ij najib- 
ii;aMH.» Kyp^ibpcFB ^o;^aBaJr'B eny em;e ntcKOJibKo lajie- 
poB-B cpa^y, HO offL crafidjFb Hx-B OA^H'B 3a ApyrflMi. — 
iTaK'B BOT^ jryH;i,6p'L», CKasajit HaKOHeii;^ Kyp(j)H)pcTi, 
«iiTOTi ysi ;i;6ji»eH'b 6h[tb xoponii.* Ky3Hdii;'B ocxajica 
AOBOJieffiB, a Kyp^ibpcTTB pa;i;oBajica, ^o nainejrb ^ejEOBiKa, 
paBHaro ce6t no c6jii. 

Kypj)i)pcTb elector otjih^4ti>ch to distinguisli oneself 

T^jt^CHHg corporeal npor^^Jisa Be^x6wb ride 

noAK6Ba horse-shoe Hcnp66oBaTB to try 

HMKyA^ He foaiSltcji (it) is good bcjc^a'b sa Tim immediately 

for nothing npHsaAyMaiBCuto become thought- 

nepejidMHBaTb to break ful, to be puzzled 

ToadpHm.'B comrade ssyHJi^Hie astonishment 

norjiiAHBaxb to look (from time cx^aiB bej^'l to feign 

r6h?htb to finish [to time) Tixepi thaler, a german dollar 

corH]^TB to bend n^Jieiii'b finger 

THj^TLCfl to be bent cpa^y one after another 

crH6&TB to curve pdBHsit equal, match. .^ 




The so called irregular verbs are in Russian less 
numerous, and more easily learnt than in many mo- 
dern languages. They amount to 70 in all, and their 
anomalies are generally restricted to the present, im- 
perative and passive participle past. 

To facilitate their study they are exhibited here 
according to analogy and graduated difficulty, a ge- 
neral alphabetical list of them being appended to tiie 
30^^ lesson. They have also been divided into two 
groups according to their regular or irregular infinitive 

The seven following undergo vowel change in the 
present and imperative. Those of them, which are 

. 6pifi 


. BOfi 
. KpO& 







126 Lesson 29. 

used in the participle past, form it in thS (instead of 
hhhh). Their past being regularly formed, it will not 
be given: 

1 . OpHTb to shave a 6piK), th 6pienib . 

2. H'bTB to sing a uov), tu noemb . . 

3. BLITb to howl SI BOIOf TH B6einB . 

4. KpLiTb to cover a Kp6i), th Kpoeins . 

5. MUTb to wash n moid, th H6einb . . 

6. HUTb to ache a uok), th H6einb . . 

7. puTb to dig H poK), TH p6einB . . 

The five following undergo both vowel and con- 
sonantal modifications in the present and imperative. 
Their past tense and participle past are regular, but 
the latter is also given to prevent the learner's being 
mislead by false analogy: 

8. (8;^aTb) to build (a 3]&x;iy), th sBSEAeniB . . . s^aiAH ax^HHiii 

9. jraxb to tell lies a Jiry, th juKgrab . . . jira (JiraHHHfi) 

10. cjaxb to send a nuK), th mjreniL... mjiH cji^hhhh 

11. CTJiaxb to spread a ct^jio, th CT^jiemb . . . CTejiA ctji4hhhh 

12. TKaxb to weave a Tsy, th TH^mb... trh TKdHHHH. 

The four following undergo vowel insertion in the 
present and imperative: 

18. Opaxb to take a ^epy, th 6epefflb . . . 6epH 6pdHHHH 

14. rnaxb to drive a tohh), th rdnHrab . . . ronA (rH^HHHM) 

15. ;i,paxb to tear h Aepy, th Aep^nib . . . Aepn ap^hhh& 

16. SBRXb to call n son"}, th soBgmb . . . sobi^ 3b4hhhh. 

The six following insert a consonant in the pre- 
sent and imperative: 


acHXb to live a scHBy, th sRHBgrnb . . . mthb^l (jBAiuik) 


ujJJLTh to swim a njiHBy, th njHBgmb . . . iijhb^ wanting 


CJifiixb to be reputed a CJiHBy, th cjHB^inb . . . cjihb^ wanting 


acaxb to press a siHy, th sMemb . . . 3ehh s4th& 


asaxb to reap a trey, th sHgnib . . . shh 2r4thh 


;H*xb to put away a A^nyS th A^Herab . . . A*Hb a^thh. 

The three following exhibit several irregularities 


their present: 

23. xoxixb to desire (will): a xoh^, th xonemb, owl xoneii, mh 


24. 6'baeaxb to run: a 6^r^, th 6'bsi^fflb, ohi 6^iBjkTh, mh 6'6si^M'b, 
BH 6t3K6Te, ohA 6ir3^Ti. 

25. ;^axb to give: a Aam^, th Aamb, ohi jifiiCTh, mh aaahmi, bh xa- 
;^ATe, oh6 ^a^yTi. 

1 This present has a future signification. 

2 xhis present has a future signification. The present of 
to give is rendered by a ^sub, th ;^aSfflb, etc. from AasaTb. 

Irregular verbs. 127 

26. The verb ixaxb to drive, to ride, to travel, to go, is quite 
irregular and defective. Its wanting tenses are supplied by 
some circumlocutions. 

Present: a 4;^y, th i;^erab, owb i^eTt, mh i;^eMT», bu i^eie, ohh i;^yTB. 

Past: fl ixajii, etc. 

Future: n (no)iAy, th (no)iAemB, etc. 

Imperative: (no)i3saH or is^e. 


IIopth6h tailor oxcHjaTB, OTOcjidiB to send back 

smaevih barley jiyn meadow 

Rpuma roof ^epeirai^a slate 

coj[6Ma straw ^aft tea 

cepT^Ki frock, coat Kocfe (indecl,) coffee 

noA^TOJiB bearer jihcti^ plate, sheet 

nopy^TB, nopy^HTB to recommend ynoMEHaxB, yn6MHHTB to mention 

coMHis^TBCff, ycoMH^TBCfl to doubt xpys^ft friendship 

Bi (prepos.) npe6HBaHie sojourn, stay 

pacKd^TBCff, pacRdHsaTBCfl to re- iicKJiK)^dfl except 

pent Bi (prepos.J saBH^OBaxB, noBaBH^OBaTB (dat.) 

deci^a company, society to envoy 

no6iAa victory bsatb b'b nji'i^H'B to capture 

npHSiiB^TB, ]iph3b4tb to summoH naj^TRa tent 

BHKyni ransom. 


^TO BH CTanexe hhtb: naft, K6(|)e, niiBO, hjih bhho? 
Jl^afiie MHi CTaKaffL xopomaro n6Ba. Tfljk Bh len^pt mn- 
Beie? A T&HBf vb ;i;epeBH4. Hai KaKoro cyKHa owh mteT'E 
B2iWb cepTyKi? OffiB mhevb ero hs-b jj^^niaro aHoificKaro 
cyKHa. KaKTb BacB sob^tx? Mena soByTTb neTpoM-B. 
KpHHiH HaniHX'B ;i;om6b'b mh KpoeM-B Ten^pB Tiepen6ii;a>rH 


MOK). J[k);i,h o6£[rhob4hho nBK)in;ie bhho, ne JiMavh hhtb 

Maji^R'B BHsdpB xaji6(i)a MocTa;i,H o;i,epsKajrB no6^Ay 
Hajil'B rp^KaMH h bsaji'b b% njri^H'B hx^b HMnepaTopa. npH3- 
BaB'B 3Toro KHHsa B'B CBOK) najiaTKy, oh^ cnpocfiji'B ero, 
KaKoro o6pani;eHia osHAaeTx oh-b otl uo6i]ifii}eJia. «!6cjih 
Bh BGABTe Boftny KaKi i^apB», OTBiTfiji'B HMnepaTop-B, «OToni- 
jiHTe Mena; ecjH Be;i,eTe ee KaKTb Kyn^i^'B, npo;i,afiTe Mena; 
^cjiH ae Be^CTe ee KaK-B mhchAk'b, y6efiTe Mena.* Typ^uKift 
reHepaji-B OTOCJidji'B ero 6e3'B BHKyna. 


My tailor sews very badly. Where are you driving 
the horses ? We are driving them to the meadow. The 



peasants are now reaping the barley. Drink, if you 
wish. The nightingale sings and the wolf howls. Your 
brother lives in St. Petersburg and is reputed [to be] 
a rich man (instr.). He desires to sleep and I desire 
to play. Children, never tell lies I Do you not know 
what they call this man? With what do we now cover 
the roofs of our houses? We cover them sometimes 
with slates and sometimes with iron sheets. 

The bearer of this is Mr. Rozanoff whom I have 
so often mentioned in my letters. I recommend him 
to your friendship. You will not doubt that he is 
deserving (of) it, because I told you so much good 
about him. Pray endeavour (UocTapafiTecb, no»ajiyficTa) 
to make (for him) his sojourn as agreeable (instr,) as 
it is possible to you. You [will] not repent it (btb aTOMx), 
because you will find (HaftASTe) so much pleasure in 
[your] conversation with him, that I should envy you, 
if I were not (bi cdMOM-B js^^jA) your sincere friend [in- 
deed] N. N. 

KaK'i» HasHB&eTcii p^kA, npn PiKd, npn ycxbi Koxopoft 

^CTL'b K0T6p0tt J[e»ftTB 

Xopom6 jiK BasfB cji^schjtb 


KcTb .itK HTO-UMCyAt> Hdsaro? 

Mto DaM^ CRaa&JitE BanrL 

Iu\Ki> Bu uaxoAure ^ly ro- 

il xoth^rB (in 3HaTb. noieMjf 

jreacfiT^b PAra, HasiiBaeTca 


Oh-b mh4 oneHB xopofflo cjiy- 


MH6ro TpdTHJTB (speut). 
fl xo^y ero bshtb, ^cjh owh 

\6m&rh mh4 c;iy»fiTt. 
HiTi HHqer6 HOBaro, hc- 

KJiioqaa Toro, tto Map- 

inajTB OriaMa bsaji'b IIopTb- 

Owh MHt OKasaii: MyApu^ 

pasMKimjuierB npeas^^e 

^iTB AtftcTByeri. 
fl ee HaxojKy o^eHb xopo- 

ineil; ho ona BaMx, Ka- 

acercfl, ne HpaBnrcii. 
yB^pai) BacB, HTO ecjHfi-L 

ji SHarB, TTO Bu h6 6ujh 

CciKHU, a npHiue.TL 6vl 

8a BaMH. 

Irregular verbs. 129 

FacKOJiBHEKH H ceBTdHTU. — Scismatics and sectarians. 
To^Haa ii;6<i)pa pyccRHX'b pacEOjBHHKOB'b ne HSBicrna, 


ldxi> OHGHB MHoro cpe^A BeJHRopyccEaro Haceji^Hia, oco- 
6eHH0 Ha c4Bepi h BOCTOKi, b'b SaBOJiaLH, na ypaji* h 

B'B Gh6hPH. ^&Se B'b MoCSBi, U€S&?,Y SaMOCSBOpil^SHMH 

'fiora^iaMH, HeMsuio pesHfiTejiefi ^P^BHaro fijiaro^ecria, 
EaE'B OHii ce6A HasHBaDirB. Ho pacsoji'b He c^sxa b^b 
npaMOM-B CMHCjrh cjiOBa. CeRTanrH nnaqe tojee^dtb pe- 
j[Hri63H£[e AorMaTH, ^wb npasocjiaBHue, TorAa EaE'B pac- 


^iiax'B u noAp66HOCT.HX'B 6orocj[yseHi£[. PacEOJi'B BOsnfiE'B 
OTToro, ^TO 3Ha^TejiBHaa ^acxB pyccEaro Hap6;i;a ne sa- 
xoT^jia npH3HaTB HcnpaBJieHHux'B b^b ceMHa;^ii;aTOMx b^e^ 


oniH6oE'B H HCEaseniS. Ho, EpoM^ pacEOJiBHHEOB'B cy- 
ni;ecTByK)T^ B'B Poccih B'B 6ojiBni6M^ EOJifiHecTBi h AiScr- 
BfiTejiBHHe ceETaHTH. Onfi Haxo;i;aTca npeHMyni;ecTBeHHo 
Ha ibvb H roro-BOCTOEi. Bci c6eth ho^tA HeB03M6»Ho 
nepe^AcjHTB, ho bcd aiy naccy pa3j!riiHHL[X'B 66npiH'B 
HOffiHO pa3Aiji6TB Ha jifii EaTeropiH: c^eth MHCT^necEiji 
H pai^ioHajineTi^ecEia. G&Maa pacnpocTpaneHHafl hs'b 
^THxi* HOCjiAHHX'B ecTB TaE'B Ha3HBaeMaa inTyH;i;a. IIlTyH- 
;i;hctu 0T6pac£iBaK)T'B bc£ o6fajija. h <i)6pMU EasenHofi 
B^pR, EaE'B oh6 HasHBaDTX npaBOCjaBie, h cxpeMiTCA e'b 
o^HOMy, xpHCTiancEO-eB^HrejcBCEOMy H^e^jr^, npH n6Moni;H 
CBoefi jfiqHofi coB-icTH H p43yMa, pyEOBOACTByacB neno- 
cp6;i;cTBeHHHM'B HOHHMaHieiffB CBjim;6HHaro HHcaHk. Ohchb 
pacnpocTpaneHHH T&E»e JI^yxo6dpipi h MojiOEdne, a cdMHe 
saMiiiaTejiBHHe hs'b Bcix'B — Ceohi^A. 

tohhhS exact 6jiaroH^CTi€ church service 

B'h 3aB6jsbH beyond the Volga tojikob&t& explain 

peBHi^TejiB zelous follower noAp66Hocn pecaliarity 

iip;iM6& CMHCJii proper sense BosHilKHyTL to rise 

o6]^kA'h ceremony, form ncKaz^Hie alteration 

6orocjys4Hie worship nepe^cjHTB to enumerate 

BspdcTBCH to slip into pa3A^^t& to divide 

Boo6m,6 altogether KaseHHiifi official 

8aMocKBopii^Ri& beyond the Mos- sA^naa c6BicTi individual con- 
cova science 

Eussian Ck)ny.-Gra]nxDar. ^ 

180 Lesson 30. 

piayH-B reason noMomB assistance 

Ayxo66peui> Holy Ghost denier pyKOBdACTBosaTL to guide 

66m,Tnia, community MoJOKdHHHi Milk-eater 

0T6p&cHBaTB to repell Ckoo^i^'b Mutilated. 
CTpeM^TBC^i to aspire _ . . 



Most verbs having the infinitive termination ^b are 
liable to consonantal changes in the present, imperative 
and participle past. 

AH of them are contracted in the past; and the 
masculine singular form of this tense does not even 
take the characteristic inflection jvb. 

They are fifteen in number; 

27. Oep^^b to preserve. — Pres. a depery, th depeaceniB ... oh^ 
deperyTT,. Past n depgrB, -mk, rji6. Imp. 6eper6. Part. 6e- 

28. M0<9b to be able (can, may). — Pres. a Mory, tu Mbacemb ... 
oh6 M6ryTT>. Past a mopb, -fji^., -rji6. Imp. Mor6 (rarely used). 
The participle is wanting. 

29. sanpa^b to put (the horses) to. — si aanpary, tu aanpaaceniB ... 
oh6 aanparyrb. Past a sanperB, -rjik, -rji6. Imp. aanpar^. 

30. CTOp^^b to guard. — Pres. a CTepery, tu ciepe^enib ... ohA 
cTeperyTT>. Past ii CTepert, -rji^, -rji6. Imp. cxeperti. Part. 

31. CTpHVb to shear. — Pres. a CTpnry, tu cTpHscemb ... oh^ 
CTpHryrL. Past a ctphpl, -fji^., -rji6. Imp. CTpHr^. Part. CTp6- 


32. jie^b to lie. — Fut. a Jiiry, tu juiacemb ... oh6 Jiiryrb. Past 
A Jier-b, -rjid, -rji6. Imp. jiarb. The part, is wanting. 

33. BJie^Lb to draw. — Pres. a BjieKy, tu BJieqemb ..'. oh6 BjieKyrt. 
Past a BjieK-b, -luik, -kji6. Imp. BJievtA. Part. BJieqeHHufi. 

34. BOJii^^b to train. — Pres. a bojok^, th B0Ji6^efflB ... ohh bojo- 
k^tt>. Past A BOJiOKy, -KJik, -kji6. Imp. bojiokA. Part, bojio- 


35. neib to bake. — Pres. a neKy, tu neqemb ... oh6 ncKyT'b. 
Past H neK-b, -od, -oo. Imp. neK6. Part. neqeHHufi. 

36. n^qbCfl or nen^Cb to be anxious. — Pres. a neKycb, tu ne- 
qembCJi ... oh6 neKyrcfl. Past a neKca, -oacb, -KJiocb. Imp. 
ncK^cb. The part, is wanting. 

37. cfe^b to whip, to hew. — Pres. a cfeKy, tu ctqemb ... oh6 ct- 
Kyrb. Past a cfeKi,, -KJik, -06. Imp. ctKii. Part. cfeqeHHuft. 

38. TO^b to flow. — Pres. a Tesy, tu Teqemb . . . ohA TCKyrb. Past 
A TCKT., -lui^, -06. Imp. TeKA. Part, wanting. 

Irregular verbs. 181 

39. TOJii^^b to pound. — Pros, a tojiky, tu TOJiqeuib ... ohA toj- 
KyT'b. Past a toji6ki>, -KJia, -kji6. Imp. tojikA. Part. TOJiqeHHuft. 

40. xe^b to burn. — Pres. a aery, tu acacemb ... OHJi acryrt. Past 
a acert, 3Krjia, acrjio. Imp. acri. Part. atatennHfi. 

The four following ending in 3Tl or 3TH are con- 
jugated as follows: 

41. BesTL or BesxH to lead, to drive. — Pres. a Besy, th Beaemb ... 
oh6 Be3yTT>. Past a Beai*, -3Jik, -3Ji6. Imp. Be36. Part. BeaeHHHfi. 

42. rpusTb to gnaw. — Pres. si rpusy, tli rpuaemb ... oh6 rpH- 
syT'b. Past a rpusT,, -sjia, -sjio. Imp. rpuad. Part. rpiiaeHHbift. 

43. ji'bsTb to climb. — Pres. a Jiiay, th Jiiaemb ... oh^ jiiayrb. 
Past a Ji'fea'b, -aaa, -ajio. Imp. ji-feab. Part, wanting. 

44. nojiSTH to creep. — Pres. a nojiay, tli nojiaemb ... oh6 nojiayrt. 
Past a nojia'b, -3:1a, -3Ji6. Imp. noji36. Part, wanting. 

Twenty two verbs ending in ctb or cth exhibit the 
following anomalies: 

46. BecTb or BecTH to lead, to guide. — Pres. a Be;^y, tli Beaemb 
... oh6 Be^^yrb. Past a Bejrb, -Jik, -Ji6. Imp. Be;^i. Part. Be- 

46. OjiioctA to observe, to keep. — Pres. a ^jiio^y, tu 6jiiofl,emh ... 
OEti 6jiio][yTb. Past a 6jiK)jrb, -Ji^, -J16. Imp. 6jik);^6. Part. 6jm- 


47. OpecTb or OpecTjft to ramble, to train. — Pres. n 6pe;^y, tu 
Cpe^emb ... ohIi 6pe;l;yT^. Past a Cpeji-b, Jik, Ji6. Imp. dpe^^. 
The part, is wanting. 

48. BJiacTb to lay. — Pres. n KJia;i;y, tu KJia;i,emb, ohh Kaa;a,yrb. Past 
H KJiaji-b, -Jik, 'Ji6. Imp. KJia,^ik. Part. KJi4;i;eHHuft. 

49. npflCTb to spin. — Pres. a npa^^y, tu npfl;i;einb ... onJi npa^^yrb 
Past ii npflJiTj, -aa, -a6. Imp. ^pfl;^6. Part. np;i;^eHHuft. 

50. nacTb to fall. — Fut. a nw, tu na;i;einb ... oh6 na;i,yrb. Past 
a n&ji'hy -Jia, -ao. Imp. na;i;6. Part, wanting. 

51. rnecTb or iHecTidE to press. — Pres. a rneTy, tu rHCTemb ... 
OHfi FHeTyT-b. The past is not in use. Imp. rneTii. Part. PHe- 


62. MecTH to sweep. — Pres. a MCTy, tu MeTem-b ... ohIi MCTyrb. 
Past a Meai, -aa, -a6. Imp. mbth. Part. MeTeHHuif. 

63. nJiecTb or nJiecT^ to plait, to chatter. — Pres. a nacTy, tu nae- 
Tenib ... oh6 nacTyTT.. Past a naeai,, -aa, -ao, Imp. naeTiS. 
Part. naeTCHHufl. 

54. i^B'bCTb or nwbeTK to bloom, to flower. — Pres. a n;BtTy, tu 
n;B'feTeinb ... ohIi iJ^stTyrb. Past a u.E'^jrb, -aa, ao. Imp. i^BtTfi. 
Part. ^B'feTeHHui}. 

55. qecTb to think. — Pres. a nrf, tu qTemb ... oh6 qTyTi.. Past 
n qeaT>, qaa, Mao. Imp. mth. Part. qT^HHufi. 

56. rpecTb or rpecTii (rpe6cTi&) to row. — Pres. si rpe6y, tu rpe- 
6emL ... OHH rpedyTT*. Past si rped'b, -6.1a, -6ji6. Imp. rpedd. 
Part. rpedeHHuft. 

132 Lesson 30. 

67. CBpecTB or CKpecx^ to scrape. — Pres. si CKpe6y, th CKpe6eiiiB 
... oh6 CKpedyrb. Past a CKpeC'b, -6jia, -6jio. Imp. CKpedti. 
Part. CKpedeHHuft. 

68. BJflCTB to curse. — Pres. a KJianf, th oflHenn. ... ohA KJiflHyrt 
Past a juiHJUb, -Jia, -Jio. Imp. kjisie± Part. kjiAtM. 

69. HecTjft to carry. — Pres. si necy, th necemb ... oh6 HecyTt. 
Past a HecT., -Jia, -jio. Imp. necti. Part. neceHHufi. 

60. nacT^ to pasture. — Pres. a nacy, th nacemt ... osA nacyT'b. 
Past SI nacb, -Jia, -jio. Imp. nac6. Part. naceHHHft. 

61. xpflCTJB^ to shake. — Pres. si Tpacy, th TpacemB ... oh6 Tpn- 
cyrt. Past a TpacL, -cjia, -cjio. Imp. Tpac^. Part. TpaceHHHfi. 

62. pacT^ to grow. — Pres. si pacTf, th pacTemt ... ohA pacTyTi*. 
Fast SI pocT», -cjia, -cjio. Imp. pacT^. Part. pameHHHft. 

The three following verbs are quite irregular: 

63. h;^t^ to go. — Pres. a H^t* th H;^eI^b, oht> H;^eT^>, mh H^^eirb, 
BH H;^eTe, oh6 nji^yTb. Past a mejn>, mjra, mjio. Fut. a 6f ;^y htt6, 
TH 6y;^einb htt6, etc. but also si noft^^y, th nofi^erab, etc. Imp. 
Ej[± The participle past h^^chbhS is seldom used. 

64. •fecTb to eat. — Pres. si 'feMi,, th •femt, oht» tcTB, mh •fe;^6jn>, bh 
t^JiTe, OHJi •hfl^ATb. Past si 'fejrb, ^Jia, -Ijio. Imp. •fenib. Part. 

65. (yjnmO^Tt to hurt. — Pres. si (y)fflH6y, th (y)inH6eiiiB ... ohA 
(y)inH6yTT>. Past si (y)ra66T,, -6jia, -6jio. Fut. si ymH^y, th yniH- 
6emb, etc. Imp. (y)inH66. Part. ymH6jienHHfi. 

The verbs A*Tb, jiiaTL, nacTL, cicTt and jie^t, are 
the perfective aspects of the regular verbs AiBaxb, ;i;aBaTL, 
na;i;aTi>, ca;i;6TLca and jio»fiTLCfl. Thus the inflections 
A^Hy, ;i;aM'b, najiy, cajiiy and jrary, are future tenses, be- 
cause the perfective aspect has not the present tense 
(page 109). 


BiiMCCTH to sweep (perf. asp.) corji4cHH& of one accord 

ct^AO herd na nosdai for show 

coo6m^Tb, coo6ii^dTb to inform BiiroH'b pasture, pasturage 

HH^ Bce paBH6 it is the same to me s^BipaRaTb to breakfast 

KyponaTRa partridge oukTh again 

Ha;^iflTbca to hope na oxbiy (to go) hunting 

npoBOA^Tb, npoBecT^ to spend, npniJiani^Hie invitation 

to pass 6uTb B-B BocT6pri to be delighted 

nojiardTL, dojioxbtb to suppose pasp'^m^nie permission 

ApyacecKH affectionately j^^jiob^tb to kiss, to embrace 

^yBCTBOBaTB, noH^BCTBOBaTB to feel CBkdJSA bundle 

npyrB stick, rod cjidnuBaTB, cjiondTB to break 

6^epeAB. turn oc66o separately. 

Irregular verbs, 133 


Kor;i;a a s^iiopoBTb, a. ne Bcer;i;a 6eper;f CBoe 3;i;op6Bi»e. 
Bpa'PB irat coo6iii,aeTB Bt CBoAxt nficLMaxi, ^to owl 
cjiHEeTt BO BceMt ropoA^ 3a o^ieHB HCKycnaro ^lejiOBiKa. 
S. jiiry 3a4cl, Apyr'B Mofi, a th Jia»eiiiL TaMi, ho r;i;t 
jifl»eTB Hamt ox^i^t? BecHoro s. ox6tho tjiiy ^^pest Jiici, 
Kor;ii& npHp6;i;a nojraa »63hh. OTHecfixe, noacajiyficTa, axo 
ifflCLMO Ha noTry. Hiirs Bh xotAtc ceroOT^ saBxpa- 
KaxB? Mni Bce paBHO, ;i;dfixe Mni, tto y Bacrt ecxt. Y 
nacB oxjrfiHHaa MOJ[o;^da KyponaxKa; a sanxpa a onixt 
noi;i;y na oxoxy. 

OaAh^ ox6^'b, q;fBCXBya, ^xo oh^ yMHpaexi, Bejiiji'B 
CBofiM'B CHHOBLiMi npHHCcxA CBflSKy npyxLeBt H CKasajFb 
HMi, ^xo6^ oh6 cJOMajiH 9xy CBff3Ky. Kaatjpifi H3t hex's 
Bt CBOK) 6^epe;i;B, uunLjiai ee cjiOMaxB, ho ne nort 9xoro 
c;i,4j[axL. Tor;iia ox^mt BOJi'ki't^ pasBasaxB 3xy CBfl3Ky h 
cjiOMaxB Kam;i;HH npyxt oc66o. 9xo 6hjio jierKo. — «^4- 
xh», CKasajFb oxei^Tb, «KaK^ 3xa CBrisKa npyxteBt, bh 
6y;i,exe chjibhh, noKy;i;a ocxanexecL corjiacHH, h cjia6H, 
KO^;^a fiy^eTe necorjiacHH.* 


A healthy man often does not take care of his 
health. What is the servant doing? He guards and 
shears the sheep (plur,). Did you sweep my room? 
I will sweep it immediately (perf, asp,). Where are 
you going? I am going home. Where do you bring 
these books? Where do you drive your horse? They 
are driving an elephant in the streets for show. The 
shepherd feeds (pastures) the herd on the pasturage in 
front of the town. They often sweep the streets in the 
towns. To-morrow I shall go hunting with my friend. 
Give your friend a sheet of letter paper. 

My dear friend, — I come to give you an invi- 
tation (xe6a npHPJiac^xB)^ and I hope that you will ac- 
cept (npi^MeniB) my invitation with pleasure. Please, 
come to spend a few days with us in the country (na 
;i;a^i). My father and I shall be delighted, for (66o) 
you know the friendship that we feel (nnxaeMt ki) 
for you. I suppose that you will easily obtain per- 

^ Employ in Russian the second person singular. 


Lessok 30. 

mission from your parents. Ours will also be with us. 
Your mother can be quite at ease (cnoKOfind). Come 
soon ; we await you with impatience. Your dear friend. 


Kto HanHcajLt npeKpacHyro 
pyecKyK) no9My o 6ij5flOWb 
pHi^api (knight)? 

KaKie ypoKH j^aext yqfiTejCB- 
HHi^a Baineft cecTpii? 

Paaei no^TajiLOffB (post- 
man) yace npHHecT> hhcl- 

KaKaa nor6;i;a na ;i;Bop4? 

Kto 6p6cHj['B 'dTa ciiH Bt 

Ky;i.a OTHCCJiH ;i.4th 6yMary, 

KOTopyK) AdLiiT> HMt npo- 

KpoBonpojifiTHa (bloody) jih 

6Hjia oca;i;a (siege) Ce- 

BacTonojia ? 

Mni KameTCff, hto ona na- 
ii6caHa SKjKOBCKiiwb. 

Ona ^ijacTx ypoKH (j)paHi^y3- 
CKaro H HiM6n;Karo asH- 


HiiTB, ein.e cjifanmowb pano, 
no3TOMy OH-B He Mor& eiii,e 
npofiTft no Hanieft yj[Hii;i. 

FpoMt rpeMHT'B H Aoat^t 
iij(^T% (it rains). 

C:feTH 6p6ineHH b'b B6;i;y Tt- 
MH pL[6aKaMH, KOTopKre 
npH6jniataK)Tca Kt 66pery. 

OhA OTHecM ee ki nepe- 

Ona 6Hjia oneHL KpoBonpo- 
jifiTHa. BojiLinoe hhcjio 
renepajiOB'b h cojiji^ivb 
6hLjio y6HT0 (killed), ho 
HHCJio yMepnTHXi oti» pant 
H OT^ 6oj['i3Heit 6iiJio 
eni,e HecpaBHCHHO 66jihme. 


Kas&Bi-roH^HjnB. — The Cossack-Messenger. 

Kto npn SBis^axt h npn jiyni 
TaKt n63AHO ijneT'B na koh4? 

Heft 3T0 KOHL HeyTOM^MOfi 

BiatHTi& Bt CTen6 Heo6o3p6MOfi? 

KasaK-B Ha eifiep'B ^epatHT-L nyTL, 
KaaaK-B ne xo^ct-b otaoxhjttb 

Hh B'B ^BICTOM'B HOJlt, HH B'B ;iiy6paB'£, 

Hh npH onacHoft nepenpaBi. 

Irregular ybrbs. 


KaKt CTKjio 6jjL&Tb ero 6jiecT6T^, 
MimoKTb 3a ndayxoft SBeitkrh: 
He cnoTKKaflCL bohb per^sod 
£'&k6tx, pasMaxHBafl rp6Bot. 

HepBOHiiiu Hy»HH MK roHii,a, 
ByjEaTt noTixa MOJOAi^a, 
PeTHBHfi KOHb — noxixa TOSLe, 
Ho inanKa ^jia. Her6 ^opoate. 

3a maimy ohi ocTdBHTB pa^Tb 

KoHi, nepBOHi^H h 6yjiaT'B: 

Oh-b BHAacT^ mairey tojibko cb 66k), 

H TO JIHfflL ct 6yiH0fi TOJEOBOH). 

Sa^iM'B OH'b maoKoS ;i;opoffiHT'B? 
SaTiMi, HTO Bt Heft AOHocb saniHTi, 
JI^OHOCB Ha reTMana 3jioa'&a, 
II|apK) lleTp^ oinb KoHy66a. 

HeyTOMHMfiift indefatigable 
;iy6pdBa forest 
6yjidTB poniard 
MtmoK'b purse 
sBeniTb to jingle 
rpi^Ba mane 
peTHBHJi mettled 
noTixa pastime, fun 
BHAaiL to give out 
jtopoacHTB to cherish 
r^TMani hetman, chieftain 
Eeo6o3ptMu1k unbounded 


Bep^^b 27 1 unjiiStrk 34. 

6jrK)CTH 46 
6paTB 13 

6pecTH 47 

6pHTb 1 
6t3RdTB 24 

6uTB page 42 

Be3T6 41 

BecTH 40 
BJie^b 38 

boji6hb 34 

FHaiB 14 

ihcctA 51 

rpH3TB 42 

rpecTH 56 
;iaTB 25 
;ipaTB 15 

A*TB 22 

xaiB 20 

nepenpdBa passage (of a river) 

^jecT^TB to sparkle 

3a ndayxoH on his breast, bosom 

cnoTHKdTBCA to stumble 

pasMdxHBaTB to wave 

HepB6Hei^i ducat 

paAi> joyous 

jinniB hardly 

6yHHGiH boisterous 

Aoh6c% denunciation 

sam^TB to sew in. 


saTB 21 
seHB 40 

atHTB 17 
3BaTB 16 

3;iaTB 8 
httA 63 
KjracTB 48 

KJaCTB 58 
KpHTB 4 

jieHB 32 

jiraiB 9 
jfeiB 43 
mcctA 52 
MOHB 28 

hcctA 59 


nacTi 60 
nacTB 50 
neHB 35 

1 Figure indicating the number o! each verb in the 29'** and 
30'** Lesson. 


Promiscuous exercises. 

u&ihca 36 
njiecT^ 53 

nJHTB 18 

noiSTid: 44 
npacTL 49 
sanpjkHB 29 
n'&Tb 2 

pacTA 62 

pHTfc 7 

CKpecT^ 57 
cjiaib 10 


CTaxB page 117 
cxep^HB 30 

CTJaTB 11 
CTpH^B 31 

c4% 37 
Te% 38 

TKaTB 12 

T0Ji6^B 39 
TpacTH 61 

xoriiB 23 
i^b4ct6 54 
^ecTB 55 
niH6i^TB 65 

•feCTB 64 

ixaTB 26. 



Have you an apple ? Yes, I have an apple. Where 
did you see your uncle ? I saw him in tiie house of 
the merchant. What did the cousin see? The cousin 
saw the flowers. What is (^to TaKoe) Moscow? Moscow 
is the ancient capital of Russia. Have you your bread ? 
I have my bread. What cheese have you? We have 
your cheese, and you have our cheese. Have you my 
beautiful candlestick? Yes, I have it. Have you the 
fine golden candlestick or the silver thimble (nanep- 
CTOK'b)? I have not the silver thimble, I have the golden 


Are you right? No, I am wrong. What bull have 
you? 1 have the bull of the good Russian proprietor 
(noM'imHK^). Have I the sugar or the honey? You have 
nothing. What sort of tea have you? I have not the 
tea, I have the coffee of my father. Does the prince 
possess a beautiful horse ? He has no beautiful horse ; 
he has an ugly ass. What knife have you, yours or 
the knife of the rich merchant? I have neither (wbrh hh) 
mine nor (hh) the knife of the rich merchant, I have 
yours. To whom did he give his trunk (cyH;i;3^K't)? He 
gave it to nobody. At whose [house] is he? He is at 
file old baker's. 


What bull has your friend? My good friend has 
the bull of his enemy. Has he also the large sheep 
(6ojiBni6ft 6apaH'B) of the cook? No, he has not the 

1 These Exercises may b© translated either orally only or 
by writing, along with tho other Exercises, as soon as the pupil 
has gone through the 21*^ lesson or even sooner. 

Promiscuous exercises. 137 

sheep of the cook. Is there much sugar, honey, tea 
and wax (bocki) at this poor merchant's and at that 
rich banker's? At the poor merchant's there is only 
much sugar and little honey, and at the rich banker's 
there is nothing, neither wax nor tea. Whose friend is 
this Frenchman and whose friend is that German? 
This Frenchman is the friend of that Englishman, and 
that German is the friend of this Spaniard (HcnaHn;eB'b). 

To whom does this officer give his lion ? He gives 
it to his father. Do you see the garden of the rich 
Englishman? I see his beautiful garden and his large 
house. Did you see the miller's (uejihsaK%) ass ? I saw 
it and I saw the tall horse of the little prince. Of 
which prince ? Of that of whom you always speak. Do 
you see the large town of the great king? I see his 
large town, but I see neither the magnificent castle nor 
the beautiful garden of the gallant prince. Which do 
you prefer, veal or mutton? I like neither veal nor 
mutton, I like coffee and tea. 


Do you see the shoemaker with my new shoes? 
I see him, but my brother does not see him. With 
whom does the good peasant speak? He speaks with 
my good old father. What have gallant kings? They 
have good soldiers. Of what shoemaker do you speak, 
of mine or of yours? I speak neither of mine nor 
of yours, but [I speak] of the shoemaker of my cousin 
(;i;B0K)p6AHHft 6paT^). Have you my weasel (xopeKx)? 
I have my weasel. What weasel has he? He has the 
weasel of your cousin. Of what do you speak with 
this rich merchant? I speak with him about my son 
who is his clerk (npHKamnKt). 

Of what emperor did you speak? I spoke of the 
emperor who has many brave warriors. Why did you 
speak neither with Alexander nor with Constantine? 
Because they did not speak with me. Where did he 
see the Empress with the daughters of the Grand-Duke 

138 Promiscuous exercices. 

(BejiHKifi KHa3F»). He saw them in (bi») the palace of the 
king. Is he fond of eagles and pigeons? No, he does 
not like eagles, he only likes pigeons. What goods 
have these rich merchants? They have velvet, cloth, 
linen and hemp (jieH'B h KOHonejiB). 


Is the sister well? No, the sister is ill, but the 
father is well. What did she receive from the good 
lady? She received a beautiful book from her. What 
did he give to the diligent boy? He gave him [some] 
new books, [some] beautiful copy-books and [some] 
good letter paper. Were you in London, when the 
Queen was there? I was there, when she was there, 
but I did not see her. Do you perceive the man that 
is coming? I do not perceive him. Do you see the 
children that study? I do not see those who study^ 
but those who play. 


Where these children ever punished? They never 
were punished, because they are always diligent; but 
those are punished very frequently, because they are 
idle. For what reason (oT^ero) does your sister not 
kindle (samnraTB) the fire? She does not kindle it, be- 
cause she fears to burn herself (o6m^^hCii), ^! Can your 
sisters see themselves in this large mirror? They can 
see themselves quite well in it. For what reason does 
your mother not read the book which you lent her? 
She cannot read it, because she has lost (her) sight 


What do they say in the market (phhok-b)? They 
say that the enemy has been beaten (paafiHT^). Do you 
believe (dat,) this? I believe this, because all say it. 
For what reason did you buy this book? I bought it, 
because I want it (mh^ ee HyatHo) in order to learn 
Russian and because they speak well of it. Can you 
go with me? I cannot go with you, because I must 
accompany my little sister to take a walk (ryji^TB). Where 
do you walk? We walk in the garden of our good 
aunt. Why do you listen to this man? I listen to him, 
but I do not believe him; I know that he is a liar. 

Promiscuous exercises. 139 

How long is it since your uncle died ? [It is] three 
months since he died. Whom do you see in this room? 
I see some girls with pale (fijiiiKHfl) faces. What did 
your friend show to your brother? He showed him 
the fine gun (pyatLe) which he bought in Paris ten years 
ago at the time of the universal exhibition. Did you 
see on those high trees the nests of the old nightingales? 
I did not see the nests, but I saw the nightingale. 
About what and with whom did the children of the 
old soldier speak? They spoke with us of their poor 
father. What novelty has this merchant? He has some 
fine white cloth and many new books. 

Boy and highwayman. — A boy having sold a 
cow, at the fair of Hereford, was waylaid by a high- 
wayman (nonajica ;i;op6roH pa366fiHHKy ), who, at a convenient 
place, demanded the money. On this the boy took to 
his heels and ran away (HaBOCTpHji^ hatkh h nycifijicji 
6iacaTB); but being overtaken by the highwayman he 
pulled the money out of his pocket and strewed it 
about, and, while the highwayman was picking it up, 
the boy jumped upon the horse and rode off with it. 
-7- Upon searching the saddle-bags (Upn 66HCK4 cyMOK'b 
npHBimeHHHX'b Kt ciwy), there were found twelve 
pounds [in cash] and two loaded pistols. 

Girl and philosopher. — At the moment, when a 
learned philosopher was very busy in his study, a 
little girl came to ask him for some fire. "But", says 
the doctor, "you have nothing to take it in'*. And he 
was going to fetch (H oh'l co6pajica OTHCKaTt elk) some- 
thing for that purpose, when the little girl stooped 
down at the fire-place, and, taking some cold ashes in 
[one] hand, with the other she put burning embers on 
them. The astonished doctor threw down (6p6cHJi't b'b 
CTopoHy) his book, saying: "With all my learning, I 
never should have found out that expedient". 


Some Russian proverbs. 


II6cji'fe ;i,om;i,^ h c6jiHBiin- 


JlfiBdJihCTBO npeB^me 60- 

BOT^ Bly TieM^ IHTyKa. 

CBOii py6amKa Kt xijiy 

He 66flcfl co6^KH 6pexjiii- 

Boft, 66fica MOji^iaji^Bofi. 
C^^ijiaTB cpasy ;i,Ba ]s,%jib., 

Kyfl acejiiso noK^ ropa- 

Bes-B orH^ ;i;^iMa He 6bi- 

JEyiiine n63;i;HO ^i^fen-B hh- 

Hyacjiia saKona ne SHaeTX. 
Phm^ He B^ ojj.^H'h jx^eiib 

^ejiOB^K-B npe;i,no jiaraeT^, 

a Bor-B pacnojiaraeT-B. 
Bi;i,HOCTB He nop6K^. 
H-feTt p63Bi 6e3i mnndB-B. 
IIjioxo jxeat^T^, 6pi5xo 60- 

np43;i,HOCTi eCTB MaTB 

BCfeXi nop6KOBi. 
EaK^ HamHTO, TaK-B H 

He Bce TO 36J10TO, ^ito 

Jl^ijio MSLCTepa 6o6Tca. 

Be3i MyKH, H-feTi* HayKH. 
B±ji^k 0]ijak He npExd^i^T-B. 

XoTB y66fiTe Men^, 6cjih a 

^66pBifi KOHen;^, Bceny 

jj^ijiy B*HeD;^. 

After the storm comes a 

Content goes before wealth. 

That is the point. 
Charity begins at home. 

Barking dogs seldom bite. 

To kill two birds with one 

Strike the iron while it is 

Where the smoke is, there 

is the fire. 
Better late than never. 

Necessity has no law. 
Rome was not built in a 

Man proposes and God 

Poverty is no disgrace. 
No rose without a thorn. 
Opportunity makes the 

Idleness is the root of all 

Ill gotten goods never 

All is not gold that glitters. 

Assiduity makes all things 

No pain, no profit. 
Misfortunes never come 

Take me in a lie and hang 

All is well, that ends well. 






In regard to the gender of substantives ending in 
L the following rules may be established: 

To the masculine gender belong most names of 
animate beings, especially of those denoting male in- 
dividuals : 

BoacAb leader r6jiy6B pigeon 

ynATCJiB teacher ^epsB worm. 

Masculine are also such as terminate in cjel, hjib, 
CHb, apB, HpB, and jib preceded by a labial: 

KOHon^jB hemp 6yKBdpB ABC-book 

(t)HT6j[B match MOHacTiipB convent 

xeHB day Eopd5jiB ship. 

To the feminine gender belong most names of in- 
animate and abstract objects : 

^ecTB honour J^o6po;^iTeJB virtue 

XHTpocTB cunning i^^nB chain. 

Many names of towns, rivers and countries in l 
are likewise of the feminine gender: 

nepMB Perm • AcxpaxaHB Astrakhan 

06b Obi Ch66pb Siberia. 

Feminine are likewise such as end in a hissing 
consonant (at, % ni, m;): 

llOJlo;^exB young people hhiob mouse 

p'&^B speech nen^B thing 

jioxB falsehood, lie cI^hb shade, shed, shelter. 

The above rules are however subject to some ex- 
ceptions. The following names of abstract and inani- 
mate objects are masciUine: 

ajiKor6jiB alcohol 6H3dHB mizzen-sail 

6aHAep6jiB band tbos^b iron-nail 

6evi6jLb B flat (music) rjiar6jrB crane. 

1 See First Part, l^t Lesson. 


Lesson 1. 

rocnHTdJB hospital 
rpy3AB fungus 
x^roTb tar 
X02EAB rain 
z^yAb acorn 
EB6i^b ginger 
K6roTB claw 
MiOJi6ji.e'Sb well 
KOCTiijiL crutch 
KpeMJB citadel 
KyjiB sack 
jidrepL camp 
jiknoTb bast-shoe 
ji6kotb elbow 
joM6Tb slice 
MHHA^jib almond 

HHTK^JTB calico 

Hi&KejiB nickel 

H6roTB finger-nail 

HyjiB zero 

or^HB fire 

nejiBM^HL meatpasty 

nHCT6jiB pistol 

nyiB way (See lesson 4) 

pyjiB helm 

cep4;iB seraglio 

TdnojTB poplar 

yrojB charcoal 

XM^JB hop 

xpycTdjTB crystal 

U^pRyjiB pair of compasses 

^KopB anchor. 

Most appellations of male individuals admit of a 
female appellation being formed from them: 

a) by changing the terminations HK^oreni'B into Hi^a: 
njOM^HHEKB nephew njieMAHBHi^a niece 

CT4peii,B monk CTdpHii;a nun 

n^B^ui a singer n^Buua a female singer. 

b) by appending ni^a to the names of animals : 
BoiKi he-wolf BOJHHi^a she-wolf 

QC(tA'h he-ass ocj^a she ass 

opejL male eagle opjiHi^a female eagle. 

c) by changing tojib into TejBHHi^a: 

npiiiTejiB friend (man) npiflTejBHHi^a friend (woman) 

yqAiejB teacher yMAxejiBHRnia school-mistress^ 

d) by imeans of the termination Ka preceded in most 
cases by some euphonic letters or syllables: 
EBpon^eniB European (man) Eepont^fiRa European (woman) 
EBp^fi Jew Eap^iiKa Jewess 

IpeKB Greek (man) Ipe^dHita Greek (woman) 

r6jry6B male pigeon rojy^Ka female pigeon. 

e) by changing the masculine termination t, ft or 
h into HHH, HHfl, LA, Hxa : 

r^pi^on. duke repii;or6Hfl duchess 

rep6H hero repoHna heroine 

cjr^apB sir cyAdpuHfl madam 

kojaJhb sorcerer Ko.i;iyHB« sorceress 

n'^ByHB songster ntB>^HB;i songstress 

rocTB guest r6cTBii female guest 

ii6Bap'B cook nosapHxa cook-maid 

TpycB coward (man) xpycnxa coward (woman). 

^ By means of the termination ma is indicated the wife of a 
professional man : y^HxejiBma teacher's wife, HHcn^KTopmainspektor's 
wife, etc. 

Remarks on the gender of substantives. 143 

f ) family names are also liable to form their female 
derivative : 

rocnoAHHt naBJi6BCKiH Mr. Pavlovsky rocnoatd IlaBJidBCKafl 
KHasb Opji6B'B Prince Orlov KnarAHa Opji6Ba 

MOH A^AH JleBHH'B my uncle Levin M6fl TeTsa Jl^BEHa. 

Yet foreign family names, even when they have a Russian 
termination, must remain unchanged: rocnoAi&H'b HlHJuicp'B, rocnoz^ 

The following have an irregular feminine form: 

rocnoAHHi master rocnosd mistress 

Ayp^Ki madman ^Jpa mad woman 

Kop6j[B king KopoJi^Ba queen 

cjiyrd footman oiyxdHKa servant-maid 

6ap6H'B baron 6apoH^cca baroness 

npHHUT* prince npHHu^cca princess 

baobab;!, widower b^ob^ widow 

BMnepdTop'b emperor HMnepaipi&nia empress. 


Every empire is a ship whose anchors lie in the 
heart of the people. The second wife of the Tsar Alexey 
Mikhailovich was the Tsarina Natalia Kirillovna Na- 
ryshkin. Our way is traced by our inclinations and 
abilities ; morality and good sense must be our leaders, 
virtue our support. An excessive danger may give 
courage even to a coward woman. 

Alexander the great. — The celebrated quarrel 
between Macedon and Persia, we are told (KaKt paacKa- 
.SHBaroTi), originated in Alexander's refusal to pay the 
tribute of golden eggs, which his father paid. "The 
bird that laid such eggs has flown to the other world' '^ 
is reported to have been (TaKOBt, roBop^Tt, 6hjI'b) the 
answer of the Macedonian prince to the Persian envoy, 
who had come to receive the tribute. After this, Darius 
sent to the court of the Grecian monarch another am- 
bassador, whom he charged to deliver to Alexander a 
bat, a ball and a bag of very small seed called gunjad 
(rynataA'b). The bat and ball were meant (HiitjiH ni'tjbK)) 
to throw a ridicule on Alexander's youth, being fit 
amusements for his age (KaKt 6u H3o6paataa nrpy, CBofi- 
CTBeHHyro ero BoapacTy). (To be continued.) 

144 Lesson 1. 


CK&3Ka HexHpex'b PflsdncKHX'b MjsuKdHrax'b. — 

The tale of the four musicians of Riazan. 

y o;i;Hor6 qejiosiKa 6i>ijKb ocejii>, Bipno cJiyatHB- 
inift eMy MHoro ji'feTi>, ho KOTopoMy HaKOHeD,i> c^jibi 
HSM^HiijiH, TaKTb qTO OHi> Cb Kksijifiiwh ;i;HeMi» CTano- 
b6jich Bce Hecnoc66H4e ktb pafioT-fe. Xo3jiHHi> pimiiiE- 
Cfl y66TB er6 h co;i;piTB Ch Hero niKypy. Ocejii», 3a- 
M^THBTb, ^TO /ijijio He Jia;i,HO, yfi'feaKaJiTb h nycTiijiCfl no 
^^opor-fe Ki> r6po;i,y PflsaHH. 

«TaMi>», CKasajKb OHi cefii, «h Mory c;i;'§jiaTBca ro- 
po;i;cK]to:b My3HKdHT0MTb.» Ji;6jiro 6'fe^djii> ohtb h Ha- 
KOHeii;i> BCxpiTHJica c:b jiflraBoft co6aKoft, K0T6paa 
B3B63rHBajia, KaKi> mHBdxHoe yTOMJiennoe ^6jirHMTb 

«^T0 TH TaKi> B3Bii3rHBaeniB, TOBapHin;i> ?» cnpo- 
c6jii> ocejii>. 

«9xi>», OTB*qajia co6aKa, «xo3^hhi> xoTijnb Men^ 
yxon^TB, noTOMy ^ito a cxajia cxapd h ne Mory xo;i;6tb 
Ha oxoTy. BoTTb a h yfiimajia btb n6jie, ^a h He sh^io 
Ten6pB, KaKTb ;i;o6i>iBaTB ce6'§ xji46Tb Hacyin;HBifi.» 

«TaKi> no&ji^eM'b co MHoft», CKasajiob oceJiTb. «fl!xoqy 
c;i;ijiaTBca bi> Pasann uyshLKkuTOWb, Te6A xdace m63k- 
HO npHHjiTB BTb opKecTpi>. SL 6y;i;y nrpaxB na (|)Ji6fiT4, 
a TBI Ha 6y6Haxi>.» 

Co6dKa npHHajiS. npe;i;jiomeHie, h oh6 nomjiA bm*- 
CT*. Bi> He;i;ijiBHeMi> pascTO^niH yB^jii'fejiH oh6 K6ni- 
Ky, JieacaBniyK) na ;i;op6r'fe. (|)H3ioH6Mia y nefl 6Hjia 
TaKda K^cjiaa, KaKTb 6y;^T0 ona bm^cto mojiok& jih3- 
Hyjia yKcycy. 

^ewh npnropibHHJiacB, yc&Taa? cnpocfiji'b oceji'B. 

By;i;eniB ne btb ^yx*, OTB^THJia K6niKa, Kovji^k nya:- 
Ho onacdTBca sa CBOib rojiOBy. 3a to, ^to a CTapd, 
^TO 3y6Bi M06 npHTyn^jiHCB h^to a npe;i;noqHTaio Jiy- 
qme jiesRkTh 3a ne^Kofi, nemejiH jiobAtb MHmefi, xo- 
3MKa MOji cofinpS-jiacB Menji H3BecT6. Cnac66o, ^to 
a em;e B6-BpeMji ;i;ajia Tjiry. — Ho ^to ;i;4jiaTB ? Ky;i;a 

noft/i,eMi> ci> HaMH Bi> PaaaffBl Bi/^B ho^h^ My- 
SBiKa TBoe ji^^jio. Th 6y;i;eniB, KaKi> h mh, ropo^CK^MTb 


Hemarks on the gender of substantiyes. 


K61HK* noHp^BHJica cosiTTb, h oh4 npHCoe;i;HH6- 
jiacb K-b h6mi>. npoxo;i;^ m6mo o;i;Hor6 A»op4, nkmn 
6po;i;^H yB^^^-fejiH nixyxa, KOTdpufi kphti4jii> bo bcio 
rJlOTKy. (JJpodoAoiceHie 6ydefmJ 

HsifibH^TL to fai], to be gone 
p^m^TitCfl to decide 
saMiTHTB to perceive 
nycTHTBca to undertake a jour- 
ney, to start 
BSB^srHsaTL to seream, to cry 
yioni&TL to drown, to kill 
Hac^mHHfi of every day, daily 
6f6etrh the tamboarine 
nparopiDHaTBCii to be grieved 
Bi Ajxi of good cheer 
npHTyni&TBCfl to grow blunt 
HSBecT^ to kill 
xaTb Tjiry to escape 
6poAira vagabond 
saR^eyTB to throw back 
Hecnoc66HHft unfit 

co;(pdTB mK^py to skin 

xliio He Ji&AHo the affair did not 

go well, no good wind was 

jisiT&BB,a co6dRa a setter 
yTOMJigHHiiifi tired, fatigued 
Ao6hb4tb to procure, to earn 
(t»Ji^HTa the flute 
jmsH^TB to lick 
yc^THft whiskered 
onacdTBca to be in danger 
codHpdTBCfl to prepare oneself 
cnacd6o thanks to, fortunately 
B^Kh no doubt 
KpHidTB BO BCD pjidTKy to cry 

with all one's might. 


^TO XOrijITb XOS&B.R'b OCJlk 
CA^JiaTB Ch HHlTb? 

^TO me c^iJiajiTb ocejiTb? 

^TO OR'h xoTijTB ^^ijnaxb 
Bt Pas&HH? 

Cl> K'feMTb OH-B BCTpixHJICa 

Ha ;i,op6r*? 

^TO OTB^THJia co6aKa, 
Kor/1,4 oceji'b cnpoc^jiB 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. 

Ohtb xoxijiB y6±Th ero h 
co/i,paTB Ch Hero mKy- 
py, nOTOMy ^to ohi> 
CTajKb Hecnoc66eH'B ki 

3aMiTHBB, ^TO JlfbRO 6^- 

jio He JiS.;^HO, OHTb y6*- 
acaji'b H nycT^jica no 
Aopori, Be;i;yni,eft bbPh- 

Ohtb xoxijiB c;i;ijiaTBca 
TaMX> ropo^^cK^MB My3BI- 

Ohi> ;i,6jiro 6'feac&ji'B h na- 


JuardBOft co6k%oio, kot6- 

pafl B3B63rHBajia, KaKB 
»chb6tho€ yTOMjieHHoe 
;i;6jirHMTb nyxeMB. 
Ona OTBixHJia ocjiy, ^to 
xo3^hb xoTijiB yxo- 


Lesson 2. 

ee o npn^^H^ e& bsb^s- 
rHBaHBfl ? 

KaK6ft coBiTi> ^ajKb eft 
ocejiTb ? 

Kor6 BCTpiTHJiH oh6 em,e 
no ;i,op6r'fe? 

n^TB ee, xaBi* EaKB OHa 
cocT^pnjiacB^ n He mo- 
TJLk 66jiie xo/^6tb cb 
h6mb Ha ox6Ty. 
Ohi» npe^JioatAjiB eft c/^i- 
jiaTBCfl, BaB'B n oh%, bb 


Onft Hamjift B6niKy, jiesRk- 
Bmyio Ha ;i,op6ri; Hona 
cocT^pHJiacB, eA 8y6B[ 
Bitoajm H OHd 66ji^e He 

M0rJl4 JDLOBftTB MMHieft ; 

no 6T0Biy He6jiaro;^ap- 
Haa eA xoaiiftKa xoxijia 
HSBecTft ee. 
To ate c&Moe, ^to ohb yate 
npe;i;jioatftjD[B co6iK4. A 


BB PasdHB H cijiaTB- 


Cb BeJiH^ifcEHMB y^o- 

B6jIBCTBieMB. Eft B^/^B 

HH^er6 He ocxaBajiocB 
66jiBnie ji^ijiSiTh. 

Kb hhmb npncoe/i^HftjiCH 
em,e ^exBepxHft TOBa- 

ntTyxB. H^a MftMO o;i;ho- 
r6 ABopd, hAhih HOBBie 
;i,py3Btf yBft;i,iJiH n^fexy- 

X4, K0T6pHfi CH^^ijIB Ha 
B0p6TaXB H Kpn^ijIB BO 
BCH) rjl6TKy, BEK^HyBB 





The following nouns, and a few others rarely em- 
ployed, form their genitive plural in b i. e. like their 
nominative singular: 

1 See First Part, 2na and 3rd Lessons. 

^TO eft npe^^jioatftjiTb 

; OCeJDLB ? 

IIpHHajid jiH K6niKa co- 

BiTB ? 

H TaKi>, Bc4 Tp6e Hanp&- 


Kto ^to 6hjib? 

Eemarks on the declension op masculine nouns. 


coJiAkT'b soldier 
Tyc&p'b hussar 
Ka^j^Ti cadet 
rpeuaAep'B grenadier 
apmi^Hii arsheen 
^y;^1» pood 
cdxeHB fathom (7 feet). 

HejOBiK'b man 
iparyHi dragoon 
vjidH'B uhlan 
TypoKi. Turk 
peKp]^!^ recruit 
HyjiJai stocking 
candr'b boot 
paai time 

Nouns which end in anHHt and ^hhh'b have in the 
plural peculiar inflections, their singular being quite 
regular : 

N. ABO^nEAwb the nobleman 
G. jifiopaBiua. of the nobleman 
D. ;(BopflHHHy to the nobleman 
A. ABopxBHHa the nobleman 
I. ABopAHHHOM'B by the nobleman 
P. (o) ;^BopaH6H'fe (about) the nobl. 

Such are: 
AHrjHHdHHH'b Englishman 
nocejiflBHii'L husbandman 
EojirdpHHi Bulgarian 

ABopflHC the noblemen 
ABopHH'B of the noblemen 
ABopflHaifB to the noblemen 
j^BopflH'b the noblemen 
ABopflHaMH by the noblemen 
(o) i^BopiiHax'b (about) the nobl. 

PocciflHHH'b Russian 
rpaxxaHHB'b citizen 
KpecTL^HHH'B peasaut. 

Most names of young animals ending in chok'b 
have retained in the plural the Slavonic inflection rtb. 
and axa: 

N. TCJigHOKi the calf 
6. xej^HKa of the calf 
D. lejieHBy to the calf 
A. TCJieHRa the calf 
I. TCJieHKOMi. by the calf 
P. (o) TejCHKi (about) the calf. 

Such are: 
^rHeHOR'B lamb 
nopocenoK'B young pig 
xeped^HOK'b foal 
i(HnjeHOKi> pullet 
Kor^HORii kitten 

xejijiTa the calves 
tejikTb of the calves 
TCJATaHi* to the calves 
lejaii. the calves 
TejaraMH by the calves 
(o) xejiaTaxi* (about) the calves. 

pe6eH0Ri> child 
ocjigHORi young ass 

BOJIHCHOKl wolfs cub 

jikBeHOKi lion's whelp 
MumeHOK'B young mouse. 

A few masculine nouns in t and t take in their 
nominative plural the inflections a and A. The follo- 
wing are the most common words of this class: 
♦expert shore* 6eperd shores 

*6oK'B side 6okA sides 

B^Rcejb bill of exchange BCKcejifl bills of exchange 

^ Those marked with an asterisk have already been men- 
tioned in the 9^** lesson of the First Part, as having their pre- 
positional case in accented y when following bt» or Ha. 



Lbbsok 2. 

B^^ep'B evening 
TOJLocb voice 
*r6poji,'b town 
ipvL^ejih slate-pencil 
a6ktop'b doctor 
k6j[okoji» bell 
Ky^ep'B coachman 
*jiici forest 
'♦jryri meadow 
♦ocTpoBi island 
n^capL writer 
ndsapi cook 
pyK^B'B sleeve 
'"ca^'B garden 
flKopB anchor 

Beqep& evenings 
rojiocA voices 
ropoA^ towns 
rpHij^eJiA slate-pencils 
;(0£Top4 doctors 
KOJioROJid bells 
Ky^epd coachmen 
j[tc& forests 
jiyrd meadows 
ocTpoBa islands 
HHcapA writers 
noBapd cooks 
pysasd sleeves 
caxii and cax^ gardens 
siKojys. anchors. 

The following words have special terminations for 
the nominative and genitive plural: 
64pHH'L master, gentleman 64pe gentlemen 

6oflpHHi> boyard 
6paT'b brother 
pjaaB eye 
rocnoA^Hi sir 
^^pyr-L friend 
RHflSb prince 
RyMi godfather 
mfpEtiT, wife's brother 

gen. plur. 6api> 

6oipe boyards 

6paTbji brothers » 

rjiasd eyes » 

rocno;(4 gentlemen "» 

xpysBA friends » 

KEBZbi princes » 

KyuoBBfl godfathers » 

mypbi wife's brothers » 

xo3£HH'B master of the house xosAesa masters of houses » 

The following nouns have a double termination in 
the nominative plural, the first of which is more fre- 
quently used in colloquial language: 







fiojoci hair 

ro^i year 

K^MeHB stone 

KopnycB body 

Kpafi brink, land, territory 

KDDK'B hook, crook 

ji^RapB physician 

xeA'B honey 

6RopoR'B ham 

npo<{)^ccop'B professor 

port horn 

CH^ri. snow 

yroJB charcoal 

yraxejiB teacher 

BOJiocd, b6j[och hairs 
ro^a, ^6;^H years 
RaM^HBji, r4mhh stones 
Ropnyca, R6pnycB bodies 
RpaA, Rp4H brinks 

RpK)^B;i, RpK)RH hOOks 

jieRapH, jisRapH physicians 
MeA^, MCAH honeys 
ORopoRd, 6RopoRH hams 
npo<j)eccopd, npo(j)4ccopH 
porA, p6rH horns 
cnirA, CHirH snows 
yrojiBfl, piE charcoals 
yHHTCJia, yiHTOJiH teachers. 


N. B. Those nouns with a double plural termination con- 
veying a different meaning will be found in the fourth lesson. 

Some nouns in efi and a few Christian names in 
fi change e or i of the nominative singular into h in 
all other cases, as has been seen in the third lesson 

Hemares ok the declension of masculine nouns. 149 

of the first part; but most nouns in ift retain their i 
in all cases, because in the prepositional singular i 
after i is always changed into h. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. r^Hiii the genius r^nia the genii 

6. r^HiA of the genius r^eieBi. of the genii 

D. r^HiD to the genius r^Hi^H'B to the genii 

A. T^ma the genius r^HieBi> the genii 

I. r^HieMi with the genius r^BiflMH with the genii 

P. (o) r^HiH (about) the genius. (o) r^niaxi (about) the genii. 

Such are: 
BHKdpiH vicar. BHHOH^pniS cup-bearer. 


Misfortunes are the only teachers that can blame 
us with success {ct> nojiLSOH)). Will you judge of a man, 
consider what friends he has. A man in a good si- 
tuation (npn M-tcTi) loses his friends, as soon as he 
abandons his place, just as if not he but his place had 
friends. Black eyes have a greater force of expression 
and more liveliness ; but blue eyes have more mildness 
and grace; so said BufEon. 

Continuation.! — The bag of seed was intended 
as an emblem (o6o3HaHajii> 3M6ji^My) of the Persian army, 
which was innumerable. Alexander took the bat and 
ball into his hand, and said: "This is the emblem of 
my power, with which I strike the ball of your mo- 
narch's dominion; and this fowl (he had ordered one 
to be brought) will show you soon what a morsel (keki 
HesHa^TCJiLHo) your army will prove to mine". The 
grain was instantly eaten up and Alexander gave the 
envoy a wild melon, desiring him to tell his sovereign 
all what he had heard and seen, and also to give him 
that fruit, the taste of which would enable him (;i;6jimeH'B 
6ujii> ja^SiTh eny BOSMoatHOCTL) to judge of the bitter fare 
that awaited him. 


CKasKa Hexupex'B Vas&ncKKXJh MysHK&HTax'L. 

«Th Hacib orjiyin6jii>, CKa3ajii> oce.ii>. H3i>-3a^er6 

^TO TBI TaKI> pa30p&JICH?» 
1 See page 143. 

150 Lesson 2. 

«a B03B*m,ajii> tfcHyio nor6/i,y, orB±^k:ny nixyxi*. 
3aBTpa BOCKpeceHbe, y xoaiifiKH 3/i,iniHaro ;i,6Ma 6y- 
/^yTi> o6i;i;aTi> r6cTH, h ona sejiijia KyxdpK* CBepnyTB 
MH'fe meio. MeH^ xot^ti> Ch^CTh bi> cyn4, h boti> 
no^eMy a cn'femy HaKpH^aTbca B;i;6B0Jib.» 

«^ypdKi> TH, ;i;ypaKTb, KpicHuft rpe6eHL! CKa34jii> 
ocejii>; noft;i;eMpb-Ka jryimie ci> h^mh btb PHsaHt. y 
Te6ii xopomift r6jioci>, h Kor;i;a mbi 3a;^a;i;6M'L KOHUjepxTb, 
jiib6o 6y;i,eTi> nocjiyinaTb nacb.)) 

n^xyxy npHinji6cB xande npe;i;jioaEceHie no BKycy, 

H BOTTb OHii OTnpaBHJIHCb BC4 BM^CT't. ^0 PaSaHH 0H6 

He Morjiii ;i;oftT6 btb toti> ^e caMufi a^hb; k'b Be^epy 
oh6 ;i;o6pajiHCi> ;i;o Jiica, rji,± h p'fem^jiH nepenoqeBaTb. 
O-cejiTb H co6aKa pacnojiom^jiHCb no/i,i> ;i;epeBOMi>, a 
K6mKa H n'fexyxTb BCKap46KajiHCb na Hero. n-feTyxTb 
;i;jifl 66jibniefl 6e3onacHOCTH bcko^6jii> ;i;aace na c^Myio 
BepxyniKy. IIobo;!;^ rjia34MH bo bc4 cxdpoHH, ohi> 
B;i,pyri> 3aM'§THJii> r;i;'fe-TO oroHeKi> h TOTqaci> ate 3a- 
KpHqajii> CBO^MTb TOBapanijaMTb, ^to 6kojio ;i;oji^h6 
6HTb acHJibe. 

«£cjiH TaKTb, CKa34jii> ocejiii, to nocn'feni6Mi> cko- 
pie B'h Ty CT6poHy. Sxa rocT6HHHii;a fiojibHO mh4 ne 
no BKycy.» 

Co6aKa npH6aBHJia : H btb caMOMTb ji^%ji% nicKOJib- 
KO KOCTefi ci> M^coMTb 6^jiu 6hL Tenepb o^enb kct^th. 

0h6 HanpaBHJiHCb ki> CB'feT^Bniefica Td^K'fe. CKopo 
oroneKTb 3a6jiHCTajii> ^p^e, h OHii o^iyTiijiHCb nepe;i;i> 
pa366ftHH^bHMi> ;i;6mhkomi>, ocB'feni.eHHbiM'b BHyxp^. 
Ocejii>, KaKTb ciMHfi 6ojibni6fi, no;i;oniejKb ktb OKHy n 
3arjiaHyji'b bi> nero. 

^TO TBI Bii;i;Hnib, cipBifi? cnpoc6i[i> n4Tyxi>. 

^TO a B^^y? OTB^feTidjiTb ocejiob. B6acy ctojitb, y- 
CTaBjieHHBifi KyniaHbaMH h nan^TKaMH, a Kpyr6Mib Be- 
cejio nnpyiOTTb pa36pftHHKH. 

BoT-B 6bi noacHB^Tbca to, CKasaji'B niTyx-B. 

^a, cjiaBHO 6h, no;i;TBep;i;6jii> ocejiT>. Bx-b, ecjin- 
6m MBI 6^JIH na HX-B MicT-fe! (TIpodoAOKSme 6ydem%.) 

orjiyniHTB to deafen BepxymKa the top 

pasopaTBCJi to cry oroneKT. a light 

csepH^B m^K) to wring the neck KCidiH by the way, seasonably 

l^o6p5,TBca to reach o^yiHTBWi to appear 

nepeHOHesdiB to spend the night cipsfi gray one 

BCKapd^KaiBCJi to climb ycTdBjeHeHft covered 

Remarks on the declension of masculine nouns. 


DHpoBdiL to banquet 
cjidBHo pleasant 
coBcim entirely 
BosB'femdTB to announce 
ba6bojib to one's satisfaction 
p^miTBCJi to decide 
pacnojiozHTBCJi to take place 
BCKo^^TB to leap 

noBOA^TB to turn (eyes) 

shjibS a dwelling 

T6?Ra the point 

sarjianyTB to peep 

KymaHBe food 

Han^TOKi beverage, drinking 

nosHB^TBCii to make the best of 

noATBepAi&TB to assent. 


^TO OTfiiTHJiTb n4Tyxi>? 

A noHeMy ate owh TaKt 

rp6MK0 Kpn^&jnb? 
H xaKTb oh6 ^nk^mT'h co- 


KaKifl ace Sto 66jih npn- 
KJiio^eHia ? 

T/i;* ^e oh6 HoqeBajiH? 

IIoqeMy dTO? 


B03B4m;&eTi> xop6iiiyio 
nor6;i;y, ^to s^btpeboc- 
Kpec^Hte H ^TO X03M- 
Ka Bejiijia y66TB er6Bi> 
cyn'b, 660 y neA saB- 

Tpa SB&HHBie r6CTH. 

IIoTOMy qTO OHTb ;i,4jiaji'b 
6x0 wh nocjii;i;Hift pa3i>. 

H^T-B, OHii ein;e hm^jih 
;i;pyrla npHKJiio^6Hia, 
iip6m;i;e H^^ejin ;i,oniJi^ 
;i,o Pfl3&Hn. 

TaKi> KaKi* 6^jio yate 
n63AHO, TO oh6 6^jih 
npHHym;i;eH^ ho^cb^tb 
Ha OTKp^OMTb n6ji4. 

TaKTb KaKi> oh6, no pS,3- 
HOCTH nop6A£i H npHB6:- 
^eK'B, He Morjiii jie^B o- 
A^Hi* nd/^Ji-fe ;iipyr&ro, to 
oh6 h B66pajiH ce64 p43- 
HBia wbQ,Tk]i,JLSL H0^ji6ra. 

Ji;pyac6a K6mKH ct co6&- 

KOH) 6HJld TaKI> HOBa, 

^TO KdniKa He coBciMi* 
ffOBip^jia efi ; K6inKa ate 
H n4Tyxi> npe;i;n6qjiH 
B3JI43TB ;^jia 6e30nicHO- 
CTH Ha ;i;6peB0, a co6§.- 
Ka H ocgjiTb pacnojioatA- 
jiHCB no;i;Tb cinBio er6; 
B;i;pynb n'fexyxB no3Bda'B 
CBoAxB HOBBix'b ;i;py3efi. 

152 Lesson 3. 

yB6A*Ji^ JiH OHi> qT6-HH- Ohi> YB±]s,'bjL'h HeB^ajieKi 
6YAh ondcHoe? MepD,4Bniifi oroHeKt. 

Ha ^TO-me oh6 p'feinii- Ji;py3B^,nocoBiTOBaBniHCB 
jiHCb? Mem/^y co66k), ^t6 6h 

dTO Morji6 6htb, ckjqlo- 
H^jiHCB Ki> npe^nojioate- 
hIk), ^to to fiBiJid ro- 
CT6HHHii;a; h TaKB kslk'b 
Bct oh6 66:jih r6jio;i;HH, 
t6 h o6p&;i,OBaJiHCB dio- 

My OTKp^TilO. 

Hainji6 OHii bb caMOMB ;i;i- HixB, jsfiwh bb kotopomb 
jr-fe rocTiiHHHi^y ? MCJiBKajiB oroneKB 6iiJii> 

He xpaKT^pB, a pa366fi- 

HHmfi npHT6HB. 



Most feminine nouns ending inata, ^a, ma preceded 
by another consonant, in ma, some in ^a, 3a, jra, pa, 
and also those in ti, take in their genitive plural the 
inflection efi instead of b and b: 

Bossd. (Bossi) bridle Bosxeti of the bridles 

sajiaH^d belfry itajiaH^^ft of the belfries 

B^Rma squirrel B^Rmefi of the squirrels 

p6ma flprove p6meH of the fjroves 

cres^ footpath CTes^S of the footpaths 

CBBHBfl pig CBHH^tf pigS. 

The great majority of nouns ending in ia and bh 
(unaccented) have their genitive plural in ift: 

4pMifl church &pMi3 of the armies 

K^jihH cell K^jiS of the cells. 

The vowel o is elided in some cases of the singular 
and throughout the plural, in the four following nouns : 

U^pKOBB church i^epRBH churches 

jik)66bb love* (jii)6b6) love affairs 

lOMh lie, falsehood (jzh) lies 

pozB rye pxH ryes. 

^ Jis)66Bh when used as a Christian name never elides the 
vowel 0. 

Remarks on the declension of feminine and neuter nouns. 153 

Singular. Plural. 

N. u^pKOBB the church nepKBH the churches 

G. u^pRBH of the church i^epKBeff of the churches 

D. nepKBH to the church i^epKBaMi to the churches 

A. n^psoBL the church it^pKBH the churches 

I. i^^pROBbK) with the church uepsB^MH with the churches 

P. (o) in^pKBH (about) the church, (o) niepKBaxx (about) the churches. 

Neuter nouns in ko and ii;e (i^o) having a diminu- 
tive signification insert e in the genitive plural ; and in 
the nominative plural the former take h, and the latter 
H. In other respects they are regularly declined : 
KOJ^HRO small ring koj^hkh small rings gen. plur. KOJ^^eK'B 
cepA^^KO little heard cep;t4^KH little hearts » cep^j^^eKt 

AOVHDiKo little house ^OHHinKH little houses » AOMnmeR'b 

ji^jBue mouth-piece i^jii>ii;h mouth-pieces » ^yjieni 

noJioxeHi^e towel noJioT^HUH towels » nojoT^Hei^i. 

Nouns ending in 3to, cto, cko, ctbo and many in 
JO never insert any vowel in the formation of the geni- 
tive plural: 

rH^a^o nest iH'taA'b {pron. gnyozd) of the nests 

Micro place Micxi of the places 

B6ficR0 army BoricRi of the armies 

^yBCTBo feeling nyBCXBi of the feelings 

peMecj6 trade, profession peMgcjii of the trades 

rdpjio throat, gullet ropji of the throats. 

A few neuter nouns in lc form their genitive plural 
in hewb] they are: 

KymaHBe food, dish RymaHBeBi of the dishes 

novicTBe domain noMicTBeBi of the domains 

ycTLe mouth (of a river) ycTLCBi of the mouths. 

Neuter augmentative nouns in me have their nomi- 
native plural in h: 

AOMHn^e large ugly house aomhuih large ugly houses 

CTOJHme great table cioj^mH great tables. 


My dear friend. — You wish to subscribe to a 
Russian newspaper and you do not know which to 
choose. Well I I will assist you (K noMory Bant). Of 
the political papers, the most important is undoubtedly 
The Moscow Gazette, a journal of great authority and 
as independent as circumstances permit. Its chief edi- 
tor has been up to recently the late Katkoff. Equally 
important and very widespread is The New Time, as 
is also The News, which incessantly preach or defend 

154 Lesson 3. 

more or less advanced views. Our Life and the Russian 
Word came of late years in great renown (cA'bJiajiHCbHS- 
B'tcTHHMH) even out of Russia. 

Of the papers which serve as the organs of the 
government, the most important ar^: the Government 
Messenger and The Russian Invalid ; the latter is edited 
by the Ministry of War and chiefly discusses mihtary 
matters. Also at Port- Arthur they published a great 
journal under the name of The New Territory, but after 
the unsuccessful war it discontinued publishing. The 
best review is The Messenger of Europe, and among 
illustrated publications, almost all issued weekly, you 
will do well to choose The Illustrated World or The 
Field (HnBa). I hope I have at least indicated to you the 
best papers and remain yours sincerely. 




H oh6 HaqajiH npH;i;yMHBaTi>, KaK-L 6bi bi^jkhtb 
pa366fiHHKOBi>. HaK0H6n;Tb p^fem^jiHCB . . . Ocejnb CTajii> 
Ha ][,u6^ H nojioac6jii> nepe;i;Hia hofh na okh6, c^aKa 
BCKon^jia Ha cn^Hy ocjia, K6niKa B3o6pajiacB na co- 
6aKy, n-feTyxTb B3JieT'j&jii> na r6jiOBy KoniKH. PasM-fe- 
CTi^iBniHCB TaK^Mib 66pa30MTb, oh6, no ;i;aHHOMy cnrnd- 
jiy, Bcfe BMicT-fe na^aJiH B/i.pyr'B CBOft KOHn;epTi>. Ocejii> 
sapeBijiTb, co6dKa 3ajiS.flJia, KomKa saMsyKajia, n'fexyxTb 
3anijii>. UoTdMTb oh6 bcko^Ajih btb okho, pa366BniH 
CTCKJia, K0T6pBifl CO 3b6homi> pasjiexijiHCb b-b ;i;pe- 

Pa366fiHHKH, ycji^maBniH dTOTi> cxpaniHBifi m.^wh, 
BTb Hcnyr-fe bcko^Ajih ctb m^cttb cbo6xi», ;i;yMafl, ^to bi> 
KdMHaxy Bomjid npHBH/i,iHie, h pa36'fe3KajiHCB b'b Ji'feci>. 
Tor;i;a ^exiipe TOBapnm^a cijiH sa ctojii> h npHnaji^CB 
KymaTB ci> TaK6Mi> anneT^TOMTb, KaKi> 6yTi;T0 rojio;i;a- 
jiH ii;ijiHfi Micanj-L. IIo OKon^aniH yacHHa, MysHKan- 
TH noTyiniiiEH cb^^h h CTajiii HCKaxB ce6i Micra a^i^ 
6T;i;Hxa. KajK;i;Hfi Bii6pajii> ce6'§ xaKoe, KOT6poe 66jib- 
me no/i,xo;i;6jio ki> ero naTyp'fe h npHBii^KaMTb. OcejiTb 
jieri> Ha HaB63i>, co64Ka 3a ;i;BepBio, KomKa y ne^KH, 
H'feTyxTb c'fejii> Ha niecTt ; h TaKi> KaK-L oh6 6^jih yxoM- 

Kemarks on the declension of feminine and neuter nouns. 155 

jieH]^ ji^ojLTmi'b nyxeMTb, to BCK6pdfe aacHyjm. Kor;i;a 
pa366fiHHKH yB6;i;*jiH, ^to bi> ^^dnt hxi> nixTb orn^, h 
^TO Bce TaMi> Kasajiocb cnoK6fiHBiMi>, axaM^H^b CKa- 
skji^h: «A B'^ji.h dTO o;i;HaKO cpaMTb, ^to mbi pa364ata- 
jiHCB» H nocjiajiTb o;i;Hor6 h3i> CBoix'b paayanaTb, ^ito 
;i;ijiaeTca bi> ;i;6m4. IldcjiaHHijfi Hamejii>, ito noBCib- 
;^y Bce t6xo h, Bofi/i;^ Bt KyxHio, xoT^jii aaate^B ornji. 
Ohtb Bsaji-B cn6^Ky, h no;^Heci> ee ki» rjiasaM^ koihkh, 
KOTopHe noKaaaJiHCB eMy ji^bjuA ropAmjHMH fvjiaMa. 
Ho KoniKa He jiio6iijia myxiiTB h Bi^in6jiacB eny bi 
annjo. CxpaxTb OBjQ[a;i;iji'B ndcjiaHHBiMi* h oh'b 6p6cHJi- 
ca onpoMeTBH) ktb ;i;Bep^Mi>. 

CofiaKa, cnaBHiaa no 6ji630Cth BCK0^6jia h yKy- 
c6jia ero aa-Horn. Kor;i;a ornb 64maJii> n6 A^opy, m6mo 
Ky^H HaB63a, ocejKb 630 scefl c6jih jiarHyjii> er6 sa;^- 
HHMH Hor^MH, B, n'feTyxi>, BCTpenenyBmifica oti» dxoro 
myMa, yate KpH^ajii> ci» CBoer6 mecTk: «KyKypeKyI» 

Pa366ftHHK'b san^JxasniHCB, npHfitatajii ki> axaMa- 
Hy. «y HacTb BTb ]i^6u± CTpamnaa KOJi;i;yHBa, CKasajnb 
OHTb, OHa HCii;apanajia mh* jihuo cbo6mh Korx^MH; y 
;iiBepeft cto6ti> qejiOBiKi> ch HoatdM-B, K0T6pHft panaJiTb 
Men^ Bi> H6ry; ABop^b CTopoat^TTb KaK6e-T0 ^epnoe ^y- 
;i;6BHm;e, XBax^Binee Men^ jij6Ano6.y sl na Kpitoit ch- 
/^6ti> cy;i;L^, K0T6pBifi 3aKpH^4jii> : npHBe;i,6Te mh4 !5to- 
ro B^cfejibHHKa , . . SL nac^jiy yniejn* oti» hhx'bI» 

Ci> T-fexTb nopTb pa366fiHHKH He CMijiH 66jiBnie no- 
K^SBiBaTBca Bi> ;i;0Mi>, a qexBipeMi* Pas^HCKHMTb MysH- 

KaHTaMTb 0H1> Ta^Kt nOHp^BHJICa, ^TO Oh6 OCTaJIHCb BTb 

HeMTb HaBcer^a. 

npHA^MtiBaTB to begin to think 
CTaTB na a^^^ to stand on one's 

hind legs 
B3o6pdTbCfl to climb 
;5p66e3rH plur. shivers 
roJio;tdTL to starve 
noAxoAHTb to suit 
mecTb a perch, a beam 
sacHyTB to fall asleep 
pa3y3HdTb to see, to learn 
cm^^a a match 
6npoMeTBK) rashly 
BCTpeneflyTBca to awake 
KosAYEhu a witch 
K6roT'B the claw 

HyAdennie a monster 
BHcijiBUHK'B a gaUows-blrd 
BH2KHTB to ged rid of 
BCEo<iflTB to leap 
paaMicT^TBCfl to place oneself % 
npHBH^tieie a ghost, a spectre 
noTyniATB to blow out 
ua.Bdz'b straw, manure 
araMdH-B chieftain, captain 
cpaMi a shame 
aas^^B to light (fire) 
Bii,tn]kTBCfl to scratch 
jiiirnyTB to kick 
BHctjiLHHRi the knave 
sandxaTbCfl to get out of breath 


\jtmo% 3. 

n€M$^pktUir% to §emeh 
etiff^min^ to f oard 

nj^iOL a big cadgel 
BaLCkjj with pain, hardlj. 


Hy, a noT6Mi>? 

A Taicr* itaicii Sto cjiyqii- 
jiocb TaifL iieomiiAaHHO, 
TO paa66ftHMKn 6e8'i>coM- 
whm McnyriJiMCL? 

A ^To CA*JiajiM iieTiipe My- 

Ho no iiwrAjinch :xu pan- 

fi6fl H u K H llOUBpaTATLCa 

Oh^ H^^aJH npH^YMu- 
BaTB, KaKi» 6u: b]3i:khtb 


OceJii> CTajii» Ha ;^6]^, no- 
jiOTK^jiTi nepe^Hia H6rH 
Ha okh6, co6&Ka bcko- 
qjijia Ha cnAny ocia, 
KdmEa B3o6p&;iacB na 
co64Ky, n*Tyxi> B3Jie- 
Tiji-L Ha r6;iOBy K6niKH. 

ITo ;^4HH0My cnrnajiy bc* 

KOHDi^pTl*. nOT6Ml» 0h6 

iioji;h&jiii HacTo6iD;ifi co- 
AdMi) (devilish noise). 
CaM6 co66k) paayMieTca, 
oh6 ;i,yMajiH, ^to Sto 6^- 
Jio np6cT0 CB-^Tonpe- 
CTaBJi^Hie H pa36'feat^- 

To, ^ITO BC^Kifi rOJl6AHBlft 

c;i;4jiajil> 6h na Hxt Mi- 
CT*. 0h6 cijin aa ctojib 


OHii JierjiA cnaTB. 
Eme 6m! yB6;i,a, ^ito bb 
a6m* Bce TBMHd, oh6bo- 
poxrtaiiCB AsB-jitcy, ctbi- 
A^CB cAmh, TITO pasdi- 
xcaancB ncnyraHHBie ny- 
ct6io TpoBoroH) (alarm). 
ATaMUH-B BeaijB o;^ho- 
MV pa366fiHnKy nofrrA h 
nocMOTp^TB TTO x^^aeT- 
ca BB A^Mi, 

Irregular kouns. 


^TO me OH-B yB]i;;*ji'b? 

Kb KaK6My ^to yrojibKy? 

H no ji/kji6wh\ a noxdM-B? 

"5x0 me noTOMB c;i,ijiajiH 

pa366fiHHKH ? 

TaKBKaKBBB R6HHaT:6 6^- 
JIO TeMH6, TO OHB B3;^y- 

MajiB 3am6^B cn^^Ky n 
no;i;HecB ee kb yrojiB- 

To WTO, eny Kas^JiocB yr- 
jieMB, Ha c^MOMB ;i;iji4 
6biji6 rjiaad KdumvL, a 
K6niKH He JiH)6^TB iny- 
TiiTB, no ^TOMy H&ma 
KdniKa BD,4n6jiacB eMy 
BB jraii;6. 

Ho TyxB er6 eiD;e co6aKa 
ynyc^jia, ocejiB jiar- 
HyjiB, a nixyxB, Bcxpe- 
nenyBinHCB, aanijiB : Ky- 
KypeKy. TaKB ^to n6c- 


Bi}i;buo¥) H e^ noM6ii^- 


Pa366fiHHKH ycjL^maBB 
Sto, HaBcer;^d noKiiHyjiH 


nocejuijUHCB h^ihh npiA- 



The masculine noun nyiB way, takes in the geni" 
tive, dative and prepositional singular the feminine in- 
flection h; the other cases are regular. 

Chhb, son, inserts ob before the soft inflections of 
the plural: chhoblh, CHH0B6fi, CHHOBBaMB, etc. 

The words qepTB (^opTB) devil, coc4;^b neighbour, 
xojionB slave, jijoa'l people, are declined hard in the 
singular and soft in plural : ^epTB, ^epia, ^epry, etc. and 
^epra, ^epT6fi, ^epTaiiB, etc. 

The neuter nouns c6j[Hn;e sun, ofijiaKO cloud, o^ko 
point, yniKO handle, are declined in the plural as if they 

158 Lbssok 4. 

were of the masculine gender: cojmuH, cojrameB'B; o^k6, 
o^KOBi*; but yniKH, ymeK'b and o6jiaRa, o6jiaR6B'B. 

B4ko eyelid, and ri6jroKO apple, have their nomina- 
tive plural in h, but their genitive in i: b4kh, BiKi; 
a6jiOKH, a6jroK'B (also flfijOKOB'B). 

The following form their plural in a peculiar way : 

H^6o heaven He6ec4 heavens He6^ci of the heavens 

Hjfjto wonder Hy;^ec& wonders Hy;^6cx of the wonders^ 

X^peBo tree xep^BBa trees Aep^sbeai of the trees^ 

XHo ground x^hla grounds A6HbeBi of the grounds 

310 evil (not used) son of the evils 

6ko eye (poetical) ohh eyes oH^fi of the eyes 

yxo ear yom ears ym^K of the ears. 

The following have a double inflection in the plural, 
one regular and one irregular, the latter with a collec- 
tive force: 

6aT6ri whip 6aTorH -6bi 6aT6xbji -LeBi 

BHyK^b grandson ^wjisM -obi BHyn&Ta -ax^b 

K6peHb root k6phh -efi Kop^ubn -beBi 

cyKi branch cyKH -obi c^Hba -bCBi 

XHp4 hole AHpii -Aupi AiipbK -bCBi. 

The following have a double inflection, conveying 
in each instance different meanings: 

syCi tooth 33^6h teeth (in the mouth) 3^6b)i teeth (of a comb etc.) 

jiHCTi leaf jiHCTii leaves of a book jiiicTbfl leaves of a tree 

Mysi man iiyz^ men nysb^ husbands 

Mtxi fur [ageM^xH pair of bellows Mtxd furs 
66pa3'b form, im- 66pa3H forms o6pa3& images 

cyAHo vessel cj^ahh vessels (utensils) cyA^ vessels (ships) 
xjii6'b bread xii6H loaves XAt64 kinds of corn 

nfi'^Tb colour i^iTu flowers i^Bir^ colours.' 

The word koj[4ho has three plural inflections : 

Koiino tribe Rojina tribes gen. KOjiHi 

KOiino knee soAinB knees » RoiiHeiir 

KOJiieo joint (of a chain) KOiinba joints > sojiiubeB^b. 

N. B. The irregular nouns MaTb, AOHb and aht^ have been 
declined in the First Part, Lessons h^ and 6th. 

The two nouns XpHCTOCB Christ, and FocnoAh the 
Lord, make: 

^ H^AO when it means a monster is used only in the singular. 

^ Also regularly AepeB^ and Aepesi. 

' In poetry these distinctions are often disregarded. 

Irregular nouns. *159 

N. XpHCTdci Christ ^oc^6;^I» the Lord 

G. XpHCxd of .Christ rocno^a of the Lord 

D. XpHCxy to Christ Fdcno^y to the Lord 

A. XpHCxd Christ ^6c^o;^a the Lord 

L XpHCTdHi by Christ ^6c^o;^oM^ by the Lord 

P. (o) XpHCii (about) Christ (o) TdcnoAi (about) the Lord 

V. XpHCT^! Christ. ^6c^o;^HI o Lord! 


The way to Heaven is wet with tears and blood, 
and encumbered with ruins and corpses heaped up by 
fanaticism. Religion has no necessity of miracles crea- 
ted by men ; she has quite enough (ji^ae Toro ;i;ocTaTO^- 
Ho) of the wonders of creation and nature. Yet it is evi- 
dent (caMO co66h) paayM^eTca) that the same God who 
drew nature from nought, can do all miracles he likes. 
There are two powerful means against evil (plur.) : to 
get accustomed to it for the ignorant mob (npHBHKanie a^k 
nepHH), reflection and circumspection for the wise. 

My dear brother. — You remind me that I had 
promised to give you a general notion of St. Peters- 
burg and you reproach me because (^to) I have not yet 
told you anything about this great city, the capital of 
a rich and powerful empire, a centre of trade and in- 
dustry of great importance. I pray you to pardon my 
[sin of] omission, and I am going (ofiiiiiiaH)) to make 
amends for it (HcnpaBHTLca) St. Petersburg lies, as you 
know, on the banks of the Neva, not far from where 
it flows into the Gulf of Finland. Strangers desirous 
(KOTopHe mimiOTh) of obtaining a general idea of the 
town, usually ascend [on] the Dome of Saint Isaac's 
(HcaKieBCKifiCo66p'B)and it is exactly what I did(T63Ke 
caMoe H a c;i;'kiaji'B) a few days ago. Then alone I could 
justly appreciate the dangerous, I might say (cKaacj^ 
^ame) threatening situation of this great city. 

(To he continued.) 
JltcHott n^apL. — The Forest King.^ 

Kto CKa^eTi), kto m^i^tch no/i.'B xjia;i;HOio MTjiofi? 

K-L OTii;y, Becb HS/^porHyBt, najiibTKa npHH^K-B: 

'Bs/i.OK^ 3ano3/i,ajiHfi, ci> khm-l chh-l MOJio;^6fl. 

06Hfoi>, ero ;^ep3KHTi> ii rpiext cxap^K-L. 

1 Free translation of Goethe's Erl-king (iSrlfdnig). 

160 Lesson 4. 

— ^HT^, ^TO KO MH'fe TLI TaKt p66KO npB[JIbHyjIl> ? 

<<Pojifiuhi&, JI'fecHofi D^apL B'b TJidisk MHij CBepKHyjii>: 
Oh-l B'b TeMHOfi Kop6H*, Ch rycToft 6opo;i;6fiI» 

— H*Ti», TO 6ijiieTi> TyMaHi> Ha^x Bo;^6fi. — 

JiyVLTA, orjuaH^ca, MJia;i;eHeii;'i>, ko MH'fe; 
Becejiaro MH6ro b-l Moefi CToponi; 
II^B^feTili finpiosoBLi, s&eMMfmuhL CTpy6; 
Hat 36jiOTa cjiiiTu ^epT6rH mo6. 

<<P0JI,±UM&, JI^CHOft IlJapB CO MHOfi roBopiTX : 

Oh^b sojioto, n6pjD[Li h p^;i;ocTb cyji6T'b.» 

— H^feT-L, Mofi MJia;i;eHeD,i>, ocjiiiniajica th: 
To BiTep-L, npocHyBmncb, K0Ji]6xHyjii> jluctA. 

— Ko MH*, Mofi MJia;i;6HeD,i> I Bt /^yfipaBt Mo6fil 
y3H&emb npeKpdcHHX'B Mo6x'b ji,o^epe&: 

IIpH Micau;* 6y;iiyT'b HrpAxb h jieT^Tb, 
Hrpaa, jieT^, Te66. ycunji^Tb. — 

«PoAiiMLifi, JI*CH6fi Iljapb cosB&Ji'h ;i;o^ep6fi: 

Mk^, BULSiy, KHBaiOT'B li^ly TeMHMX^ B^TBe&.» 

— H'bT'h, Bce cnoKoflHO B'b H0^H6ft rjiyfiHHi: 

To BeXJIbl dj\^Ul CTOjiT'b B'b CTOpOHi. 

— ,Hht^, a nji^feH^jica TBoefi KpacoT6fi: 
HeB6jiefi hjib B6jiefl, a 6y;i,einb the MOft. — 
<<PojifiMH&, JI*CH6fi Il^apb Hacb xd^eT^b jipvK&Tb; 
Yacb BOT'b 0Hi>; MH* ;^yniHO, mh* rAmKO /i,binidTb.» 

^s^j.dK'h opofiijiHfi He CKa^eT-b, jierATh; 
Mjia;i,eHeiii'b TOCKyex-b, MJia;^eHeD,i> Kpn^iiT^. 
'Bs^ljOK'b noroHjieT'b, isjs^OKiy ji^ocKa.Kkji'h — 
Bi> pyKaxi> er6 MepxBHft MJia;iieHeii;i> Jieac^ji'b. 


CKaKdxb to gallop rp-lTB to warm 

Hua darkness, mist p66R0 timidly 

3ano3A&JrHH belated, behind, time poA^uS my father 

npHHHKdTb Ki to press oneself to Kop6Ha the crown 

o6HflTi> to embrace TyMin-b the log, mist 

npHJUHyTb B'b to press oneself to 6HpK)36Buii like a turquoise 

CBepKH^b to twinkle ^epT6ri apartment, castle 

rycT6& thick ocjuimaTboi to misunderstand 

orjiaHj^Tbca to look round npocHyTbCJi to awake 

MH^TbCJi to hurry ycHnjiATb to lull to sleep 

'fe3A6K'b a rider eeijid a willow-tree 

BSApdmyTb to become benumbed ni'l^H^TbCA to be charmed 

Irbugular kouns. 


KOTE&Th to overtake, to seize 
TiESKO painful 
TocKOB&TB to pant 
AocsasiTb to arrive 
cjiHTL to cast, to melt 
cyjoSLTb to promise 
KOJiHXB^TB to Bbake 

KHfidTB to nod 

c^ft gpsey 

nesdjiefi unwillingly 

MHt A^BiBo I asi luffocating 

opo6ij[Hft frightened 

noroHifTB to whip, to urge (horses) 

MepTBHfi dead. 


Kto o;i;Haac;^ji CKaKdjii* wh 
TeMHyio H xoji6;i;Hyio 

HO^b ? 

Hto /^ijiajio ;^ht6? 

Hto TaK6e JI*CH6ft IlJapB ? 

II^apB Bt rjiaa&x^ Hcny- 
raHHaro MijiBMHKa? 
A ^TO roBopAjDCB OTei^t, 
^t66m yx^HiaTB er6? 

B'b ^TOMt? 

Bo3m63kho JIH dro? 

Koro em,e co3b&jii> JI^fecHoft 
Dlapb, no cjiOBaMt ^mr^- 


;i,6^epH ? 


HenpijiTHoe npHKJiio^e- 

Russian Cony.-Grammar. 

Ojifiwh 3ano3;i;dJii)ift ±3- 
;i;6kb cb M&JieHBKHMrb 


MajiB^HKx H3;iip6rHyjii> h 
6oijica JE'fecHdro DjapA. 

dro BOO^[>a»&eMafl Ji^^- 
HOCTB y /^peBHHXx Tep- 

Ohb hoc6jii> TeMHyK) ko- 
poHy H HMijii rycTVH) 

Ohi> roBopiiji'B eMy, ^to 
MH^ttBlfi JId^H6fi hh^t6 
iftHoe KaKB xyMaHHafl no- 

H^T-B, OHO yxBepat/^ajio 
Hanp6THB'B, HTO JL±ch6& 
I](apB eMy o6±m,keT'h 


9to HeB03M6acHO, no mm 

3H&eMB, ^TO JII&;^H BO 
CTpix* ^&CTO BA/I.aT'BHe 

cyni;6cTByH)ni,ie npe;^M6- 


Ohb co3b4jii> CBO&XTb ;i;o- 

T^epefi, KOTopua jipjiMn^ 

6^jiu HrpdTB CTB ;i;ht^- 

9to 6]6jih HiKOTopBia Be- 

TJiBi, CTO^mia He;i;ajieK6 

OTB ;i;op6rH. 
Bi;i,HHfl m4jibtihkb yMept 

OTB CTpaxa : rop^^iKa no- 

xiTHJia ero. 

102 Lesjsox 6. 




It is an advantage of the Russian language that 
by means of various terminations, one and the same 
substa-ntive may become augmentative, diminutive and 
derogatory. — This is a point deserving a great atten- 
tion on the part of learners, the use of modified substan- 
tives being so frequent and multifarious in Russian, 
and especially in colloquial language. 

1. Augmentative substantives show the unusually 
large size of an object, its ugliness and little value. Such 
ideas are conveyed by the terminations Hma, imi;e, HHa. 

pyK& hand pyiAm,B. large hand 

cojLA&T'h soldier cojiAdTHu^e big soldier 

AOMi house ;(OM^Ha ugly house. ^ 

2. Diminutive. This class comprises the compli- 
mentary or carreBsing form used when naming favourite 
persons or objects: 

6paTi> brother 6p4Tei('B dear brother 

jdmaiB horse jiomiAyinKa dear horse 

Rop6Ba cow Rop6BymRa dear cow. 

Sometimes diminutive forms are derived from a 
word already diminutive, that is, diminutive termina- 
tions may be superposed: 

3y6!L tooth 3y66Kib a little tooth 3y6guoK!L a very little tooth 
pyR4 hatid p^^^sa a little hand pynSHKa a very little hand. 

To the numerous class of diminutive nouns belong 
also the various and often obscure alterations which 
Christian names tmdergo, not only in famiUar but also 
in literary language: 

C&ma Sandy from AieRC&HAepi Alexander 

Mima Molly » Mipia Mary 

B^HB Johnny » Hb&hi John 

Jl^HJi little Endoxia » Abx6tbb £udoxia. 

The diminutives of politeness and respect, where- 
by no diminution of size is meant, belong likewise to 
this group. The most important are : 

^ Not all nouns having these terminations are augmentative: 
xMiBote dwelling, CBHHilkHa pork, etc. 

Augmentative, diminutive and foreign nouns. 16B 

64TioinKa little father* w^^roniKa little uncle ■] 

M^TyniKa little mother TgTjniKa little aunt 

6p4TyinKa little brother Ai^mita little grandfather 

cecTp6ii;a little sister (546yinKa little grandmother.* 

Foreign nouns, proper as well as common, when 
ending in o, h, e, 3, y, h) are invariable and may not 
be declined: 
Ha mnpoKOMi mocce 6hjio MH6ro On the broad highway there were 

Kapex'L. many carriages. 

Po6hhc6hi. Kpyao, poM^Hi Jfa- Robinson Crusoe, a novel by 
HHJia J(e06, MH:fe ne HpaBHica. Daniel Defoe, does not please 

to me. 

All foreign nouns ending in i,, l, fi, a^ a. are con- 
sidered and declined as if they were Russian words : 

A ipdMH lUdKcnupa npo^HTdjiH And Shakespeare's dramas have 

BH? you read them? 

a jiojiro npoatHJit hi renyrb, a bh I lived long at Genoa, and you 
Bi MaApudtb. at Madrid. 

Exceptions. French family names in a or n, such as 3ojri[, 
Jlionk (Zola, Dumas) may not be declined. Also certain Russian 
family names in o are sometimes left unchanged: R. roBopHji:b c:b 
reHepajoMt Fynpo. — K64)e, like all foreign nouns of the same class, 
is invariable, but its russified form K0(()6fi is declined regularly. 

3. Derogatory. They express want of regard or 
even contempt: 

;^0MHmK0 poor little house JIOffla;^eHKa worthless horse 

HoxeHmKo an ugly knife co6aHeHKa an ugly little dog. 


The inhabitants of the small towns and localities 
of Western Russia are for the most part Poles, Ger- 
mans and Jews. We often see that a small coal falling on 
a cask full of petroleum may cause (6htb npn^fiHOH)) 
a terrible conflagration. The Captain's little Daughter^ 
that it the exact title of Pushkin's famous novel. A 
great soldier, if not led to drill (^cjih hc Bo;i;aT^ Ha y^eHLe), 
for ever remains (bcc 6y;i.eTTbj a little soldier. 

Continuation.^ — I could then for the first time 
view the immense body (rpoMa;i.Hoe KOJifi^ecTBo) of water 

^ The Tsar is generally spoken of and addressed to as 64- 
TiomKa, by soldiers, peasants, etc. 

2 These diminutive forms are almost enclusively used when 
speaking to a person, and correspond to the French expressions 
monsieur voire pere, madame voire mere, etc. 

3 See page 159. 

164 Lesson 5. 

in which it seems to float with great pain Uke a bark 
overladen with precious goods. Turning my looks to 
the North, I saw the Basil Island where the Academy 
of Arts, the Military School, the Academy of Sciences, 
the University and the Exchange are situated, all of 
which face (Bci BHx6;^aT^ na) the Neva. A little to the 
right stands the Fortress, and along (na) the northern 
and western banks of the Neva rise (HaxoAfiTBca) a few 
other islands occupied by (saHaTHe instr,) barracks, fac- 
tories and other establishments. All these islands are 
joined with the continental part of the city by means 
of four bridges very similar to (na) many Paris and 
London bridges. The most beautiful of them is the 
Nicholas Bridge (HnKOjaeBCKifi MocTt). (To be continued.) 


MumeHOKiy kot^ h irbTyxt. — The young mouse, 
the cat and the cock. 
;i;iTH, ;iiiTH ! KaK-L onicHti Bamn jrira I MHme- 
HOK-L, He BH/i,aBmifi cnixa, nonajii> fii^jio bi> 6*;^^, h 
BOTh Ksmiy OHi> o6'h Hefi pa3CKa3HBajii> bi> ccmb* CBoefi : 
OcTaBKB-L Hamy H6py h nepedp^Bmncb nepes^ ropH, 
KOTopwa cocTaBJijiiOT'b rpaH6n;y H^meft p6;i;HHij, ny- 
CT^jiCfl a 6:feacaTb KaKt MOJio;i,6ft MtiineHOKi, KOTopufi 
xo^CT^ noKasaTb, t5to OHt 66^*6 ne ;^ht^. B;i;yri> a 
ct pasMaxy na ^^Byxx acHB6THHxi> nafi'J&maji'L : KaKie 
SBipn, caMt He 3h4io h renepb ! 0a6hi> Hst nnxt 6i)ijii> 

TaKt CMJipeH-L H AOfip-L, TaK'b HJiaBHO BHCTyn^JIl> H 

6liji'l TaKt MHJiOB6AeHi> C06610I J];pyr6ft Hanp6THBi> 
6lijii> Haxaji-L, KpHKyn'b h CMOxpiji'b xaKiiM'b sadi^KOio, 
KaK'b 6y;i;T0 Bcfex-L xoTijit B^sBaTb na noe/i.^HOK'B, 
OHt 6hLJi'h Becb Bt n6pBax'b; KOCM^Tuft xboct-l ero 
CTaji^ KpibKOM-L; Ha;i,^ caMWM'L jiSom-l er6 jifiomkji'h 
KaK6fi-T0 Hap6cT'b 6rHeHHaro ii;BiTa, h 6^jih y Hero bi> 
p6;i,* pyKi> KaKie-TO ;i;Ba nyKa h3^ nepLeBi>, KOTopHe 
CMy cjiyacax'b ji^jih. nojiexa, ohi> iiMH Maxajr-L h TaK'b 
Kpn^aji-b, ^TO Bce BOKpyr'b ^pomajio. 3, BHaere, He 
Tpycb, a Bce-TaKH TaK'b Hcnyrajica, ^to Becb aa^po- 
acaji-b H ;i,aBaft 6iacaTb, ^to Bor'b /i.aji'b H6rH. EaKi> a 
o6i> dTOMT> coacajiiiol He 6y;i,b ero, Bipno 6li a no- 
Apyatiijica ct> ;i;pyr6M'b h nameji'b 6bi B'b neM-b h APyra 
H HacTdBHHKa — a Bi> rjiaaax-b ero Mori> BH;i,dTb, ^to 

Augmentative, diminutive and foreign nouns. 165 

OH'b rOT6B'b 6mji% na bc4 ycjiyrn. KaKi> tixo meBe- 
jiiiji'b OH'B CBOiiMB nym^CTiJM'L XBOCTdnt I Oh KaKfiiTB 
ycep^ilieM'B 6pocdjiB OH'b na Men^ CMHpeHHMe Bsdpij 
CBo6! KaKB Kp6TKH 6^JiH 0H6 H KaKB nojiH]^ ny;i,Ha- 
ro orHji ! lEepcTB na neMB 6hLJik rjia/i,Ka KaKB mejiKB, 
roji6BKa ero 6ujik n^CTpaa h b;i;ojib chhh^ TanyjiHCb 
pasHLie ysopu; ynm er6 6]^jih nox6acH na Hdnin, h a 
no nHMB cyaty, nxo y Her6 /^ojimnA fitixb CHMnaxia cb 
H&MH, B^fepojiTHO OHB fl^ksne po;i;Hii MMinefi. Ho Tybx 
MaTB npepB&jia MHmeHKa: «rjiyneHOK'B tbe, cbch6ki> 
Mofi; TOTB, KOTdpBifi HOKasajica Te6i ctojib ^66fiiiwh, 
CTOJiB CM6pHHMB H ^Ba HapyatHOCTB Te6^ TaKB npejiB- 
CTiijia, HHKTO HH6fi KaKB KOTB, AiOTiftniifi Bparx Bceft 
nop6/i,Bi Hdmefi. no;i,B bA/^omb kp6tocth, ohb sjioft 
ryfiiiTejiB naniB; ;i;pyr6fi ace, K0T6pHfi xaKB HcnyrdjiB 

Te6A, 6LIJIB H'feTyX'B, K0T6pBlfi rpOMKO KpH^liTB, HO 3Jia 

HHKOMy He /i.'ijiaeTBl He t6jibko ohb ne npa^HH^eTB 
HaMB HHKaKoro Bpe;i;d, h HHKor;i;a ne oropi^&eTB nacB, 
Hanp6THBB He pa3B 6pdTBa er6 h KyMOBB^ cjiym6jiH 
HaMB ;i;aate n6n^eio. IldMHH, chh6kb jiio6e3HHfi, ^to 
no HapyatHOCTH o^jjHoft HHKor;i;a ne ;i,6jimH0 cyA^TB o 
6ji6acHeMB; oh& ofiM^nqHBa h ndcTO bb6ahtb nacB bb 

nondjii 61I10 Bi> 6tAy ran great c:b pasM^xy violently 

danger Bax4jii impertinent 

Hop& furrow KocMixHft hairy, shaggy 

ci^peni peaceful 3a6ijlRa squabbler 

KpH£yH!L noisy HapdcTi an excrescence 

Apoz&Tb to tremble noj^ii flying 

nyEi a truss HacxdBHHRi mentor 

tpyci a coward necTpsA many-coloured 

mepcTb wool, hair Epdiocib mildness 

npepB4TL to interrupt ndHHHTL to remember 

ry6iiTejiL destroyer no^nHC^TBca na (ace) to sub- 
nepeA0B6& advanced scribe to 

nycT^TBca to begin jiOTHft cruel, implacable. 


Kb KEKOMy poAy co^HH^nifi 3to 6acHa. 
npHHa^jieacdTB ynpasLHe- 
Hie BB ^t^hIh, Haxo;i,a- 
meeca bb HunemHeMB 


Lesson 5* 

^TO TaKoe 6dcHa? 

KaR6e HpaBoy^^Hie m6sho 
' BHBecTH H3'b iipe;i;EiA^in;eft 

RaK^sfB 66pa30M'B 6to mosho 


CMHp^HHHk'B 6ujuh onacH'J^e 
Toro, KOToparo owb Hcny- 

rajiCH r* 

Hto eme cj[4;i;yeT'L hs-l 3T0fi 
6acHH ? 

BacHfl ecTB pascKasTb, bt> 


;i;aace HeoAymeBJieBmbie 
npeAMCTH BB6;i;aTca ;i,'fefi- 

CTByiOmHMH Jlfili;aMH, ^T06'b 

dTHlfb BucRasaTL KaKoe 
HH6yAB HpaBoy^^Hie. 

HpaBoy^enie ei 000x0611 b'b 
TOMi, HTO He ;i;6jiaH0 hh- 
Kor;i;d nojiaraTLCJi Ha na- 
pymHocTL, 660 OHa o^eHL 

MumeHOKt, pascKasHBaerb 

aBTOpi), Bu61^m2iBT> HS'B 

CBO^ii HopH, yBfi;i;'fejrL 

AByX-B aKHBOTHHXt, 0^0- 
ro HBTb HHXt OWh Hcny- 

rajcii, 660 OHL no^ejn 
ero 3a pasCoftsHKa, Tor;i;a 
KaK'b Apyroft ev.f TaKb 
noHpaBHJica, ^TO OWh ro- 
TOB'b 6huub 6p6cHTBca eMy 
BT» 06'BriTiH. 
KoHe^Ho! ToTt, KOToparo 
OHB Hcnyrajicff, 6ujub ni- 


kph^6tt>, HO Bpejiia hh- 
Kor;i;a HHKojfy ne jijijiae'PB, 

TOrjta KaKl TOTt, KB KO- 

TopoMy ero bjiokjio h ko- 
Topnii eMv noKasajiCH 


HSAP^Bjie BparB MHmefi. 
ABTop-L efl xoT-tiTB Hpe^y- 

OHHTHHX'b JTBD^efi, Tro6'L 

oh6 He npe^aBajiHCb nep- 

BOMy BJie^^Hii) c^ipm^ 

- CBoero, a 3p4jio o6J^yMH- 

BajiH (Sh Bu6op'b wy3^^ 

Concord op words. 167 

CBOHXl. ^dcTO OnpOM^T^H- 

BOCTB npn TaROMi Bii6opi 
6HJia npH^HOH) rfi6ej[H 

JIjOfipHXt H ^JiapOBHTHXt 



The most important rules on the concord of Russian 
words are the ten following: 

1. The subject and the predicate, when expressed 
by declinable parts of speech, agree in case, but in 
gender and number they may differ when the predicate 
is a noun: 

Mof Ha;^eac;a,a — - Borb. My hope is in God. . 

K6Mnaci> 6ujrb BkmEoe H3o6p'6- The mariners' compass was an 

Tenie. important discovery. 

OpejTB (gctb) n-rfii^a. . - The eagle is a bird. 

2. When the verb 6htb indicates a, temporary or 
accidental condition, the predicate is used in the in- 
strumental case^: 

BpaTL Moft Tor;^& Chjtb Ea^^TOMT.. My. brother was> then a cadet. 
Th CK6po 6f^emb o^Hi^^ploMt, Thou wil^t soon be an .officer. 

Haji^TOH) ;^jia nHp^mHXi> 66jio The banqueter's hall wa? the 
Bopoj^iiHckoe n6jie. field of Borodino. 

3. When there are two nouns in apposition signi- 
fying one arid the same object, but of a different gender 
and number, the predicate agrees with the appellative 
noun: - , 
Fopa Kaad^KT. bucok4, Kpyii h ., Mount Kazbeck is high, steep 

HenpHCTynHa. ' and inaccessible. 

r6po;^i> Ae^Hu cjaBMca bt» ;^p6B- The town of Athens was famous 
HOCTH. . . in ancient times. j 

4. The personal pronoun of the second person 
plural, when used for politeness in addressiug one 
person (as in English), requires the plural ot adjectives 
and determinatives, but the singular of nouns : 

Bu caiiH, ^^pyn* uofl, He3Xop6BU. You yourself, my friend, are 

' indisposed. 
By^bTe CBUfl.i'Kfjiewb. Be a witness. , i , 

1 This occurs however only in the p'ast and future, never in 
the present. - : * ^ . .... 

168 Lebsov 6. 

6. The verb 6HTb in the sense of to exist does not 
always agree in number with its subject, and in the 
present it is sometimes used in the singular, though 
the subject be plural: 

y MeHii ecTb pi^Ki^ KapnlHU. I have rare pictures. 
EcTb jn&;^H, K0T6piiie ... There are people who ... 

6. Contrary to the English polite custom, when 
two or more persons compose ttie subject of a sen- 
tence, the grammatical order must be strictly followed : 
H H Bbi noHflfiWb BM'bcTi. You and I go together. 

Bu R ^parb nprbas&fire so Hirb. You and your brother shall drive 

to me. 

Yet such expressions may be rendered more polite 
by saying: 

Mu Cb To66tf noikjifiirh BirliCTi. You and I go together. 
Bh ct» 6p&T0in» npi'fe3«4fiTe ko You and your brother shall drive 
MHt. to me. 

7. When the verb 6u.Th in the past tense occurs 
between two substantives of different genders, it must 
agree with the first, and not with the second: 

n^Tpi 6uxb pisBoe H Bec^jioe Peter was a playful and merry 
AHTii. child. 

8. In the case of titles, such as BejiiqecTBO Ma- 
jesty, Bucd^ecTBO Highness, CB^TJiocTb Serene Highness, 
etc., the predicates belonging to them agree in gender 
with the personage to whom the title refers: 

£r6 IlMnepaT6pcKoe BeiiiHecTBo His Imperial majesty is unwell. 


Elf Buc6qecTB0 nocin^ijui Bct Her Highness visited all supe- 
Biiicmiji Y^^6Ehui s&BeflfimjL rior educational establish. 

Er6 CsiTJiocTk npor^ JHBajicji. His Serene Highness took a walk. 

9. The predicate is placed in the neuter singular 
whenever the adverbs of quantity xHoro, mmo, nicKO- 
jn>RO, aob6jbho, crdibEO and ckojbko, or the numbers 
XBa, TpH, qenipe, narb, etc., precede the subject: 
3f^h 6^jo Hici0Ji»B0 ^ejOBirb. There were some people here. 
OcTiiocb eo^^ TpH pydJuL There remained still three 

N. B. This rule is subject to some exceptions in the case of 
numbers governing the noun. 

10. If two or more appellations relate to the 
same person or object, then both the subject and the 
predicate are put in the plural number: 

Concord op words. 169 

Bijioe H A36BCKoe uopH Hax6- The White Sea and the Sea of 
fl.HTca Bt ^pe;^'feJIax^> PocciH. Azoff are situated on the 

confines of Russia. 

HtM^i^Kift H (i)paHii,y3Kift sauKi The German and French lan- 
6qeHb noji-feaHU. guages are very useful. 


Civil Society has completely swallowed up man. 
She took hold of him at his very birth (Oh6 OBjraA'fejo 
liwh ct cdMaro ero pos^^Hia), to quit him only at his grave. 
Selflove includes in itself all germs of human crimes and 
debauchery (6e3nyTCTB'B). Revolutions are but waves in 
which there can be neither foam nor dirt. It generally 
happens, that in our mortal life (na HdnieMt seMHOM'B no- 
npHmi) we enquire after the way, when a half of it is 
already bygone. 

Continuation.^ — A great number of steamers 
incessantly cross the Neva in every direction. What at 
first surprized me was the great number of circular 
towers rising in all parts of the city which they built, 
as I was told, in order to keep a strict look-out for 
fires and in order to inform the population immediately 
by convenient signals. Looking a little to the North- 
East, almost at my feet, are to be seen the Palace and 
Place of the Admiralty, south [of which] extends the 
principal part of the city along the left bank of the 
Neva. Here is the residence of the Court, of the nobi- 
lity and of more than half the population which at 
present araounts to (cocToiT'b hbi) nine hundred and 
thirty thousand inhabitants. (To he continued.) 

IIpvcTjiTb. — The assault. 
MaT63KHHKH ctixajiHCB 6kojio CBoer6 npe/i,B0/i,6- 
TCJia H B;i;pyri> Hd^ajiH cji'^skrh ch cboAx-l jioina;i;6fi. 
«Tenepb CTdfixe KpinKO», CKa3ajii> K0MeH;i,4HTi>, «6y- 
ji.eT'h np6cTyni>.» Bt ^xy MnnyTy pa3/i,djica CTpS^ninHfl 
BH3ri> H Kp6KH ; MaT6mHHKH 6'fer6Mi> 6'h7Rkmi k-l Kpi- 
nocTH. IlymKa ndma 3ap^meHa fiujia KapT^^Bio. Ko- 
MeH;i;&HT'L no^i.nycTiiji'B hx'b na c^Moe 6ji63Koe pa3CT0- 
^Hie H B;i,pyn> B^inajiHJi'b onjiTb. KapT^^B XBaT^jia b-b 

1 See page 163. 

170 Lesson 6. 

caMyio cpe;i,]iHy T0Jin6. MaxeacKHKH OTXJi^HyjiH bi> 66* 
CTopoHBi H noniiTHjiHCB. npe/i;B0/i;6TejiB hxi» ocTajica 
o/i,6hi> Bnepe;i,6 . . . Oh'b Maxajii> cafijieio h, Kasajiocb, 
CL mapoM-L HX'b yroBapHBaji'L. — EpHK-L h BH3ri>, 
yMOJiKHyBmie na MHHyTy, tottoci> CH6Ba B0306HOB6- 
jiHCB. «Hy, pe6jiTa», CKasaji^ KOMeH/i;aHTi>, «Tenepb 
OTBopM Bop6Ta, 6efi Bt 6apa6aHi,! Pe6jiTa, Bnepe/i,i>, 
Ha B^jiasKy! 3a mh6k)1» 

KoMCHAaHTt, HBaH-L HrnaTBH^^ h a M^roMi, o^iy- 
t6jihcb 3a Kp^nocTHj^M-B Bkjiowh; ho opo6ijiB[fl rap- 
hh36hi> He TpdnyjiCH. «nTO me bbi, Ti;iTymKH, cto6- 
Te?» saKpH^iaji'B HBanx Ky3BM]i^i>. ((YMiipaxB, TaKB 
yjvmpaTB, ji,%jio cjiy3K6Boel» B-b Sxy MHHyTy MflTeat- 

HHKH HaeimdjiH Ha HaCB, H B0pBaJl6CB B-B KpinOCTB. 
BapaSaH'B yMOJiK'B; rapHH36H'B 6p6cHJiB pyatBa; mch^ 
cmiifijiH 6biji6 cb hof'b (they nearly knocked me off 
my legs), ho a BCTajiB h bm4ct* cb MaTemnnKaMH bo- 
nieji'B B-B KpinocTB. KoMeH;i;aHT'B, p^nenHBifi bb ro- 

JDEOBy, CTO^JI-B BB Ky^K* 3JI0/IiieBI>, KOTOpHe Tpe6oBajiH 

0TB Her6 KJiio^eft. S. 6p6cHJiCH 6^jio k'b neny Ha no- 
Moni;B: h4ckojibko ;i;i5mHX'B Ka3aK6B'B cxBaT6jiH Menji 
H CBH3ajiH KymaKdMH, npHroBapHBaa : «Bot'b yato BaMX 
fiy^eT^ (You will catch it by-and-bye), rocy/i.dpeBBiM'B 
ocjiymHHKaM'B l» Haci> nOTan^iijiH no yjiHn;aMTE> ; at^TC- 

JIH BB[XO/i;]ijIH H31> ;I,0m6b1> cb XJlieOM-B H COJIBK). 1 Pa3- 

;i;aBajica KOJiOK6jiBHHfi 3B0H'b. B;i;pyr'B kt6-to saKpn- 
^aji-B B^ TOJini, ^TO rocy/i^dpB na nji6ni,aji;H oacH/i,aeTi> 
HJiinHBix^ H npHHHMdeTi> npHC^y. Hap6Ai> noBaji6jii> 
na nJi6ni,a;i;B, Haci> nornajiH Tyin,a me. 

Ilyra^eBB CH;i,ijiB bb KpecjiaxB na KpBiJiBn;i ko- 
MeH;i;aHTCKaro ;i;6Ma. Ha HeMi> 6b[jii> KpacHHft Kasan;- 
Kift Ka$TaHB, ofiin^TBift rajiyHaMH. BBicoKaa co66jiBa 
mdnKa c^ 30jiot]^mh khct^mh 6Hjia Ha;i;B6HyTa na er6 
CBepKaioni,ie rjia3d. J[hii;6 noKa3djiocB mh* snaKOMO. 
Ka3&n;Kie CTapmiiHBi OKpymajiH er6. OTen;B Tepa- 

CHMB, eJli^HBlfi H JipOSRkm^i^ CTO^JI'B y KpBIJIBH;4, CB 

KpecTOM'B B^ pyKdx'B H, KasajiocB, M6ji^a yMOJuiji-B ero 
3a npe/iiCTOjini;iH m^pTBBi. Ha nji6ni;a;i;H CTaBHJin nk- 
CKopo B6cfejiHn;y. 'Korjs.k mbi npH6ji]^3HJiHCB, 6aniK6p- 
ii;bi pa3orH4jiH napd/^-B h nacB npe;i;cTaBHJiH Ilyra^eBy. 

1 In token of submission to Pugachef. 

CONCpRP pP ^ORDS. 171 

EojiOK6jiBHHfl SBOHTb yT^Xi ; HacT^Jia rjiy66Kaa thhih- 
Ha : «KoT6pHfi KOMep/i,aHTi> ?» cnpoc6ji'i> Cai^03BaHen;x. 
Hamob jpAji^KMKTy BiicTynHJirb ,^3qE> TOJin^ h yKas^Jit Ha 
HBana KysBMHW. Uyra^eBt rposHO B3rjiajiyjii> na 
Gxap^Ka H CKaaaji^ eny : «KaKTE> th cm*jii> npoT±BHTB- 
05 HE'S, CBoeMy rocy;i;apio ?» KoMeH;i,4HT^, nsHeMoraa 

OT'B p^HH, COdpajDCb nOCJlij^Hia cAjIBI H OXB'feTI^JIt TBep- 

^ijBiM'B rojDCOCOM^: «T£i MH* He rocy;i;&pB, tbi Bopx h 
caMOBBaHenj'B, cjiheib thI» Ilyra^eB^ Mpa^iHO nacy- 
HHJicfl H MaxHyjii 6ijiBiMi> njiaTK6Mx. HicKOJiBKO Ka- 
saKOBt no;i;xBaT6jiH cxaparo KanHTdna h noTain;6jiH 
Kx bAc^jihh;*. Ha eA nepeKJi^AHH* o^yxAjica Bepx6Mi> 
HsyBi^eHHHfi 6amKfipeii;i>, Koxoparo ;i;onp4niHBajiH mbi 
HaKaHyH*. Ohi> ;i;epaK4jii> bi> pyni BepeBKy h TOpeat 
MEHyxy yB6;i,*ji'B a. 6i;i;Haro HB^na Ky3BMH^& B3;i;ep' 
nyTaro na BbB^yx-B. Tor;i;d npHBejE^ k-b HyraTieBy 
HBana HrnaTBHTia. «npHcarMJ» CKa34jii> Hyra^eB^, 
«rocy;i;dpK) Hexpy 0e6;i;opoBHny !» «Tbi, j\A]i,Jomna., Bopi> 
H caM08B^Hei];T> !» Hyra^eB-B MaxnyjE^ oniiTB njiaTK6Mi> 
H ;i;66pBrft nopy^HKTb tlob^cl nb^Ji'fe CBoer6 CT^paro 
KanHT^H^. (IIpodoAoicenie 6yderm.) 

cA'IddTB c^b dismount BHan h Rpi^n howling and yelling 

Kapt^^B grape, canister noAnycT^TB to let come 

Max&TB to waive BiLiasRa sally 

o^yT^TBca to appear BopB^xBca to burst into 

npacaraoath of allegiance kphjbi^6 porch, perron 

KHCTB tassel pa3orB^TB to disperse 

ypHAHHKB orderly, corporal nsneMordji fainting, faint 

nacj^HTBca to frown nepeKJi4;tHHa cross-beam. 



^ npe;^HAyni;ifi pa3cia3B? EyniKHHa, HSBtcTHofi noji;^ 

sarjiaBieMB : «KaiiHTaH- 
CKaa Ji;6^a». 

B-L ^eM^ saoio^aeTca co;i;ep- IlyinKHHB onficHBaeTt cm^t- 
acame 9Tofi noBicxH? noe bp^mh, HBRicTpoe b-b 

Hap6;i;i no;i;'B fikcHeicB 

Eto 6hjib Eyra^CBB? 9to Chjib 64rjiHfi Kaxop- 

3KHHK'B, BH;^aBaBinifi ce6i 
3a yMepmaro HMnepdTopa 
IleTpa Tp^TBaro. 


Lesson 6« 

B<^ jiH SHSHL nyraneBa 

iTOVh OTpiiBOK^? 

ne^aTX^jrocB vh Bamefi 
naMflTH H3i pascsasa U^jm- 


Ho p^b£ rapHHSOHl ne 



Ero co;i;epatdHie cocraBJiaeTx 
BsiTie RaK5fi-T0 RpinocT- 
ipi, BaKdx'b MHoro h Te- 

n^pB B'B TbSi% KpaflX'B, 

Tor^a se, a dneHHo 66JIL- 
me HiacB CTO xbrh Toicy 
nasd^, HX!b 6iuio emjd 
Cojie, wro6% san^iunidTB 
Bpafi orB xsprdsoBi, vsjl- 

K0T6pHe KO'ieB&JE Vb npH* 

BOjaKCEHxi CTenixrB. 
^iScTBie Ha^MH&ercji iip6- 
crynoiTB na E^oropcsyD 
KpinocTiQr, iipe;i;iip6Ha- 


npeABO^ATejiBCTOicB ca* 
Moro nyraneBa. Komch- 
ABSTb Ep^nocTipi, KaKoi- 

TO HBdH'B KySBMfi^l, Be- 
jAa1> CBOiWh COJiJljkTBXb 

cA'&xaTB BUjKasRy, nonn- 
TaBi» np^AG Mcnyr&TB lui- 

BUCTp^aMH H3'B nyiBBH, 

3apameHH0fiEapT^^[LK). Ha 


saAi*, HO Bcsop^ 060- 
ApeHHue yBimiaHBflHH cbo- 
6x1 npe^BO^fiTejieft vh 
oc66eHHOCTH caMor6 caMOS- 

BaHI^a B0306HOBijH CBO6 

rapHHSoffB opo6'fejrB, noTOM]^ 
^TO iMK EyraneBa pac- 
npocrpaMJO crpaxt, npn- 


BEpajocB 6ojiLinde koj[6- 


Use of the OBKiTiyE case. 



js.ijiK E']^j[or6pcKod Epi- 


CAajEci, B^^Cfl ^To Ten^pB 
conpoTHBJL^Hie 6hj[o tih^t- 


O^fiwh JOL owh noTepn^JTB 
MyqeHiraecKyE) CMepTB? 

^fkcjrb ROTopHX'B Haxo- 
jifiAca ojifiwh 6iiBiiufi rsap- 
A^flcKifi o^miiip'b, no hmc- 
HH nisadpHE'L, nepeBeAeH- 
HKfi sa p&3H£ie npocT^nKE 
Bt rapHHSOHHyi) poTy. 
Jifii, H 6e3t 66a, noTOMy tto 
rapHHSOHi TOT^ci se 
CAajoi H no;[Os6ji op^- 

H^T'B, OWb OCT&ICA B^peSl 

CBO^d npHCsrt h npe^- 
noHexB liSMd^Hi nocTUA- 
HyE) CMepTL Ha BA(AjLanjk. 
Ero npEBeJii CBisaHHaro 
Kt ny ra^esy , Koroparo okl 
nasBajTB sopoiTB h caMO- 
ssaHi^eirB h 66apo npe- 
;^aJ^cfl KaKOMy-TO H3y- 
si^eHHOMy CsLnmkfujj ko- 


HijTL AOJia^HoeTB naja^a. 
Ob hhbtb BMicrt Chjtb no- 
BimeH'B H nopy^HKi ero, 
HBaHi HrnaTBeBHTB, ko- 
TopBid, noApaac&a CBoeM]f 
HanajiBHHKy, ^eerfcn Ily- 
ra'ieBa arfaMH se nposBH- 
iii;aMH, EOTopHA eny aa- 



The genitive case is used: 
1. To express origin, property, possession, de- 

pendence and so on: 

%ovb renepiJia. 
Ca.fl.'b nouk. 
CsYvk OTUjk. 

N. B. Tet in sach cases the use of possessive adjectvoes (page 78) 
is much more frequent: y^Tejiesa xohb, non6Bi ca^i, fymjbvb ciyr&. 

The general's daughter. 
The priest's garden. 
The father's footman. 

174 Lessok 7. 

— With.proper names this is more particularly frequent: Mhckwl 
B&xAB'b the gulf of Finland; BacHJiBeBCKifi 6cTpoB'B S^ Basils Island; 
H^BCKJH. npocn^kxi tJie Ifeva Prospect. — Also the dative may some- 
times be substituted for this genitive : SA-fecB Hasna^eHa utui MicidMi. 

2. In the case of nouns derived from active verbs : 

%6Hie noji^SHUxt KHnrL. The reading of useful books. 

OdpaaoBdme yuk. The forming of the intellect. 

KHn^Hie Bo;^ii. The boiling of water. 

3. With words expressing quantity, weight, mea- 
sure, date: ^ 

MH6ro ^^tT^fi. Marry children. 

Apra^H^ cyKHa. * An arsheen of cloth. 

Tp^TbflPO anp^jia. The third of April. 

4. In negative sentences ^ and with numerals^: 

y Bact Htrt ;^6Ma. You have no house. 

S. He 3h4k) Bamero oin,^. I do not know your father. 

He Bd^HO nepCM'feHu. One does not see any change, 

^sa CTOjik,. ;^B'feH4;i,ii,arL ctojiob^. Two tables, twelve tables. 

5. In comparative sentences, instead of the ad- 
verbs qiMx or HeacejiH : 

Mofi 6parL niimerL Jiyqme ueuA My brother writes better than I. 

(or H^acejiH a). 

Ohi> npHJi^acHte h cnoc60H'fee He is more diligent and more 

CBoer6 CT^pmaro 6p4Ta (Tfem clever than his* elder brp- 

CBofi CT^pmifl dpart). ther. 

6. After certain prepositions ^ and after most of 
the adverbs used as prepositions : 

M6mo FycT6ro j-feca. Near a dark forest. 

Okojio ;^ecaT6 qac6BT>. Towards ten o'clock. 

Bjih3t> ptK6. Near the river. 

7. After the adjectives ;i;ocT6ftHH worthy, nojiHHft 
full, nyk^Hft stranger to, free from, and others conveying 
an idea of merit, fullness, strangeness; and after 
the impersonal' expression -ajajTL it is ' a pity: 

JtocT6fiHLifi ysaac^Hia. Worthy of respiect. 

Koiiie.iieKi> nojiHufl ;^^HerL. A purse full of money. 

^yac;^ufi r6p;!^0CTH. ' Free from pride. 

Eny acajft 6p^Ta. He is sorry for his brother. 

8. With such active and reflective verbs as express 
wish,, expectation, privation, obedience, fear, 

such as: 

1 See First Part, page 36. 2 See First Part, 2-^ Lesson. 
3 See First Part, 8^*^ Lesson. 


HCK^TB to look for npoCHTB to beg 

seiiaxL t6 wish, to desire Tp66oBaTB to require 

xoT-feiB to wish, to be willing H36'ferATB to avoid 

;io6HBdTBca to strive for 6oaTBca to fear 

;i;ocTnrdTB to attain cthahtbca to be ashamed of 

aK;^aTB, oaH;^dTB to wait, to expect JHrnaxBca to be deprived of 

cnpdfflHBaxB to ask sacji^jKHBaxB to deserve. 

H SKejidK) BaMt ycn^xa Bit b§l- I wish you success in your af- 

meMT> ^'feji'fe. fair. 

Oht> ;^6jiro ;K;^aJ^b narp^^M. He waited long for a reward. 

Bm jiHmfijiH MCHji y^^OBOJiBCXBia You deprived me of the plea- 

B6;^'bTb BacTb. sure of seeing you. 

N. B. The abstract nouns formed from these verbs also re- 
quire the genitive: oaKHAdme Harp&AH the expectation of a reward, 
jTHm^Hie HMiHia the loss of property. 

9. With active verbs, when the action extends 
only to a part of the objects, or lasts only a limited 

Jt^fixe MH-fe j^^Eerb. Give me (some) money. 

npHHec6 60^6. Bring (a little) water. 

JocxdHB Mfffe 6yM5.rH. Get me (some) paper. 

N. B. The reason is that adverbs of quantity, such as ni- 
CEOJBRo, HeMH6ro, etc., are always understood with such verbs. 


In nature, and not in a body of laws (a He b'b CBOAi 
3aK6HOBi>) ought man to look for (no^epnaTB) the rules of 
his conduct, if he wished to be possibly happy. There 
are certain bad examples which are worse than crime ; 
and more than one empire perished more for the fact 
(fiojiie OTToro) that the morals were corrupted, than for 
the laws being infringed (^to napyinajiH saKOH'B). 

Continuation. ^ — Three canals called Moika, 
Catherine and Fontanka divide this sea of buildings into 
three semicircular parts, and from the Place of the 
Admiralty radiate three magnificient streets like three 
beams. They are called the Neva Prospect (HeBCKifi 
lIpocneKrB), the Gorokhovaia Ulitsa (Peas' Street) and 
the Ascension Prospect (BosHec^HCKifi IIpoeiieKT'B). A little 
to the East of the Admiralty are the Winter Palace, 
the Column of Alexander, the palaces of the Synod 
and of the Senate, and in front of them (nanpoTHB'B) 
the large house of the General Staff, and not far from 

^ See page 169. 

176 LBSflON 7. 

it the Ministry of War. Further south are to be seen 
on the right bank the villages and suburbs inhabited 
for the most part by the working classes. 

(To he continued.) 




O^iepe/^B 6HJia 3a mh6k). fl rjia;i;ijii> cm4jio Ha Ily- 
raneBa, roTbBacb noBTopfeb OTBixt BejiHKO/iiyniHHX'B 
MO^x-B TOB^pHiDjefi. Tor;i;a wb neon^caHHOMy MoeMy 
y;i,HBJieHiio, yBH/^iji'B a cpe;ii6 MaxernHBixi cxapniAH'B 
IIlBa6pHHa, ocTpAateHHaro bi> KpyaaoK'B (with his hair 
cut round) h bi> Ka3dii;K0Mi> Ka(J)T^Hi. Ohx noAonieji'B 
K^ Ilyra^eBy h CKa3^Jii> CMy H^yxo nicKOJibKO cjiOBt. 
«BiinaTB er6!» CKa3^Ji'B IlyraqeBx, ne B3rjiflHyBi> ;i,a- 
ace Ha Menji. Mh* naKiiHyjiH na meio nexjiib. 5i cxajiTb 
TiHxaTB npo ce6)i MOJuixBy, npHHOCii B6ry AcKpeHnee 
pacKaanie bo Bcix-B mo6xi> nperptnieHiaxTb h uojlA ero 
cnacenin BcfexTb 6ji63khxx MoeMy c6pffly. Meni noxa- 
m,]ijiH TLOji.'h B6c*JiHii;y. «He66cB, He66cB», noBxopiijiH mh* 
ry66xejiH, Moatext 6hxb h BnpaB;i;y atejiaa o66;i,pHXB 
MBHii. B;i,pyr'B ycji^maji-B a KpnKx: «nocx6ftxe, OKa- 
liHHLie, noro;i,6xeI . . .» IlajianA ocxanoB^jiHCB. Tjia- 
my, CaBejiBHnx Jiem6xx bx norax-B y IlyraqeBa. 
«Oxeii;B poAH6ft», roBop^JiB 6i;i,HHft /i;)i;i,BKa. «^xo xe- 
6i CMepxB 6^pcKaro ^HxiixH? Oxnycx^ ero; sa nero 
xedi B^Kyn-B ;i,a;i;yxx; a /i;jia npHMipa h cxp^xa p^A^, 
BejiA noBicHXB xoxb Menii cxapHKaI» Ilyra^eBB /i;ajii> 
snaKi), H MeHji xoxnacx pa3Ba3ajiH h ocx&bhjih. 

«BaxiomKa namx xe6)i M6jiyexx», roBop6jiH MH'fe. 
B-B ^xy MHHyxy ne Mory CKa3^xB, nxo6i> a o6p4;i;oBaji- 
ca CBoeMy H36aBJieHiio, He CKaaty o;i;H&KOHt^, ^xo6i> 
a HeMx H coatajiijiB. ^yBCXBOBania mo6 6iiijm cji6m- 
KOM-B CMyxHBi. MeHii CH6Ba npHBejiA k-b caM03BaHii;y 
H nocxaBHJiH nepe;i,x hhm'b na koji4hh. nyra^eB-B npo- 
xanyjii) mh* mAjiHCxyio CBOib pyKy. «i];'fejiyft pyKy, 
H^jiyft pyKyI» roBopAjin okojio MeHji. Ho a npe;i,no- 
^ejix> 6bi caMyio Jiibxyio KasHB xaK6My no^jiOMy ynn- 
meHiio. «B&xiomKa, Ilexpx AH^peHnBb) mennyjiB Ca- 
BejiBHTi-B, cx6a 3a mh6io h xojiKaa Menii. «He ynpjtMB- 



cal ^TO Te64 ct6ht3>? hjUohb ^a nonniatfi y sJt6x:-:K 
(spit and then kiss the scoundr/^io) (TB(j[)y) I noniafft 
y Herd py^Ky.» S. He meBejiAjica. Hyra^eBt onycT6iii> 
pyKy, CKas^i* Ch ycMiniKOH): «Er6 6jiarop6;^ie snaTB 
o;i;ypijjH otb pa;^0CTH. ; Ho^^HMATe er6 !» MenA no;^- 


Ha npo^ojiat^Hie yatdcHOft K0M6;^iH. -^ ^ ^' 

(IlpodaAOKiHie 6^devm.) 
-f ■ 1 i 
nefM slip-knot, rope 
o6pdA0BaTbCfl to i^ejoice 
SHJincTiifi sinewy 
i^d^jioB&Tb to kiss 
TpjiK&TB to nudge 
oAypiTb to grow stupid 

pPAH^fi parental own 
a36k]u6Bie deliverance 
cif^Hflfi eonfnsed 
joDTHli cruel- 
ooyCT^TB to drop 
meBejn&TBCfl to stir. 


A MHornxt jih Hyra^SBt 
, eme BejiijCB noBicHTB? . 

KtQ 3T0 6HjrB? 

Eo^eMy Ilyra^eKb bombjio- 
^ Bajii ero? 

Ha dTorb pas'b, EsuKeTCA. 

ciJOH^ fifici^i B'b iopomeM^ 
pacnojtoaceniB > ^^xa, ho- 
TOMy HTO Aaate noMfijio- 
BajFb djljBoro H3Ti bjAh- 
HHX'B, npHBe;(SHHaro isjh 

HeMy CBfl3aHHIlM^, EaEB 

6ii[jm H npo^ifl m^piBu. 

^TO dHJIt repoft BOBiCTH, 
fliBTO FpHHeBl. 

Kor;i;4 FpHHeBa npe^CTaBBjiH 
Eyra^eBy, 9tot^ h He 
B3rjiaHyjii Ha nero, a bc- 
Jiijit ero Ea3H6Tfc, botot 

'^ M^ wo ElBa6^Hfi'b, icpro- 
POMI MU yaL6 roBopdjTH H 
EOTopHft He6jiaronpiaT- 
CTBOBajii rpHHCBy, Bien- 
H^jii ^TO-TO Hdyxo Ey- 
ra^CBy, ho Tyirb CTapuft 
A^ABEa FpHHeBa, GaB^T 

' jiBH^i, ' 6p6cHJica BB H6ri 

^^ Dyra^eBy, npocE ero io- 
M^jiosaTB FpHHe^a p^Un 
H c;i;'bjiajiB. 

Russian Conv. -Grammar. 




Kto se ero npHB^% w 

Owh BipOiiTHO noQTf^p^Ji^ 
y6i»aTi, ow<w i;w^. 
MOSHO cKopie? 

J^JIa ^ero 3to? 



TftKft 6ilevpo oah6 sa xpy^ 
Tiai%^ ¥T0 091^ B^ HaM&jrk 
BOBOQ He B€^]ni]i&jp&, ira 
cxt imw^ j^'faiaerox. £11^ 
Kasaioeb, ^to ewh bo eff&. 

K0T6pHe eMy roBopfijra, ^to 
Hyra^eKt ero ufurjerb. 

noTOMy TTQ KaaaKi bc& 
en^e ero He wmujen^n sa 
BOjLio, oh6 n{HiTaii^fij[H erd 
mi, caM03BaHi^y, KOTopiid: 
eMy npoTflHyjptpyKy cbok). 


ee FpiiHeBy nc^ijiOBaTL. 

Hitoss Qin. cb oneps^Hiein^ 
OTBepnyjcfl, npe^noraTda: 
CMepTB TaKofi n6;^ocTH. 

Owb yMOJiajTb ero noi^ijio-^ 
BaTF. pyKy 6yHT0BmHKa. 
^paB;^a, too ohi bi pas- 
roBop^ oiiiH6aj![CA h Hasu- 
Bai'b nyra^Siia sjio^m'^, 
HO K-B CTacTBK) Uyra^eB'B. 

jom^Hin ;(yxa h hb cjbi- 
xkjTb cjiOBi, CT&paro Ca- 


]ifiL, owb npHudcuBajTB er6 
MOJiHanie fijiH Hcnyry, Ajih 
pa;iocTH — no3TOMy OB'S. 
onycT^JTb p^Ky h CKasajTB. 
ch ycMiniKOE): BnaTB, ero 
6J!ra^op6;^ie o;cyp4jEb cm, 

HirL, OHi ynoTpe6fi;ii aTO- 
cjiOBO 66ji^e, ^To&b BE^pa- 
3HTB npespinie k'b ne- 
HaBficTHOMy eMy ;i,BopaH-^ 
CTBy. KaEi MU ym^ CEa- 

Use of the other cases. 17% 

sajEB, owb 6uj'b FE» xopo- 
meH% pacnojios^Hin jsS^^ 

H TERl OH'b BeJI'ks'B UOJIr 

;ii6ro HejiOBtea, KOTdpnil 
BnpoHeifb 6ujpb secbMa 
HHHTomHufi H>Honia H no- 

3T0My HHRaKl HO noT% 

BHyniaTb KOMy 6h to h4- 
6hiJio onac^iH. 



Thq dative case is used: 

1. To express advantage, utility, gain, pleasure, 
aim, detriment, dislike, and so on: 

Sto i<6»eTi> noBpe^drb Baarb. This may hurt you. 

Tu no^kjUi MiijiocTUHK) (J-fe^OMy Thqu gavest alms to the poor 


2. After verbs formed with the prepositions npeA% 

and CO (in a sense of reciprocity), or with the adverbs 
6ji&To, ufonvh and iip^sa: 

H Bpe^ooRHT^K) %CT]» ;^^Hkrajn>. I prefeir honour to money. 
He npeK0Cj6Bi> CT^pmH¥'b. Do not contradict the aged, 

3. With the impersonal verbs : 

Mh* 6qeHL acajib. I am very sorry. 

Ted* x6qeTca cn&xb. Thou wantest to sleep. 

BaMii Hea^op^BHTca. You are unwell 

4. With the verb 6uTh (expressed or understood) 
to express relationship, friendship, enmity, etc.: 

Ohii MQt ji,Afl,B. He is my uncle. 

Tu eny ^yrb. Thon art his fnend. 

Oht. HcTpy 6oju»Hi6ft Bparb. He is Peter's great enemy. 

5. With certain verbs that are sometimes used in 
the infinitive with a future signification: 

BuTb 6*^-6. There will be a misfortune. 

He Bn;^aTb HaHi> ^CHburb ^eeft. We sball see no fine days. 

6. After the prepositions vh and no^, and the 
adverbs Bonpesi, Har3Ji6, Ha-CMfe'B, B^yr6;i;y, etc.: 
BospeKi TOM^. Notwithstanding this. 

^ This preposition governs also other cases. See the wghth 
lesson of the First Part. 


180 Lesson 8. 

7. Very often the dative is employed after a sup- 
posed participle (past or present) : 

PacnHcdnie KH^raMTb. The catalogue containing the 

n^CHii BoroM^iepH. A song dedicated to the Virgin. 

8. Remark especially the following verbs as go- 
verning the dative in Russian and not in English: 
rpo3i&TB to threaten nacsy^^TB to annoy 

rpyd^TB to scold oTOMCTnrb to avenge 

XOcaA^Tb to grieve noApaiEdTB to imitate 

3aBi^A0BaTL to envy noTaKdxB to pardon, to spare 

HSMtHHTb to betray csysHTB to serve 

Mim&TB to prevent cjiixoBaTB to follow 

Ha^oicTB to bore jiATh to instruct. 

The accusative case is used : 

1. As a complement, after active verbs without a 

fl B63Ky CBoft ;^0MT>. I see my own house. 

Th KyniiJi'b pfe^Kyio KH6ry. Thou boughtest a rare book. 

2. As a complement, after neuter verbs indicating 
a known distance or time: 

Oh6 ^xajiH ;^Bd;^^aTB Bgpcrb mk- They walked twenty versts at 

r0MT>. a foot pace. 

Ond cnaji^ bck) ho%. She slept all night. 

3. The accusative is likewise used in certain ex- 
pressions peculiar to the Russian language : 

Ohi B2i.ukjiCH Bi Kyqepa. He engaged himself as a coach- 

IIocTynHTb Bi coJj^dTH. To grow a soldier. 

IIp6pBajio njiOTifiBy h Kan^By 3a- The dam broke and the ditch 
Hecji6. was filled with sand. 

4. The accusative of neuter nouns is equal to their 
nominative, as it has been seen. Yet when they are 
used to denote animate beings their accusative plural 
assumes sometimes the form of a genitive: 

fl B^flfkjvb Hxt Beji6qecTBT> or I saw their Majesties. 

The instrumental case is used: 

1. With all passive verbs: 

Oht> noxBajieHT> naqdjiLHHKaMH. He is praised by his superiors. 

2. With the active, neuter and reflective verbs to 
designate the agent, instrument, means or quali- 
fication : 

Use of the other cases. 181 

H 6epy KHfiry pyK^MH. I hold the book with my hands. 

H udjoch Bo;^6io. I wash myself with water. 

dTa KH^a Han^caHa Mo^ii'b ;^py- This book has been written by 

TOWb. my friend. 

Mgh^ aoBtn, Hb5.homt». They call me John. 

Te6j! cmrrkJOTb ^uEUWb. They think thee an intelligent 


3. With the following verbs ;i;opo»fiTb to prize, 
»epTBOBaTL to sacrifice, H3o66jiOBaTb to abound, cxpa^TB 
to suffer, and a few others: 

H ;^opoact cbo^mt. Bp^Meneirb. I prize my own time. 

PyccKie ac^piBOBajiH SKi&SHiio h The Russians sacrified their 

HMymecTBOMt Ha aam^Ty ot^- lives and property to defend 

qecTBa. their country. 

JIaA6accKoe dsepo H3o6^iJiyerb Lake Ladoga abounds in sa- 

BKycHOK) piidoio. voury fish. 

H q^CTO CTpa;^aK) 3y6H6K) 66jilio. I often suffer from tooth-ache. 

4. With nouns derived from verbs which govern 
the instrumental case: 

3aB'&;^UBaTk ;^tjidMH. To manage affairs. 

3aB•fe;^UB4Hie ;^'feJl4MH. The management of affairs. 

5. To indicate that part of an object which is 
distinguished by some particular quality: 

JIhi^6mt> C'kjTb. White in the face. 

IIlHp6Ki> njieqSMH. Broad in the shoulders. 

6. The following adjectives of very frequent oc- 
currlBnce must also be noted: 

6jiiABHii pale Kp^iKiil tame 

6ordTH& rich KpyxoS harsh 

6ojibh6& sick spin sin strong 

aejiiiKui great Majiuu small^ little 

BHc6Rid high moji[oa6h young 

A0B6j[BHHri satisfied HH3RiH low 

A66pHg good cji46uil feeble 

sHaMeH^THg famous cji^bbhiI glorious 

H3BicTHU& well known ciapHH old 

H3o6ij[LHHu abundant HHCiut pure^ clean. 

7. With the names of seasons and parts of the 

3hm6k) Mop63H'n>. In winter it freezes. 

06^fl,&Th B6qepoMT>. To dine in the evening. 

8. After the prepositions sa, na^i, no;^i, npe^t, 
ct^, and the adverb Meac^y: 

M4ac;^y ;^py3b^MH. Among friends. 

^ Also: BiHpdK'B B'h nje^dxi. 

]62 Lesson 8. 

The prepositional occurs exclusively after one of 
th^ prepositions: Bt, na, o(o6i), no, npn.^ 


He who offends and blames decency, at the same 
time picks a quarrel with (sa^iflaeiTb) the interests and 
passions of those around him {ero oRpyaaroiUHXt), becomes 
an en-emy of society, and deserves being thrown out of 
it. The greatest danger of prejudices and vices consists 
in the fact that they cover themselves under the mask 
of truth and virtue. Mediocrity, acting by routine, in 
its enthusiasm for the past (wb BOCTopri npom^Amaro) 
lives in the present only to render it possibly (bc4mh 
CHJiaMH) old. 

Continuation. — But however {KaKB 6h to 6wl%) 
magnificent the view from the height of the Dome of 
St. Isaac's is, one will look in vain for anything approa- 
ching picturesque or for any record of the past : all is 
regular, all is new. But this does not prevent St. Peters- 
burg from being on an equality (napaBHi) with the 
most beautiful cities in the whole world. When you 
promenade in winter the Neva Perspective between 
three and four o'clock, you feel obliged to admit that 
neither London nor Paris presents anything better as to 
the beauty of edifices, as to the richness of shops, as 
to the elegance of equipages. I have endeavoured to 
communicate (nepe^aTb) to you my first impressions 
and to give you a general idea of St. Petersburg. I don't 
know if I have succeeded in doing so, but I have at 
least sincerely wished it and I hope you will appre- 
ciate my good intentions. I am your affectionate brother. 



ffi-^TejiH Ha^ajiH npHcar&TB. 0h6 no;iixo;^iijiH 
oaAhi sa ;i,pyr6Mi>, ii;*jiyfl pacnjirie h noT6Mi> KJianaacB 
caM03B4Hi];y. rapHHSOHHtie coji/i;iTH cto^jih Tyxob ate. 
PoTHBifi nopTH6fl, BOopy^eHHBifi Tyn^iMH cbo6mh h6^- 
HHi];aMH, pisajit y hhxi> koch. 0h6, OTpiixHBaacB, 

1 Some of these prepositions govern also other cases. See 
the 8^*^ lesson of the First Part. 

Use of thb q^emk gases. 188 

uo]i,xo^Aa.i[ Ri> pys^ nyra^esa^ E0T6pBifi o6'h&BJiAiLi> 
nMi> spon^^Hie h w^EB.miLkn.'h hxi> bi» CBOib inMsy. 
Bee ^o jipoflfiKmksLOGh 6rojio Tpexi> ^ac6Bi». HaRO- 
h6i^i> IlyraTCBi* BCTa«i» ch Rpecejii* h comejii* Ch 
RpHJiBi];^ Bi» €onpOBOJR;i;eHiK cbo6x7> CTapmiiH^b. Eiff 
no^Bejiit 6']&jD[aro ROti^^ yftp^meHnaro 6ovkTO& c6pfeft. 
JlfiSi RaaaRa b3Ajih er6 n6;i;i.-pyRH h iioca^6jiH b% c* 
fi,A6. Oh^ o6^aB6jii» OTny TepdcHMy, tto fiy^ext o6i- 
;i;aTi> y fler6. Bi> *ry MKHyxy pa3;i;^Jica at^HCRifi RpHRi>. 
H^cr6jibro pa366&HHROfi% Bi^amjKJin na Ep£lJii»t^6 
BacHJi6cy Er6poBHy» 

Ojs,±ui* H3i> HHXi> ycnijit yate Hapa/^AxBca bi> eA 
;^ymerpifiRy. Spyrfe tacR^jiH nepAnu, cyH;i,yRii, qafi- 
Hyio nocy^y, fiijiBe h bcio pyxjia;i^. «BdTH)mRH mo6 I» 
Rpnq&jia 6i^Haa CTap^nitea, ^OTttycrATe HftnY nib lid- 
Rafeie (give me time to make my repentatice). Otii;^ 
po^H^e, 0TBe;ii6Te MenA ri> HB^ny KysBMH^f l» B^pyri* 
OHa B3rjiHHf Jia na Biic^JiHiiy n y3Hij[a CBoerd My^a. 
«3jio;iiiHl» saRpH^^Jia ouk bi> HCxynjieHiH. «^to bbi 
6to cb HHHi> (V^iicaJia? Cb*ti> th moA, Hb&hi> KysB- 
mA^i>, y^a^aa cojijijAtcRaa roji6BymRaI (my brave sol- 
dier darling!) ne I'pddyjiH Te6& hh niTHR6 npyccRie, 
HH nfjiH Typ^HRia; fid bi> ^6cthomi> 6oib noj[oaK6jii> 
TH CBOft 3iCHB6'ri>, a crAnyji^ oti> 6*rjiaro R^TopatHH- 
Ra! «yHArB cfapyK) Bi;^BMy!» CRa3&jii> nyra^eBi>. 
TyT^ MOJioA6ft RasiRt yfl;&pHjra> ee ci6jieJ0 ct) rojids4, 
« ohA yniaa MSpTBaa na cxyn^HH RpujiBi^a. Ilyra- 
TOBt yixaji^; Hapd^^-B 6p6cHJica 3a hhmi>. iiywmm. 

Tyn6fi blunt roc4 ^ig*tliil, tress 

m&fiKa fand c6pyfl harness 

symerptMita warm-jacket nepAna feather-bed 

cyttx^K'b box, chest p^xisxB utensils 

BUTMAE^Th to look HCTynji^Hie frenzy 

mHUK'h bayonet KdTopsBHRi convict 

yniTB to silence y^dpHTB to strike. 


^TO c^ijiajTH »6TeiH? StfiteM Bllot^dpCROfi ttpi- 

noem fi&^ajrn, icaK'^ sto 
A1^JL^6ch BO Bcixi iri- 
craxrb, saHHMaeiaixi Uy- 
raH^fitiMi, itpdCflrilTB eny 
vh fiipttocM. 


Lbssok 8. 

«KaKi ino A^saoch? - 

^t6 ae A^JaJiH BTi 3to 
KaKte KOCH? 

A HTO .n'fejr^'b Ilyra^eBi Bce 
aTO BpifiMa? ^ 

Kto 3T0 KpnnaJi'B? 

OT^ero OHa KpHqdjra? 

Snaja-jiH ona ya^^, ^to nys^b 

ea fiHJT'B ^lOB'feineH'B ? 
Kto ee HSBicTfiji'B o tomx? 

Oh4 B-fepoiiTHO ynajia bi 
66MopoKi, KaKi 3T0 qacTO 

OhA noAxoA^Jiz OATH'S sa 
>,pyrfiMi Krb pacnflTiiD, 

BOTOpoe JL.e^TBi&JL'b CBHni;6H- 

Bi* noACS CaMOSBdnuy. 
OhS Tose 6hjih Ha nj[diii;aAH 


uisuBXSL isx'b ' b6ch. 
To^;^4 pyccKie coj^aiH, 06- 
MyHXHpoBaHHHe no iip;^c- 
CKOMy o6pa3n;y, ;^OJ[»HH 
6UJIH hoc6tb ^iAhhha 


Oh-b CHA'tjrB, noKy^a see axo 
npo;i;ojia^ocB, bb Rp6c- 
jaxrb, OKpymeHHiifi Ra3&- 
^LHMH crapnmndMH, er6 
npHB^pmeHi];aMH. HaKO- 
Heui'b, KO^;^aIIpHHflTie npn- 
CflFH 6hj[0 EOHqeno, oetb 
Bcrajit CB KpecejT'B, h 
xorijiB 6Eirjio y;iiajrf[TBca. 
B'B 9T0 Bp^Ma pasA^Cff 

BApyrB m^HCEifi KpHBB. 

&T0 6hj4 BacHJi6ca EropoB- 
Ha, mena cxaparo komch- 
;^aHTa BijoropcKoft Kpi- 


H'fccKOJiBKo HSB pas66fiHH- 


KpujrBii;6, H BB T6aL6 cdnoe 
Bp^MA pacxHiii;dj[n eA nMf- 
n^ecTBO. Ona S6 npocdja 

pasfiofiHHKOBB, ^TOfiH 66 

HiTB, OHa 3Toro ho anajia. 

Oh4 BsrjraHyjra Ha B6c4jiHiQr 
H y B6A^aBHcini;aro nyma. 

Bb TorAainH66 Bp^Ma 66- 
MopoKH 6hjih emie h6H3- 

Remarks on the use of some pronouns. '185 

Jl^ijiSiTb S^HIII,HHU ? B'fcCTHH m> PoCCfH^'b TkCh 

Kpyraxi 66iniecTBa, bi. 
ROtopHX'b Bpain;djacB xa- 
?T0 me ona b'b TaEOM^i^ Ona na^ajid 6paH]&Tb Ilyra- 

CJyHai c^ijajia? Hesa. 

A owh HTO eft CKasajii bi Owl Bejiijit ynaTB CTapyH> 
OTBirrb? Bij^iVJj EaKi ohi BHpa- 


H KasiHi 66pa80]rB yH^jm Mojio;i;6fi EasdE'b yA&pnji'b ee 
ee? cafijieH) no rojroBi xaKt, 

HTO OHa MepTBas yn&jia 
Ha CTyn^HH KpHjibn;a, Be- 
;tymaro bi ei coficTBen- 



Kto and hto, when followed by TaK6fi, xaKaa etc.. 
correspond to what kind of a man, what kind of a 
thing, etc.: 

Kto oht. Tandft? What kind of a man is he? 

Kto OHd TaKaa? What kind of a person is she? 

^^o TaK6e? What is that? 

fl He 3Hdio, VTO 6to TaK6e. 1 do not know what such a 

thing is. 
HHKor;^^ He yra;^^emL, kto onfi You will never guess who they 
Taicie. are. 

Kto ... to and hto . . . tto correspond to the Eng- 
lish expressions the one . . . the other: 
Kto roBopArb, kto msrkeTb, The one speaks, the other reads. 

KoMt r6pe, KOMy ciitxt. The one suffers, the other laughs. 

^TO is sometimes used in the sense of as, why, and 
in interrogative sentences for is it not: 
^T0 fifi ueuA, As to me. 

%o He H^Smb? Why dost thou not go? 

Tpy;^HO noHjiTb, qT6 jih? It is difficult to understand, is 

it not? 

^TO not unfrequently refers to persons: 
^ejiOB^K'b, ^10 npHxo^^fijTb B^epd. The man who came yesterday. 

After a conditional sentence, the pronoun to is 
often used to enforce the expression, even when the 
conditional particle is understood: 

186 Lessok 9. 

:ficji!i(5H a Be sHajTL, kto offb Ta- Did I not know who he is, I 
k6M, to He noB-fepHJit 6hL CMy. would not believe him. 

'EjAh n 3A0p6BT>, TO If I were in good health, I 

would . . . 

The negative expression ne to often has the signi- 
fication of unless, otherwise: 

N.fl,A CKop'^&e, He to onosA^emb. Make haste, lest you come too 


With the pronoun to the following idioms in com- 
mon use are formed: 

Kaitt 6h to Hfi-6MJio. However it may be, at iany rate. 

r^t 6h to hA-Chjio. Wherever it may be. 

^T0 6bi to h6-(5hjio. Whatever it may be. 

The adverbs ck6jib«o, ctojilko, nicKOJiLKO, when used 
as pronouns, have an incomplete declension. In the 
singular their dative only is used with the preposition 
no ; in the plural they have in all cases the terminations 
of qualifying adjectives: 

no CK6jibKy? For how much each? 

O cKdXbKEX'h Bu roBop^Te? Of how many do you djpeAk? 

The indefinite pronoun one (French on, German 
tnatt) has no equivalent in Russian. To render it, it is 
necessary to give another turn to the sentence: 

Bcer;^^ nejibzA 6uTb uojioji^^wb h One is not always young and 

KpacjftBbiMi. handsome. 

Jt6Ma Bcer;^A jy^me, HeaceJiH bi One is always better at home 

;^pyr6MT> M'fecrfe. than elsewhere. 

Co B^meMy jiHi^y Bfi;^tto, qTO bu One sees by your look that you 

He3;^op6BU. are ill. 

It has been stated (page 57) that the possessive 
"pronoun referring to the subject of the sentence is al- 
ways cBoft without any regard to person or number. 
This important rule is however sometimes disregarded 
for the sake of pointing out contrast or opposition: 
JI BSJiJi-B Moi6 KHAry, a tu cbo^. I took my book and you (took) 


Some authors however, even in such instances, follow the 
general rule. Thus Batyushkov: ji CAepxaJH cboS cidBO, cxe^tsAte cbo6. 


TURE. — Writing made its first appearance (aBfijact) in 
Russia with the adoption of Christianity, in the ninth 
century. In consequence, the first Russian writers were 
almost exclusively churchmen, and the contents of 

Remarks on THt use o^ some pronouns. 187 

their work exhibit a preeminently dogmatic and didactic 
character* — A Gospel, written about the middle of the 
eleventh century by the deacon Gregory of Novgorod for 
the Governor of Ostromir, is generally considered to 
be (cjiyatdTL with Instr,) the most ancient monument 
of Russian hand-writing. Next to "Ostromir's Gospel" 
in point of time {no BpeneHH) come "Svyatoslav's Col- 
lections'* (1073 — 76) which contain a complete ency- 
clopaedia of varied information^ drawn from Byzantine 

From the same sources originated (iipoHdomjtd) a 
great many other works of (cb) a similar general cha- 
racter, and even some poetical novels. But an indepen- 
dent national activity found its expression (fiApasHJiaCB) 
from the earliest times in an extensive cycle (vb 6ojl- 
inofi KOJifi^ecTBt) of tales, songs, proverbs, enigmas etc. 
and above all in annals (a oc66eHHO bi jiTOHHCH). Yet 
the names of the analists have not come down to us ; 
the only name known is that of Nestor, a monk of 
Kiev who died in 1114. His annals, the so-called "Tales 
of contemporary years" were for that time a remarkable 
work and served as the starting point of subsequent 
annalists. (To he continued.) 

Cxepn CxapOBtpa. — The Old-believer's death. 

CptA* JI*c6bi> Kepa:6Hn;a pascinHO MH6ro o^h- 
HdKHXTb MordJii>; BTb HHXi> TJiiH)Ti» k6cth CT&pI^eB^B, 
jnofl,^& ;^p6BHaro 6jiaro^6cTia, h 061^ oji^uowb h3i> Ta- 
k6xi> CTipn;eB:B, — AHTfe'fe, — bi> /iiepeBHiix'B na Kep- 
ac^Hi];'^ pa3CRa3HB&H)Tl> : 

CypdBHft xapiKTcpoM-B, 6oraTHft MyacdKi* AhtAh-b 
JIyHeBi>, f^osRABii BO rpix-i MipcK6Mi> p,o usvmjiecHTfL 
ji'feTi>, 8a;i;^Majica KpiuKO, saTOCKOsdji'B Aymofi h, 6p6- 
CHB-B c^MbH) ymejQ[i> b-b Ji'feca. TaMTb, na Kpaib Kpyxoro 
OBpara, ohi> cpy66ji:B ce64 kcjieio h jkhji'b fit neft b6- 
CCMB ji'hT% Kpit^y H 86My H jiiTO, He ;i;onycK&a k-b ce64 

HHKOrO : HH 8HaK6MBlXTb, HH pO^H^X-B CB06XTb. IlopdlO 

ai5^H, 3a6jry;i;ricB b-b aicy, cjiy^&fiHo noAxo;i;6jiH k-b 
er6 k6jib* h bh^^jih AnT^na: oh-b MOJiAjica, CToa na 
KOJiiHaxi y nop6ra eii. Bbijix oh-b CTpdmeH-B : nacdx-B 


Lesson 9. 

BTb nOCTi H MOJIliTB:fe H BeCB, KaKl» 3B*pB, o6p6cTb Bd- 

jiocaMH. 3aB6;^'feBTb qejiOB§Ka, owh no/iiHHMiJica uk ho- 
TH H, M6jina, KJiinajica eMy ;i;o seMJiii. Ecjih er6 cnp&- 
mHBajiH, KaKi> bi^th hstb ji*ca, omb 6e3Tb cjiobi> yK&- 
SHBaji'B pyK6H) ;i;op6ry, ein;e KJi&Hajica nejiOBiKy ]is> 
seujiA H, yxo;^it bi> cboi5 k^jibh)^ sanHp^Jica bi> neiS. 3a 
BdceMh ji*Ti, er6 B6;ii*JiH tocto, ho hhkt6 HHKor;^4 ne 
cjiMxkJLii er6 rdjioca. SKenA h ;i;iTH npaxo^i^JiH ki> 
HeMy; ohi> npHHHMdJiTb oti> hhxi> niiin;y h o/neac/ny h, 
KaKi> Bci^Mi) JiK);];itMi>, KJidnajica hmi> seMHO, ho, KaKi> 
BC*Mi> jiibAaMi>, H HMi> BO Bp6Ma no;iiB6atHH^ecTBa CBoe- 
r6 HH CJlOBa ne CKSLSks.'h. (TIpodoAMeuie 6yderm,) 

TjflTL to be corrupted 
saA^MaiB to begin to reflect 
6p6cHTB to abandon 
cpy6iiTB to hew down 
KpflAy one after another 
nop6ri threshold 
nocTi fast, penitence 
OA^sKAa coats 

AOx^TB to attain the age of 
saTocKOBaiB to grow sad 
OBpdr'B ravine 
K^jiBfl cell 
AonycK^TB to admit 
H3c6xHyTB to dry up 
sannpdTB to shut 
noAB^SHHHecTBo retirement. 


^TO BHOTO Bi Jiicaxi 6smi> 

^TO 3a MiAVL TaMi aKHByTl»? 

BaniMt OHi* acHjii wh ow 

KaKOBO 6hjio ero acHjiHiiiie? 

TaM^ B^AHO MHoro o;i;hh6- 


TJiiiDTi KOCTH peBH^TejieS 
AP^BHaro fiorocjiyaK^Hia. 

Hniie CTapoBipH, yAaj[6B- 
mieca ot^ CBfoa, a M6»Ay 
H^Ma Anxdn^ JlyneB'B. 

BartMi* ^toCh cnacTi cbo^ 
Aymy. JI,oaKfiBi b-b rpixi 
MipcKOM-B AO naTfi^ecaTH 

JltT-B, OWh 6p6CHJ['B CeMBI(> 

H ymejii b^ jiica. 
Ha KpaK) KpyToro OBpara 


BoceMb jATh KpaAy h 36My 
H JT-iTO, He AonycKaa Kt 
ce6'h HHKOro. 



Ho p6;i;HHe sipHO nocim;djiH nirt, oh'b ne xoTiji^ ro- 
ero Hepi^KO? ' BopfiTL ;i;a»e c^ hAmh; 


nfiniiy h ojij^mjij, He CKa- 
' 3aBmH HH cj[6Ba, tojilko 
Hfi3B0 KjianaacL. 



The total absence of such verbs in Russian, and 
their extremely frequent use. in English render it im- 
possible to determine by rules how to express them. 
Their various signification can only be shown by 
examples, and by observing certain expressions. 

May, can (might, could). 

C;^'feJIafiTe 5to, 6cjih M6aceTe. 
yM-feeTG jiH Bbi roBopfiib no pycc- 


^ejiaio Bawb 6hvrh c^acTMBUMH ! 
J[a. 6^^erb owh cq^cTJiHBi,! 

£CJIH M63KHO TaKl} CKaS^Tb. 

EuTb udMBTb owb Tendpb y:ic^ 

H He Mory h6 CKaadTb BaMi. 
Pdasii KanHT^Ht ne Mdacert ce- 

r6;^Ha y nacb o6'fe;^aTi>? 
ficjiH Bu 6y;^eTe xo;^fiTb TaKt 

6ji63K0 Kl} KaH^Bt, BU Bi* Hee 

HosB^jibTe Bacb cnpoc^Tb, vb sa- 

KOMy BU saHjfTiK) cnoc66HU? 
He y^6;^H0 jih BaM'b q&niKy qaio? 
B63m6mcho jih? 
IIo BceM BijpojfTHOCTH cjiyqfiTca 

TaiTB, KaiTb Bbi npe^cKas^H. 

Shall (should), 
H 6yay npor^JTHBaTbc;!. 
Onk c^^-fejiaerb Sto fl,Jia Bacb. 
H nomejii} 6bi/ ho MHi^ n^Kor^a. 
Owh flfijissieE-b Cujiii 6hL notxaxb 

, B-b PoccIk). 
Mb* 6y;^e'^b HenpijfTHO, 6cjih oht> 

He aaxdqerb lipifiTfi. 
He 3KejiaeTe jih nporyjiiiTbCii ne- 


You may do it, if you can. 
Can you speak Russian? 

I wish you may prosper I 
May he be happy? 
If I may say so. 
He may be dead now. 

I cannot help telling you. 
Can the captain not dine with 

us to-day ? 
If you walk so near the ditch, 

you may fall in. 

May I ask you what you are 
. able to do? 

May I offer you a cup of tea? 
Can that be true? 
It might probably happen as you 
have predicted. 

must, ought. 

I shall take a walk. 
She shall do it for you. 
I should go, but I have no time. 
He should go to Russia. 

I should be sorry, if he were 

not willing to come. 
Shall we take a short walk? 


Lesson 10, 

Bbi flfijiMu^ uoJly^ATh Harp4;^y. .; 

HtO ^dJIWOO, TO JifijlMEO. 

Bu Be AOwi»Bii roBoptrb dToro. 
Bu ;i(OJUCHii (SjIij^h B^yqaxb ^to 

H B^epk fl<6jimeBi> 6ujrb HanHC^Ti^ 

Bt MocKsy. 

wm (would), 

Oivb fiy^^CTb pa^^-b er6 B^ntTb. 
Mu dt^eMii noMBHTb GjiaroAi^niA 

H dyAeMii. CjiaroA&pBu. 
He xoTHie jir bu &b Hmrb roBO- 


He xoT^re jih bu CTavis'b n^Ba? 
H fl.a.ji'b 6u eMt A^nerb, 6ejiK Ou 

He dt^GTe jiH Bbi TaK* A0^p6 

o^ojUK^Tb MHi CBofi nepo^H- 

Hbitt H6»BK'b? 

H He Mory no3B6jiHTb Ban-b htt6 


IlycTb oH-b qpHA^Tb, 6eJiH ocm'6- 


HycTb ocfeAJitoTLL 46waAb. 

V&JifiTe EBTi K6MHaTbl! 

OcTaBbre uevA o^Horo, 
He yxo^ATe. 

You shall have a reward. 

He must have spoken to them. 

What must he, must. 

You must not say so. 

You OQsht to leam this by 

I ought to have written to Mos- 
cow yesterday. 

l^t, to leaTO. 

He will be glad to see him. 
We will remember benefits and 

be thankful. 
Will you speak to him? 

Will you have a glass^ of beer? 
I would give him the money, 

if I could. 
Woitld you be so kind as to 

lend me your penknife? 

I cannot let you go alone. 

Let him come> if he dare. 

Let the horse be saddled. 
Leave the room I 
Let me he alone. 
Don't leave. 


Continuation. i — About a hundred years later 
we find the "Narrative of Igoir'g Expedition (Cjobo o 
nojiKy Hropesi)" written in 1186, the only monument 
of ancient Russian profane poetry, relating the unhappy 
march of the Novgorod prince Igor Svyatoslavich 
against the Polovs. — In the thirteenth century, Russia 
was submitted to a cruel calamity, the Tartar invasion 
(1224 — 1480) which steuck terror into all hearts (noTpa- 
cjio Bctxi jifi. Tjrj6imu ^ymfi) and silenced all literary de- 
velopment. Rut in happier circumstances, the priest 
Sylvester, the counsellor of Ivan the Terrible, composed 
the famous "Domostroy", a book of domestic economy, 
[consisting of] a series of familiar and agricultural 

1 See page 187. 


precepts, wherein the relations of life are given ia 
strictly defined fomis akin to Chinese immobility. 

About this time printing began at Moscow, and in 
the sixteenth century Peter Mohila, the metropolitan 
of Kiev, remodelled that academy on the plan of westen^ 
universities^ The chief branches of teaching in it were 
theology, philosophy and rhetories ; among the ancient 
languages Latin was taught, and besides it Slavonic. 
In. the year 1664 several scholars were transferred 
thence from Moscow and amongst them Simeon Po- 
lotski. This famous representative of modem time& 
composed some tragedies, had them performed (pa3H-» 
rpajii Hxi) in the presence of the Tsar Alexei Mikhai- 
lovich and eudeavoured by every means to spread Eu- 
ropean leaiming in the imperial Dominions, but no Rus- 
sian literature in the proper sense of the word existed 
yet [emfi h6 6iIjI0). (To be continued.) 


CuepT^ CvapOBrbpa. — The Old-Believer's death, 


YnepTb OHTb wh T0j5,T>y Korj5,a, pasopitjiH ckAth, u 
CMepTTb er6 6hiJLk TaKOsd: 

IIpiixaJITb BTb Jl'feC'b HCnpdBHHKI> Ch KOM&H;^Ofi, H 

yBH;i;4JiH oh6, ^to cto6ti> Aht6ti> cpe;i,H k6jibh na ko- 
jiinaxTb H 6e3M6jiBHO M6jiHTca. 

— Th ! — Kp^KHyjiTb eMy Hcnp&BHHKi>. — yxo;ii6 1 
JIoMiTB 6y;^eMi> tbo§ jior6BHiu,el . . — Ho AHT6ni> ne 
cjiilimajii> er6 r6jioca. H ckoubko hh Ki^^^kjrh hc- 
npiBHHKTb — HH cji6Ba He otb4thjii> eMy CT&pei^i>, 

TOT^k HCnpdBHHK'B npHK^^JI^ B^anpTBi AHT^na H31E> 

k6jibh. Ho JiAflfi, bAjji^k CT^pnia, KOTopwft, ne aaMt^4a 


npe;^i» TBSpftOCTMO er6 Aym6 h ne nocjiymaJiHCB Hcnp^B- 
HHi^a. To^i^^ is.cxipkBMWS.'h npHKaa^jii hm-b jroMaxB k6jii»- 
w, H 0CTQp6^H0* 6oiCB y^^ap^Tii ]i«QJijiffl,araca, oh6 m6ji- 
^a CT&JSH pa36Hp4TB Kp^nDdy. 

Cxy^&JiH usL^ii, roji0B6fi AHxitaa TOnop6, Tpeni,ij[H 
;^,6cK^ h jx&msh na aeMJiio, ryjtKoe 6x,o y/ndpoB-B nonec- 
jiocB no jiicy, aaMex&JLHCB BOKpyri> k6jibh htAt^bt,. 
BCTpeBoateHHHfl myMOMTb, 3a;iipoatijia jincTBa na jxfi- 


Lesson 10. 

pcBBaxTb. A CTdpenii Bce MOJOiJica, KaKi> 6h ne B6fl;a 
H He cju^mia HH^erd . . . Ha^&jm pascRdxiiiBaTB Bd^H- 
xp^ KeJiBH, a xosflHHB eit Bce CT6flj[i> Heno;];B6mHO Ha 
KOJi'feHaxi>. H jiHniB Kor;i;& OTKaxiijiH bb CTdpony no-. 
CJiiAHifl 6peBHa z caMi> HcnpaBHHKB, uojip1i]i,6. kb CT&p- 
Hy^ B3fljiB er6 sa BdjiocBi^ AhtAhb, BCR^nyBB o^h bb 
H^6o, tAxo CKa3^Jii> B6ry : 

— r6cnO;i,H M^JIOCTHBBlfi . . . npOCTli HXB. H, 

ysaBB HaB3HHiiB, yMepB. FopMciu. 

paaopaTB to destroy [lice 

flcnp^BHHK'b commissar of the po- 
j[6roBHme den, lair 
r^iKiif sonorous 
jncTB& foliage 
vka6u,'b row of beams 
BCKpHHyTb to raise, to lift 

CKHT'b hermitage 
6e8M6iBHO silently 
AcTOBO sincerely, devoutly 
saMerdTBCfl to fly about 
pascK^THBaTB to roll out 
OTRaT^TL to drive away 
H&B3Hn?B backward. 


Bb KaKofi ro;i;B ynepB Cxa- 

A Kor;i;a 9to cjrpikjioch? 

H KaKOsa fiiura ero cmepTB? 

Ilocjiyfflajicfl jiH CrapoBipB? 

%o CA^JiaiB Tor;i;a HcnpdB- 

' HHKB? 

A Ahtkhb, tto ohb sani- 

TK3PB npH 9T0MB? 

Ho HTO CKasilB HaK0H6ll> 

Hec^acTHHft cTapenjB, Kor- 
ji,k CTporiS HCnpdBHHBB 
rpy6o BsajTh ero 3a b6- 

Ohb yMepB bb ro^i*, Kor;i;a 
pasopflJiH CEiTH, no npa- 

I&TO cjiyq^jocB npH EKaTe- 
pfini n. 

KaKoii-TO HcnpaBHHKB npii- 
xajiB bb jiicB CB KOMan- 
Aoft H BOJi-kiB OMy yfirfi 
H3B Kejn>H. 

Ohb npo;i;oji»ajB cboio mo- 
jriTBy, He o6pan^4a nzKa- 
Boro BHHMamfl Ha noji^- 
^eEShdk npHB&3B. 

Ohb np^RasajiB jnojifiwb Jio- 

M&TL KejbH). 

Ohb hh cjioBa ne roBop^JTB 
M6»;i;y t4mb, KaKB toho- 
pH cry^km m^i, ero rojo- 
Bofi H a6ceh h 6peBHa cb 
mfuLowb uijifiuoL Ha s^uiio. 

BcKfinyBB OHH na h66o, ohb 
t6xo CBasiiB: r6cn6;i;H 
mAjiocthbhS, npocrft hxi. 
— H, ynaBB HiB3HH%, 

Remarks on the use of prepositions with two cases. 193 



To what has been stated in the 8'*^ lesson of the 
First Part, concerning the use of those prepositions which 
are followed by two cases, may now be added that: 

a) The prepositional adverb M6:sRflj or ues&rb is in 
most cases indifferently followed by the genitive or the 

^TOTT, r6po;\'b jieacAn. M6ac;^y This town is situated between 
(MeMCT,) ;^ByxT, ptKi (or ;^ByMjf two rivers. 


b) When sa answers to the question wherefore ? it 
governs the accusative, and not the instrumental : 

Tu 6ujn> HaK^aaHT. aa rnkJiocTb e Thou wast punished for thy 

ji-feHOCTb, a OH-b nojiyq^jn, na- prank and idleness, but he 

rpkj[Y 3a xop6mee noBe;^6Hie h received a reward for his good 

npHJieadHie. behaviour and diligence. 

It is likewise followed by the accusative when ac- 
companied by an expression of time, distance or price : 
3a neji/kAio TOiif Ha3a;^i.. A week before. 

Mh MCHBeMTj aa TpH BopcTiS. We live three versts from here. 

3a Tiicjiqy py6jiett. At the price of 1000 roubles. 

But 3a requires the instrumental when it means 
behind, through, by reason of: 

K6inKa aa CT0Ji6M'b. The caf is behind the table. 

A He ycntji'b aa He;^oct^oM'b. I could not finish through want 

of time. 

c) With inanimate and abstract objects, the prepo- 
sition n^pe^i or npe;!;^ is more often used with the 
instrumental case, even when the verb of the sentence 
denotes motion or direction: 

Om> HB^jicji npe^^t rdpojifiui^. He appeared before the town. 

d) The preposition B'b or bo with such verbs as 
indicate promotion, bestowal of rank or reward, re- 
quires the accusative plural, and that case must in such 
instances be like the nominative: 

IIpoHaBecTti Bt 0(j)Hi^6pH. To promote to officer. 

IIoac^jioBaTB Bi> nojiK6BHHKH. To appoint as colonel. 

IlepeHMeHOBdTb b'b icaH^^H^^dTM. To receive the title of a candi- 

3anHc4Ti>ca Bt Kyni^ii. To be inscribed among mer- 

Russian Oonv. -Grammar. 13 

194 Lesson 11. 

B% is used with the accusative, when answering to 
the questions what time? what age? how long? how 
broad ? how dear ? etc. 
Bo BT6pHHBT>. On Tuesday. 

Bt jifis&jif>. During the rain. 

Jlfiwb FL TpH 9Tkx&. A house three storeys high. 

KoM^Aifl Bi ofl^tLWh aKTT.. A comedy in one act. 

CyKH6 Bi> qsT^pe py6jiA. Cloth at four rouhles. 

e) The preposition o, 061,660 governs the accusa- 
tive when answering to the questions: against what? 
on what ?, which is most frequently the case after verbs 
of striking, throwing, etc. : 

yA^pHTb K^HGHb. To strike on a stone. 

OnepeTbca o(6'b) ctojit.. To lean against a table. 

The accusative follows 06% also in the following 
expressions : 

Odt dTO Bp6iia. Towards that time. 

061 5Ty n6py. About that epoch. 

HttA 66pyKy. To walk hand in hand. 

In all other cases 0, o&h may be said to govern 
the prepositional. No rules can be given on this subject 
and it will be sufficient to state that 0, o6i> may 
correspond to almost all English prepositions, or to no 
preposition at all: 

He 6e3noK6MTecb tomt,. Do not trouble yourself about it. 

Ayiidii ceCt! Mind your own business! 

Dto mh* HanoMHH&en. MOfixi That reminds me of my early 

ibBbixt ;^HJiXT>. days. 

0ht> ropeBajTb CM^pTii ;^pyra. He mourned over his friend's 

JtoHOcfiTb xd^t A-fejia. To inform as to the way things 

are going on. 


Continuation. 1 — Literature, like every thing 
noble in Russia, owes its first impulse to Peter the Great. 
This glorious monarch, wishing at any rate (bo ^to 611 
TO HH cxajio) that his nation should be in no respect 
inferior to any other, zealously multiplied schools, 
libraries and printing-offices ; laid the foundations (;^aJPb 
ocHOBanie) of the Academy of Sciences and ordered 
many German, French and Dutch books to be translated 
into the Russian language ; in a word, he tried to create 

^ See page 191. 

Remarks on the use op prepositions with two cases. 195 

in a short time a Russian Literature, just as (TaK^ ate 
KaKTb) he had built towns and organized an army. He 
died however without seeing much (ne nojiyqAB-B nowrk 
HH OAHOro) fruit of all his labours. 

The only talented author who embellished his 
reign, Prince Kantemir (1709 — 1744), composed nine 
satires and eleven letters on philosophic and moral 
subjects. The fact which he especially denounces (kbji€' 
Hie oc66eHHO o6jnm&euoe imi>) is the following: The upper 
classes of society adopted european refinement and comfort 
of life, but in all else they abode by their (coxpaHfijH) former 
ignorance, supersition, coarseness towards the com- 
mon people (rpy6oe o6paiiiieHie Cb ut^mimrb KJiaccoMt na- 
p6;i;a), disregard for science, in so far as no (^cjih ne) 
material improvement is deriving. For that reason may 
he be called the first writer of modern Russian literature. 

(To he continued.) 


CxenB H aanopoaiecKafl 06hb. 

Ctchb whwh ^ajiifee, T'hu'b CTaHOB^jiacB npeKp&c- 
H*e. ToTf^k BecB iori>, see to npocTptecTBO, Koxdpoe 
cocTaBJijteTi H^H:femHH)io HoBopocciio ;i,o caMaro ^ep- 
Haro M6pa, 6^jio sejienoio, ;i;iBCTBeHHOK) nycT^meio. 
HHKor;i;& njiyr-B ne iLpoxo]ifijii> no HCHSM'fepAMBiM'fc boji- 
H&Mi> jifiKiLXii pacT^nift; o;i;h6 t6jilko k6hh, ckphb4b- 
uiieca bx rhx-b, KaK-B bb Jiifecy, BHTdnTHBajiH 
Hxi>. Hhtit6 bb npHp6;ii* ne 6^jio Jiynme hxi>. 
Bcfl npnpo/iia npe;i;cTaBJijijiacB 3eJieHO-30JiOT^MB okc- 
anoM^B, no KOTdpoMy 6p^3HyjiH MHJiJii6HH pasHBixB 

DjB'feTdBB. CkB03B TOHKie, BBIc6Kie CTe6jIH TpaBli CKBO- 

36jih rojiy6^e, cAnie h jiHJi6BBie B0Ji6mKH; atejiTBift 


BepxymKOH) ; dijiaa K^niKa 36hthko-o6p&3hhmii uianKa- 
MH necTpijia na hob^pxhocth : 3aHeceHHBifi BorB3HaeTi> 
OTKy/iia KOJiocB nmeH±a;H najiHBdJicfl bx ryiu,:fe. no;i,B h6- 
MH (t. e. xp^BaMH) niHBipjijiH KyponaTKH, B]toaHyBi> 
CBo6 men. B63;iiyxi> Cbijib Han6jiHeHi> T^canBio p^- 
HHXB htA^bhxb cb6ctobb. Ha u66± Heno;i,BiimHO cto- 
Ajlu D;ijioio Tyneio jtcxpefiH, pacnjiaCTaBi> cbo6 KpiijiBfl 
H Heno;i,B6mHO ycTpeMfeB cbo6 rjia3a bi> Tpasy. KpnKB 
;^B6raBmefica bi> CToponi Tynn /^Akhxb ryceft OT;i,a- 
Bajica BorB 3HaeTB bi> KaK6MB fl^kjihue^'h 63ep*. Hai* 


Lessok 11. 

*rpsLBA no;i,KMajiacB m'j^phbimh ssM&xaMH n&&K3i n po- 
CK6inH0 KynajiacB bx c]4hhxi> bojih&xi> B63;i;yxa. Boh'b 
0H& npon^Jia bi> BBnnnH']^ h MCJiBK^eT-B t6jibko o;i,h6h) 
^epnoH) TO^KOH); boti> ona nepeBcpHyjiacB kpi^jibamh 
H 6jiecHyjia nepe/^-B c6jiHD;eM:b. Ct^hh, po;i;H]^fl mo6 
CTenn, KaKl» BBI xopoin6I (HpodoAoicSuie Cyderm.) 


Mmb HanAcana cxaTBi, Ona nanAcaHa ForojieM'b, 



Hs'b RaRoro co^HH^nifl h3- 
BJieqeHd oHd? 

no RaRofi npH^^H^ Hoji&kA 
rnajiH RaaaROBB? 

^ewb ae rorojTB roBO- 
pHiTB Bx craTB^ named; 
CTapaHiflXB rcchasob'b? 

Hto TaRoe 6wi& Gh^h h Ra- 
jiofL Hap6;^•B 6ii;iH 3ano- 


yMepraHMt jArb naTB- 
;i;ecHTB TOM^ Ha3a;i;B. 
HsB OAHoii H3X jiyqnraxt ero 
noBicT^ft: «Tapdcb ByjiB- 

6a», BTb ROTOpofi OHTb Olrfl- 

CHBaeTB roH^Hifl najio- 
nOJflRaMH H Ra3Hb H^CRO- 

FjiaBHOK) npH^^HOK) roHeni^ 


ji6^ecRie CB;iin;eHHHRH h 
ieayfira, xoT'iBinie o6pa- 

T^TB Ra3aR6B% BB RaTO- 

jrAnecRyK) Bipy, fijni hx-b 
o6jiaTUHHTb, RaRB Bupa- 
sajiHCB HajioofipasoBan- 
HHe Ra3aRH. 
HtTB, OHi onficHBaeTB npe- 


CT^HH, H uyTem^CTBiii Ta- 
paca ByjiBfiH, repoA n6B4- 
CTH, ROTOpHii OTnpaBHJica 

Ci^B, hto6b npe;i;jioatfiTB 
3anop6ffiii;aMB cbo6 h cbo- 
Axt CHHOB^fi ycjiyra. 
Sanopoau^i 6ujm c6poA^ 
y^ajiBi^oBB H neAOBOJTB- 


HSX BCiXB Hai^fi, ROTopue 


TaKt 3T0 6ujrb uipoflTHO 
6y1kBu& H HeyroMOHuufi 

IIo^eMy-ate OAHaKO? 

Ho b4ai> 9T0 6ujaL paafiofi- 


Bhjio-jih y 3anop6»n;eB'L 


co6HpajiHCL Bi Ob^b, ^si 
Toro HTo6'B MOJio;^6^ecTBO- 


Eme 6h. TaKOMy Hap6;^y 
HeBosMoacHO 6hLJio 6hL muTh 
BTb HameM'B 6jiaroycTp6eH- 


ynpaBJiiieMOH saKOHaMH. 
Ohh[ He npHsnaBajiH HHRa- 


TOJibRO rpa6e»eirB; Bp^ns 
oh6 npoBo;i;6jrH, noRy;i;a 
^esbrH 6hiJiV[ b'b RapnaH^, 

- Bi HBflHCTBi, Bi njTflCRaX'B 

H BTb n6pinecTBax'B; ecjiH 
ffie ji;^Herb ne 6ujio, to oh6 
Hana;i;aj[H hoa'b pasHUMH 
npeworaMH na codflfiik 


na nojiHROB^, T^poRx, 
njiaBajiH no HepnoMy 
MopK), no JI,6Hy, ^Haio, 
rpa6a Bea^i Bce, ^to 
HaxoA^jH. Kor^a oh6 
nojarajiH, ^to y ehxtb 


ea XBaTHTx na nicROjiLRO 
Bp^MOHH na HHpU H Ha 
6paaHHqecTB0, to bo3- 
BpaniiajiHCb AOMoii h na- 
^HHajica nHp-B ropoH). 
Kofl^^HO, EoaTOMy a BHine 

CRasajTB, HTO HMTb B03^ 

m6»ho 6hjio cyni;ecTBO- 


pufl cj[y»6j[H nepexoAOM^ 
OTTb BdpBapcTBa R-b Ha- 
nieMy fijiaroycrpoeHHOMy 


Htrb, OHfi 66jihmeio nacTbro 
He 6hjih aeHaTH, h »^h- 

198 LussoN 12. 

n^HHU He CM'bjH Mse 
2KHTb Bi* npeA^-iax^ C^hh. 
Tt, KOTopae noA66HO By- 
J[h6k HM^JH »eH'B, »6;iH 
B^ nfpeRbnx'b 6jh craHd- 
i^axi T. e. B'B t362Lxrb h 


B^ 66jihmewb tjiu vesh- 
mewh pa3CT0AHiH ot'b 



This can only be learnt by numerous examples. 
We subjoin here a great many in which the alphabetical 
order of English prepositions has been followed: 

About^ 6kojio, 0, etc. 

Biijio 6K0JI0 nflT^ micdwb. It was about five o'clock. 

OiTb MHt o6i> dTOrb Bce CKa3^jii>. He told me all about it. 

EcTb jiH Bacb ;^6HbrH ct> co66k)? Have you any money about you? 

Okp^cthocth nap^3Ka 6qeHb Kpa- The country about Paris is very 

c^Bbi. beautiful. 

Ohi xoTijTb roDopATb. He was about to speak. 

Onk co6HpdeTCfl "^xaTb bt* PoccIk). She is about to go to Russia. 

H iiaM'^&peH'b HTT^. I am about to go away. 

IIoAtMaliTe, HTO Bbi ^^'^^jiaerel Mind what you are about 1 

Mu c6PiJimb cb Aop6rH, HaMi 6bi- We missed the road and went 

jio Hkflfl6uo CA^JiaTb o6x6fl,Y no at least seven versts round 

icp&liHott Mtpt ceiib B^pcTb. about. 

9to 6qeHb (Jojibm6fi o6x6fl,'b. This is very far about. 

BiiTop^ nepcMtHrtjiCH. The wind is come about me.^ 

Ohi BcerA^ coxpaHiferb cnoK6tt- He always has his wits about 

CTBie Atxa. him. 

ApMifl cocTOJiJiii e;^B4 hsi ^ecaTfi The army consisted of about 

Tiicaq-b 'lejiOB'feKi.. ten thousand men. 

H 3K0JI&K) nTo6'b owb He BiitiuH- I wish he would go about his 

Bajicn Bi> Moe A'^Jio. business. 

Above, HaA'B, Biinie, Cojibme, etc. 
Oht» acHB^Tb ukflfi un6fo. He lodges a story above me. 

Ha;^!) ii&MH CKOni&JiHCb xy^u. The clouds stood above our 




Ofl^Awb ciLfl,^bjrb vAme, a APyr6fi 

H^sEe Meuf. 
dxo B^kme er6 noHHM&Hin. 
Mu Tavb 6Ajm 66jn>ine Tp6rb 

H He Mort ocraBiTbCfl ($6jrbe q^ca. 

E6jite Bcer6 a HenaBtoy jioacb. 
n^e Bcer6 He 3a6iiiB&fiTe Men^. 
Ohi» qpeB0cx6AHTb Menif eo icgMi*. 
Ohi> eii^§ SHFb. 
BofKoe 6xkT0 hhcx6ahti> CB^me. 
Mnt 6ffl,&rb nerptAHO npessodT^ 


^aTb wb npH;^qy. 

The one sat above, the other 

below me. 
It is above his comprehension. 
We were there above three 

I cannot remain above an hour. 
She is above twenty years. 
I detest lying above all things. 
Above all, don't forget me. 
He is above me in everything. 
He is still above ground. 
I shall easily get above them 
All good comes from above. 

To give over and above the 


At, vby y, npH, Ha, 3a, etc. 

Bi juiTh qacdBTL. 

y Moer6 dp^Ta. 

EpH q§]rb 6u bu xortjiH 6biTb? 

Ha paacBtTt. 

3a CT0Ji6irb. 

H 3EkJ0 qer6 ohi> ^OMor^ercA. 

Ji6m&jif> HA&Tb cK6piurb mkrowb. 

H He 3H&10, ^TO UEli OTBi^q^Tb. 

CHaq&Jia a npHH^jii» er6 sa Bact. 
£cjiH($i> TyTb He CTpa;^^a uoH 

qecTb^ a 6h[ c^^tjiajrb dro. 
H roT6Bi> Kb Bdmnirb ycjifrairb. 
AtjiaTb Ha CBofi cq^Tb. 

By, no, y, 

dra rpaiiM&THKa 6hijik ni^caHa 

R opi'bxaji'b BOflfiio, cyx^irb ny- 


Tu npi'bxaji'b no aceJitsHofi Aop6- 

Oht> CTOjijrb y eA hoct^jih. 
Mu noib^^eirb wb HeTep^fprb 

qpesT. Bepjififfb. 
H B6;^'j^jrb saiTb cojia^tu npomji6 

Mbi 6fflfi}i'b Ea.ztfs.'b '6K0JI0 qe- 

Tbip^xi» qacdBTb. 
HoKi Bbi npH^^eie, see 6y;^erb 

H HamgjTb er6 cjiyqaflHo. 
dra KapT^Ha Pa({)a^jifl. 
KTb cq&CTlK) MM er6 yBfi;^ijiH. 

At five o'clock. 

At my brother's. 

What would you be at? 

At day-break. 

At table. 

I know what he aims at. 

The horse goes at a great rate. 

I am at loss what to answer. 

At first I took him for you. 

If my honour were not at stake, 

I would do it. 
1 am quite at your service. 
To be at the charge of a thing. 

m6mo, etc. 

This grammar was written by 

I came by water, by land. 

You came by rail. 

He stood by her bed. 

We shall go to St. Petersburg 

(via) by Berlin. 
I saw the soldiers pass by. 

We shall be back by four 

By the time you come, every- 
thing shall be ready. 

I found him by chance. 

This painting is by Raphael. 

By good luck we saw him. 

200 Lesson 12. 

M^jio no M^Jiy. Little by little. 

y Hero ;^B6e ;^tTeM orb nepsaro He has two children by his first 

6p&Ka. marriage. 

Ohi> npHp6AHbitt flfioipan^wb. He is a nobleman by birth. 

npaBOB'fe;^'B no npo(|)6cciH. A lawyer by profession. 

Ha MoAxi qacdxii qexiipe. It is four by my watch. 

H ocTaibcb npn tobtb, qxo a CKa- I abide by what I have said. 


H30 jifla Bt jifiUh, Day by day. 

Hh 3a qio. By no means. 

B-b Teq^niH cbmA ji-ferb. By seven years. 

JtBa;i,i^aTb ({jyiOB-b Bumnnii na uar- Twenty feet high by fifteen feet 

H^^i^aTb mnpHui^r. wide. 

Bo MpaKt H6qH. By the favour of night. 


Continuation.! — The Empress Elizabeth I con- 
tinued the work of Peter the Great and [with] Mikhail 
Lomonosov (1711 — 1775) begins (otkphji'b) the list of the 
great Russian authors. To him belongs the glory of 
the separation of the Ancient Slavonic from the Rus- 
sian language [and of], having shown once for all the 
superiority of the latter as a literary idiom. But he is 
admired chiefly for his many patriotic songs and a 
heroic poem on Peter the Great called the Petriad ; and 
another greater merit of his was that he wrote the first 
Russian Grammar and further because it is he who 
set the basis of the Theory of Literature, thus success- 
fully combining precept with example. 

In his comedies there is much liveliness and also 
many hints on contemporary defects, so that (cjitAOBa- 
TejibHo) they prove an abundant source for the study of 
the morals in his time. Therein consists Lomonosov's 
superiority over Kantemir, whose types are on a whole 
not Russian but rather cosmopolite (66jite ofime-Hejro- 
BiHecKie) About the same timeVasili Trediakovski intro- 
duced into the Russian language the tonic measure of 
versification, instead of the ancient foot- versifying; and 
his rival Alexander Sumarokov (1717 — 1777), with the 
assistance of some giftep actors founded the national 
theatre, which in imitation of the French theatre, folio- 
wed at first the rules of the ancient classics. 

(To be continued.) 
1 See page 195. 



CxenB H 3anop6»BCKafl C'&hb. 


HaniH nyTemecTBeHHHKH na nicKOJibKO MHHyTTb. 
TOJiBKO ocTaH^BJiHBajiHCb ^Jifl odi/^a. IIpH ^eMi> ixaB- 
mill ch h6mh oxpiiA^, H3Tb ^ecaxA KasaKOBTb, cji±3kjii> 
ch jioma;i,eH, 0TBji3HBajii> /^epeBjiKHua 6aKJi43KKH ci> 
ropijiKOH) H3i» T^KBBi ynoTpe6jijieMBia bm^cto cocy- 
;^OBi>. "Bjih t6jibko xjrb6'h ch cajiOM^ (add cbhh^mi>), 
6jih Kopat6, n^jiH tojibko no o/i,H6fi ^lapK* e;i,HHCTBeH- 
HO ji^jia no;i,Kp*njieHia, noTOMy. ^to Tapac^ ByjiBfia 
HHKor;i,a ne no3BOJi^Jii» HanHBaTbca bi> ;i,op6r* h npo- 
;i,oji3KajiH nyxB no Be^eipkwh, 

B6^epoMi> Bca cxenB coBepnieHHO nepeMin^jiacB. 
Bee necxpoe npocxpancxBO e^ oxBaxHBajiocB nocjii/i,- 
HiiMi> jipKHMi> 6x6jiecKOMTb c6jiHB;a H nocxeneHHO xen- 
h4jio, xaKi> ^xo b6;i,ho 6]^jio, KaKx» x^hb nepefiirajia 
no HHMi> H oh6 cxanoB^jiHCB xeMHO-sejieHHMH ; Hcna- 
penia no;i;BiMajiHCB rym;e; Kaat;i,Bifi B;B'fex6KTE>, Ka3K/i;aa 
xpaBKa HcnycKajia ^Mfipy, h Bca cxenB Kyp^JiacB 6jia- 
roB6HieMi>. Uo He6y, rojiy6o-xeMHOMy, na.K'h 6yato 
HcnojHHCKOH) K^cxBH) Haji^naHH mHp6Kia nojiocBi h3^ 
poaoBaro sojioxa; fisp-fe^Ka 6iji'bAii kjiok4mh jierKia npospa^- 
HBia ofijiaKa h cstMBifi CBiacifi, o6ojiBCx6xejiBHBifi, KaKi> 
MopcKia b6jihh, B'fexepoKi* e;i,Ba KOJiBixajica no Bep- 
xyniKaM'B xpaB^, h ^yxB ;i,oxparHBajica ki> n^enaMX*. 

Bca M^3BiKa, HanojiHjiBniaa ji^euh, cxnxdjia h cm*- 
H^jiacB jifiyvdio. U^pBtia aBpaacKH BHnajiSHBajH h3i> 
Hopi CBOHxi, cxaHOBfijTHCb Ha sa^Hia jianKH, h orjiainajiH 
cxenB cbo6mi» cb6cxomi>. Tpen^anie Ky3He^HK0Bi> cxa- 
hobAjiocb cjiBiniHie. HHor;i,a cji^majica h3X» KaK6ro- 
HH6y;i,B ye;i,HHeHHaro 63epa KpHKi* jie6e;i,a h, KaKi» ce- 
pe6p6, ox;^aBajica b-b B63;i,yx'fe. Uyxeni^cxBeHHHKH o- 
cxaH&BjiHBajiHCB cpe^A nojiefi, H36HpdjiH no^Jierx,, pa- 
CKJia;i,BiBajiH or6HB, h cxaBHJiH na nero Koxeji-B, bi> 
KOxopoMTb BapAjiH ce6i Kyji^nnb; napi> ox;i,*ji^jica h 
KOCBeHHO ;i,BiM6jica na b63jijx±, UoymnHaBi,, Ka3aKA 
jioac^jiHCB cnaxB, nycxfomn no xpaBi cnyxaHHBixi> 
Koneft CBo6xTb. Oh6 pacK6;i,BiBajiHCB na CBHXKaxi>. Ha 
HHxx» np^MO rjia;^ijiH no^Hiia 3B'i3/i;Br. 0h6 cjiiimajiH 

CBOilM'B yXOMI» BeCB 6e3q6CJieHHBlfi MipTE> HacfeKdMBIXTb, 

Lesson 12. 

HanojiHiBinHxi> Tpasy; bgcb hxi> TpecKi>, cbhctx, Kap- 
icaHLe, Bce !$to 3Bf qno pa3/i;aBijiocB cpejijk h6^h, otih- 
mdjiocb Bx CBi^eMx ho^h6mi> Bdsj^yxi h ^oxo;i,iijio ;i,o 
cjiyxa ^iMx-TO rapMOHA^ecKHMx. Ecjih ^e KT0-HH6y;i^ 
H3i> HHXi>-no;i,HHMdjica h BCTaBdjTB Ha BpeMfl, TO eny 
npe;i,CTaBJijiJiaci> CTenb ycisHHOio 6jiecT^mHMH AcKpa- 
MH CB^T^mnxca ^epBHKdBTb. HHor;^d H0^H6e He6o b^b 

pd3H£IXl> M'i^CT^'L OCB'felil.aJIOCB ;i;^JIBHBIMl> S^peBOlTB 

OTT* BBiacHraeMaro no JiyrdM'B h p'feKdM'B cyx6ro TpocT- 
flHRa H TeMHaH BepeH^i];a Jie6e;],ed, JieT'^BniHX'B Ha 
c*Bepi., B;i,pyri> ocB^m^JiacB cepe6pflH0 p630BBiMi» 
iSBitowb H Tor^a, xasajiocB, ?to KpacnuA njomKH JierajiH 
no TOMHOMy He6y. (TIpodoMiceHie 6^dem.) 

^pes'B KaKyro ^acTs Poccfn Oh6 npoisa^H Hpes'B »»- 

npo']^3acajrH naiuu nyTe- 


TaK'B KaK'B ara CTpana 6wl& 
Maio o6HTaeMa, to B^po- 


Jl^ojiro jiH "bxajiH naniH ny- 


Fa*^ »e ocTaHaBJHBajiHCB 
OHft na AOpori? CymecT- 
BOBajiH JIH TorA^ jm^ 

TpaKTfipH H KOp^MH? 

Hyro HacTB Poccm, koto- 
paa cocTaBjEiieT^ HUH^m- 
HH)H) HoBopocciK), KOrA& 
Bca cTpand dTa 6njia no- 
KpHTa sejienoH) a^bct- 


H Ten6pB ct^hh HoBopocciH 
H3o6fi;ryH)Ti a^^bh), TorAa 
ace efl bujii 6e3AHa, hoa'b 
KonuTaMH jromaA^^ na- 
niHX'B KasaKOBi to ttihh- 
pMH KyponaTKH, bhth- 

HyBl CBOH) ffl^H), TO HOCJlfiCB 

A^KHX'B ryc^fi H jiefieAefi, 
opjEu, BSMaxHBaa cbohmh 


Oe& np66HjiH Bi ny t£[ oro- 
jio Tpex'B AHefi, 660 He 

6jrH3RO 6UJI0 OTX HX'b AOMa 

AO sanoposcRofi G'b^H. 
BujH TorAa ya6 h TpaRTfipH 


6ua6 HesHan^TejibHo; no 

3T0My RasaRfi HOHOBaJM H 



Ho OTBy;i;a 6paj[H onk CBok 

^J^i ate nyrein^cTBeHHHKH 

npOBO^ftjIK H0%? 

IIo^eM]^ HasHBdjiu ac^Tejiefi 
Ct^H sanopoati^aMH? 

MHoro^HCJieHHH - JTH 6hjih 
sanopoHccKie KasaK^V 

Ka3aKft Boo6iii;^ ji;oB6jibCTBO- 


Cb CBunuwb cajioM'B, h 
HHJiH no OAHoS ^apKt 
BOAKH, noTOMy HTO Tapacb 
Byjn>6a ne noaeojiHji'b na- 
iiHBaTBca Bi j^opori. Hpn 
3T0irb Tapaci, ero chho- 

BLH, H OTpa;^'B, CJ^AOBaB- 

mifi 3a h6mh h cocTOfliii;ifi 
HSt AecjiTft KaaaKOB-B, pi^- 
Ko cj^aiH ci jiomav/^^fi, 
H TOJbKO nepeBycHBajiH 
Ha cKopyH) pyKy. 

Kor^a cojiHi^e ca^fiJiocL, 
KorA& yTHxajTH M^;^HHa 
n^CHu HTHDit, Tor^a Ta- 
pdcb ocraHaBJiHBajia? cb 
CBofiMH cnyTHHKaMH cpeAii 
noji6i, H H36Hpajii ce6i 
m4cto j^Jia HO^Jiera; ohii 
pacK;Ia;^UBaJHTO^Aa ofohl 
H BapfijiH ce64 Karay. 

IIoTOMy qxo JI^Hinpi o6pa- 
syeiTB noporn, upeat ko- 
TopHe crpeMHTca er6 b6- 
jifii, 3a OTHMH noporaMH, 
3aiu;HiD.aBmHMH Bo;i;aHyH) 
Aopory b-b Ci^b, 3anop6»- 
CRie Ka3aK/i buctpohjih 
ce64 CBOK) CTOJifmj. 

Hirb, OHfi h6 6hjh mhofo- 
H6cjieHHbi, HX'b Bcer^a 
6hjio H^CKOJibKO Tiica^i, 
KOTopHe co6HpajiHCb, Kor- 
;i;a Ha3HaHaj[Cfl 66iii;i3 no- 
xoAi H BHCTynajiH noA'B 
Ha^ajibCTBOMi aTa^iaHa, 
KOTopiifi nasuBajiCJi bo- 


XiVSSON 13. 




For, 3a, 

Oht» yMep-b 3a CBoe OT^qecTBO. 
Ofla CA^jiajia ^to ;^jiii ubeA. 
5to CTIII;^HO fl,Jia eact. 
Onk ^ocTpa;^4JIa otl CBoer6 JierKO- 

Ohtj nji^KajTb OTT» p&aocth. 
Oht» yfexajTb bt» BpdftTOH'b. 
R He Mon> nofirii no HCAOCTaTKy 

MbiKGie JIII BM MH-fe O^OJIMCfiTb ^Ty 

KH^ry Ha HicKOJibKO ^nefi? 
H yace s^^'fecb acHBy njiTb jrferb. 

Jlijio roBop6TT> caMo 3a cedi. 
Oht, dy^^erb Bce Jitio Bt OTcyT- 

H HaB'fepHoe roBopi5, mo yBiiacy 

Bacb B^qepoMi). 
il CT0i5 3a TO, ^^66hl noflifi ;^0M6ft. 
llu Bacb ac^^eMii. 
He JimeTG JiH Bu qer6-HH6yAb? 
CTapfiKT* npoc<ijn> m^ijioctmhio. 
Mbacexe jih bu 5to odiflCHiiTb? 
Hat yBaoK^Hia icb ciiny. 
Bbi rjiyno Aijiaeie, qio B'fepHTe 


HHKdKt He Mory. 

T6jibK0 nop6qHUM'b Ji^ji^awb Hy»c- 

Ho 6o;iTbca cm^pth. 
Paai* HaBcer;^^. 

From, OTTB, 

H nojiyqfiji'b nncbMd orb Bdmefi 

H i;^y Ha-b AM^pHKH. 
H 6y;^y nncdTb saii-b H3t> H6b- 

Oh^ ymji^ orb MeHit 6qeHb p^HO. 
IlepeB^^^eHO cb pyccKaro. 
Owb cnajTbOTb meciii qac6B'b ;^o 


Ohtj npenjiTCTBOBaJi'b Mnt txaTb 
BT* TBepb. 

j^jis, etc. 

He died for his country. 

She did it for me. 

It is a shame for you. 

She suffered for her credulity. 

He wept for joy. 

He set out for Brighton. 

I could not go for want of time. 

Can you lend me that book for 

a few days? 
I have been living here for these 

five years. 
The thing speaks for itself. 
He will be absent for the whole 

Take it for granted, I shall meet 

you to-night. 
I am for going home. 
We are waiting for you. 
Are you looking for anything? 
The old man begged for alms. 
Can you account for it? 
For the worthiness of his son. 
You are a fool for believing it. 

I cannot for my life. 

It is for wicked men to dread 

Once for all. 

H3^, c^, etc. 

I received a letter from your 

I come from America. 

I will write to you from Nov- 

They went from me very early. 

Translated from the Russian. 

He slept from six o'clock till 

He hindered mc from going to 



Ha^^-feiocb, qxc necidcTbe 6y;^eTT. 

OTBpameHd OTh Bact. 
Hapnc6BaHHMii ct naTypu. 
Co Bp^HeHH coTBop^Hiii Mipa. 
^acTj 6Tb qacy xyace. 


Mu neiTb HHqer6 He cjiuxkJiE. 
CB^pxy or CBiirae. 








In^ into^ 

Bi> MocKBi. 

nofi;i,ein> wb CT0Ji6ByK). 
IIojiosK^ HOHCb Bi> KapMdnii. 
Owh EoaBpaiATca q6pe3T> Micfla,i». 
Bamij 6paTT, btj ;^66pOMT». 3;^op6- 


Bt» TaK6MT> cjit'iat bli np^Bu. 
Ohii xopom6 3HaK6Mi> cb rp6qec- 

RHMl JI3bIK6Ml>. 

Oh^ 6^jih n6MMaHbi na ji.'hjrh, 
Owb Bce^;^d bt. xop6nieM'b pacno- 

jioac^HiH Ayxa. 
H 6Lijrb Wb canor^xii. 
Kto ^a ;^^Ma BT* Tp^ypt? 
Cjii;^yii Bkmfiwb npHKa34HiAMT>. 
Bi) 3HaK:b ^^pyjKdbi. 
H^MOmem* lijiowb, ho do^^pT* ;^y- 


A He 3H^K) Ha Kor6 nojiosK^ibCfl. 
Oh6 nojiyq^JiH narp^/^y zeujieio, 

^jiH naJi^qHbiMH ;^eHbraMH. 
Co jifin nk flfiub. 
Hh o;^<iH'b H3T> ;^ecaTA. 


IlHcaTb KapaH;^am6Mi>. 
Bc'b o6cTOjiTejibCTBa ;^*jia. 

I hope the evil will be averted 

from you. 
Painted from nature. 
From the creation of the world. 
From bad to worse. 
From the king. 

We have not yet heard from him. 
From above. 
From afar. 
From behind. 
From beneath. 
From forth. 
From hence. 
From thence. 
From where. 
From within. 
From without. 

B^, Kb, etc. 
In Moscow. 

Let US go into the dining-room. 
Put the knife into your pocket. 
He will return in a month. 
Your brother is in good health. 

In this case you are right. 
He is well versed in Greek. 

They were taken in the act. 
He is always in good humour. 

I was in boots. 

Who is that lady in mourning? 

In obedience to your commands. 

In token of friendship. 

Sick in body, but sound in mind. 

I know not in whom to trust. 
They received a reward either 

in land or in cash. 
Day in day out. 
Not one in ten. 
In a low voice. 
A copy in oil. 
To write in pencil. 
The ins and outs of an affair. 

Of, Hai, OTTb, 0, etc. 
^OMT, Moer6 ;^pyra. The house of my friend. 

Ouk Mojf p6;^CTBeHHHi^a. She is a relation of mine. 

CaKc6HCKoe KopojidBCTBO. The kingdom of Saxony. 

Mtcfli^^j libHb. The month of June. 

206 Lesson 13. 

rbpo^^t Mockb4. The city of Moscow. 

9to Hst q^CTaro 36ji0Ta. This is of pure gold. 

H HHKorA^ He uemkjub o no;^66- I never dreamt of such a thing. 


Bu jifi^XEA 6^JiK 6u Han6HHHTb You ought to remind him of 

CMt er6 oCtm^Hin. his promise. 

Mu ydta^eHii bt> er6 q^cxnocTH. We are convinced of his honesty. 

MhIj ^to He 6e3'bH3B'fecTH0. I am not ignorant of it 

Oh6 ropA^Tca cbo6mt» ycn^xoMi*. They are proud of their success. 

Er6 namjid bhh6bhuhi> bi> no^- He was found guilty of forgery. 


^TO dyACTT. cb H^MH? What will become of us? 

dro npoH3omji6 orb Bdniefi He- This came of your negligence. 


Bm xopom6 CA'fejiajiH. This is well done of you. 

Bu cdMH 5to c^ijiaJiH? Is it of your own making? 
KaKT» Mory a cy^^rb o6t» 5tomi>? How can I judge of it? 

Ho np^By. Of right. 

Heo6xo;^6MO. Of necessity. 

KoH^qHO. Of course. 

BcTapHHy. Of old. 

CorjiiiCHO odiiqaio. Of custom. 

HeA^BHO. Of late. 


Continuation.^ — Catherine II, author of a few 
comedies of no high merit, occupies nevertheless an 
honourable place in the history of Russian Literature, 
as the foundress (ocHOBanieiffb) of an Academy having 
for its object the perfecting of the national language, 
and also as the enlightened and real protectress of 
distinguished authors. To this period belong: the epic 
poet Kheraskov, the fabulist Khemnitser, the comic 
writers Von Wisin and Kapnist, and above all Hippolyte 
Bogdanovich (1749 — 1798), the famous author of the 
touching tale of Dushenka, and finally (naKOH^i^'b) Der- 

Gavril Derzhavin (1743—1816) was the first Rus- 
sian lyric poet and the first poet who made himself 
popular. Yet the parts (Ka^ecTBa) of his genius were 
such, that they served only to drive to its utmost 
limits the exclusive tendency of literature. Abroad 
he is especially known for his magnificent Ode to Grod, 
where the elevation of thought goes hand in hand (py- 
Ka 66x-pyKy) with the grandeur of its expression. Among 

1 See page 200. 


his best productions are also reckoned Felicia (^ejrfii^a) 
the Cascade, and the Great Courtier (BejLMoaa), which 
are all considered as master-pieces. (To he continued.} 


CxeiiB H sanoponecBEfl O&hb. 


nyxemecTBeHHHKH ixajiH 6es'h BCiiKHXi* npHKJiio- 
^enifi. HHr;^i He nona;i;djiHCB HMTb ;i,epeBi>a ; Bce Ta me 
desKOHCTHaa, B6jiBHaa, npeKpicnaa cxenb. Uo BpeMe- 
HaMTb TOJiBKO BTE> CTopoHi CHHijoLH BepxyniKH OT;i,ajieH- 
naro jiica, THHyBinaroca no 6eperdMTb ^ninpa. 0]ifiKi> 
TOJIBKO pa3T» Tap4ci> yKaaaji^ cbihobb^mi* na MajienB- 
KyH), ^epHiBmyio b% ;^4jiBHefi xpasi xo^Ky : CMOTpfiTe^ 
;i,4th, bohi> CKhieTi> TaTapHHi>l 

M^jieHBKaa roji6BKa CTb ycaMH ycxaBHJia ^sjijaiJiiL 
npjiMO Ha HHXi> ^aenBKie rjiasd cboA, nonibxajia bos- 
;^yxT», KaKTb r6H^aa co6dKa, h, KaKTb cepna, nponajia 
yBH;i;aBinH, ^xo Ra3aR6B7> 6^jio TpHHd/i;i^axb qejiOBfeiv. 

A ny, /i.iTH, nonp66yfixe ;i;orHdxB TaxdpHna ! ... 

H He np66yfiTe, bo b^kh He nofindexe y nero kohb. 

6Bicxp4e caMor6 ^6pTa. 

OAHdKoati> B^JiB6a B3ajii> npefl;ocxop6sECHOCTB, ona- 
c&acB r;i;*-HH6y;i;B CKpitomefica 3aci;i,Bi. Oh6 npncKa- 
KajiH Ki> He6ojiBni6fi pi^K*, nasBiB^Bniefica Tax^pKOio,. 
Bna;i,diom;eio BTb ^H'fenpi>, K^nyjiHCB 3% BOji^y ci> kohb- 
Aim CBOHMH H ;^6jiro hji^jih no-neft, ^xo6i» CKpHXB. 
CJD[*^1> CBofi, H Tor;i,a yace, B^fipaBmncB na 6epenb^ 
oh6 npo;i,ojiatdJiH ji^kjL^e nyxB. 

^pe3i» xpH ;^Ha n6cji* iSxoro oh6 6^jih yme He;i,a- 
JieK6 oxi> Micxa cjiyatABniaro npe;^M6T0Mi> hxi» nois/i,- 
KH. Bib Bos^iiyx* B;i,pyri> noxojio;i,ijio, oh6 no^ynxBO- 
BaJiH 6jni30CXB ^ninpA. Boti> ohi> CBepK^exi> Bji^diJiA 
H xeMHOH) nojioc6io ox^^iJi^jica oxi> ropHsdnxa. Ohi> 
B'£ajii> xoji6;^HBiMH BOJinaMH h pascxHJiaJiCH 6ji6me, k 
HaK0H6D;i> o6xBax6jii> nojiOB^ny Bceft noBepxHOCXH 3eM- 
J16. 9x0 6^jio xo uicTO JI^K^npky rji^'h ohi>, ;i,ox6jii cnep* 
xBifi HoporaMH, 6pajii> HaKonen;^ CBoe h inyMtjirB, KaK-B 
Mope, pasjifiBinHCB na b6a% r^'fe 6p6meHHHa b'b cpe;i,6Hy 
er6 ocxpoB&, BBixicHijiH ero eme j{kji±e H3Tb 6eper6Bi>, 
H b6jihbi er6 cxjiAjihcb no cdMofi seujii He Bcxpi^aa 
HH yxecoBTb, HH B03BBinieHifi. Ka3aK6 comjiA Ch KOH^ft 


Lesson 13. 

CBofei, B3omji6 Ha napdMx h ^pearB Tpn ^ac^ njiisa- 
Hia 6^jiH yme y 6eper6Bi> 6cTpoBa XopxHUiH, vflfi 6BiJia 
novfl^k Cdfeiib, TaKi> q&CTO nepeM'feH^Bmaff CBoe s&^Ji'kmfi. 

(npodoAotcenie 6ydeim.) 



nyTemecTBeiiHHKaHH EaKfa 
HH6y;i;B npHKjiiDH^Hm? 

Sa^tM'b 6hji'b TRMt TaTa- 

Ky^a Bt njiiH'B? 

HoaTOMy 3anop6»i^H, samH- 
ni,aa CT^DH npoTfifit Ta- 

Tap%, npHHOC^JIH H nojiB- 


HiTi, oh6 AotxajiH AO Ct^ni 

6e3l BC^KHX'b BpHKJIH)- 

q^Hift. Past, KaK'B TO, 
TaTapHH'B CKaitaji'B no ct6- 
bh; TapacB CRasajTb 6hij[0 


^m-b: a Hv-Ka AoroHfee 
ero! Ho TaTdpHH'B ycKa- 
Eajii bo bck) npiJTB. 
no CT^HH Ko^eBaio Tor^a 
HHoro 6ainEHpx, EaofMH- 
KOB'b, oh6 nacjid TaifB 
cbo^ CTa^a, h npH cjiy^afb 
3axBaTnBajrH oahhokhx'b 
nyrem^cTBeHHHKOBi h yBO- 
;i;h4h hxti b'b hji^hi. 

BoJILBieH) qaCTBR) Vb KpHHl, 

OTKy^a njiliHHHKH npoAa- 
BdjiHCb B'b nesojiH) 6jih na 
KaBRasi Sjth kb Typu,iiD. 
BojBinyK) noJiBsy, — oh6 
BOo6ni;6 p^cckhm'b ho Bpe- 

A^<3H, KaK'B CBO^lfB e^HHO- 

Bipn;aM%, aBoeBajiHTOJibRO 
CB TypKaMH H nojaKaMH, 
a 66pa3'B bo&hu b^ab 
Tor^a 6iijn> poA'B pa3- 
66ilHH^ecTBa, KaK'B mu bA- 


Tor^a BOJiyAfiKHX'B CTpa- 
HaX'B, HO H B-B 66^e 
o6pa36BaHHofi Espon*]^ ; 


y»acM TpHwaTHji'tTHeft 




He Hcnyrajca jih ByjiB6a 
yfifiA^Bt TaTapHHa? 

J[jia ^ero oh6 3T0 CAtjraJiH? 

HirB, OH-B He Hcayrajrca, 

HO W« npeA0CT0p6»H0CTH, 

ni;aifH sdnyjicA b'b ndjienB- 
Kyro pi^Ky, TaTapny, no 

KOTOpofi 0H6 JlfijiTO HJIHJrH, 

n^peA'B rkwb Kanx p'i^mi- 

JIHCB OnATB BUfiTd Ha 6e- 

^jia Toro, HTo6'B TaTdpH, 
B'B cji^Hat ^CJTH 6h Ta- 
TapHH'B, soToparo oh6 
BfiA^bjm, Chji-b jiaa^TqH- 

KOMl, H 6CJIH 6h OHfi 3a- 
XOTtjH FB 60J[Bni6M'B HHC- 

jii HanacTB na cboAx'b 
BcerMniHHX'B sparoB'B, Ka- 
saKOB'B, He Moofi Hafixfi 
HX'B cjii;i.a. 




On^ upon. Ha, b'b, 

Oho jiexcj&rb ea ctoji'^. 

il nciar^iocb Ha eacb. 

Ona Bi» nyT^. 

Owb Ha KpaK) r66ejiH. 

fl 3a't;^y kt» eain. adBipa. 

Mu HaetcT^Mt eacb bo BTdpHHKi*. 

Kto npHCJiyacHBaerb rocTJiirb? 
Ha^tHbTe B^fflH nepq^TKH. 

Bbl ;^0JI3KHli npO^OJISK^Tb B^EIH 

OHii p'feuiiijiii npoA&Tb CBoe HMi- 

Bm ;^0JIMCH6 ^o;^yMaTb o 6y;^y- 


n^pBaro anptjiH. 

Russian CoDT.*Orammar. 

K-B, CBepxy, etc. 

It lies on the table. 

I depend upon you. 

She is on a journey. 

He is on the verge of ruin. 

I shall call upon you to-morrow. 

We shall call upon you on Tues- 

Who is waiting on the guests? 

Put on your gloves. 

You must go on with your stu- 

They resolved on selling their 

You must reflect upon the future. 

On the first of April. 

On foot. 

On horseback. 

On purpose. 


Lesson 14. 


Over, Ha^'B, 

Bypa Ha^^T. H^H. 

liMnep^Topt i^apcTCByerB naAi* 

CEO^M-b Hap6;^0M'b. 
H nomejii) qpeai HbBufi MOCTb. 
CjiyxT, pacnpocTpantiJica no r6po- 

Owb acHBert na tomt» 6e^erf. 
Mu ocT^jiHCb TaMt HoqesiiTb. 
Oea saicpi^iTa Bydjibio. 
Bili npoji^JiH K64)e na Moe njiaTbe. 

Onfi o;i,ep3KajiH 6ojibmyio no6'fe;^y 

na^^Ti HenpijiTejieMTj. 
Ohi n6 yfflH bi AOJirdxi. 
Bee MdsKerb nepeMtn^TbCH 34 


Bypii npoiiccjidcb h^ho. 
Mm npoqHTdJiii iciiJiry. 
HeBa 3aMep3jia. 
OH'b noiAO'b OKonq^TejibHO. 
Ho BceMy cB'tTy. 

On life. 
On seeing. 
On entering. 

Hpeai, etc. 

A storm hangs over us. 

The Emperor reigns over his 

I went over the new bridge. 
The report spread over the town. 

He lives over the water. 
We stayed there over night. 
She has a veil over her face. 
You have spilt the coffee over 

my gown. 
They gained a great victory 

over the enemy. 
He is in debt over head and ears. 
All may change over night. 

The storm is over. 
We read the book over. 
The Neva is frozen over. 
It is all over with him. 
All over the world. 

To, K-B, Bl, 

dTa KH^ra npiiua;^Jie»c^T'b HHt. 
Borij OTKpiiji'b CBOio b6jiio qejio- 

He Bu jiH OTdi^'b ^Toro M^bqHKa? 
Mo/i TCTKa KpecTHaa iiaxb drofi 

OH'b Cujitj ;^py^'b d'fe^^Hux'b. 
KaKTi flfia, ktj qeiupeM'b, TaKi* ne- 

TUpe Kl) BOCbMfi. 
fl noM^y BT, TG^TpTj. 

Orb KejibHa ;^o JlMni^Hra. 
Ohtj HHKor;^^ ne corjiactiTca Ha 

Bam-b OTb'fesA'b. 
Mu fl^ojiyKEik corjiaciiTbca Ch 66- 

Ul.UU'h MH'&HieMl>. 

Oh^ cpaacajiHCb bi* pyKondmHyio. 

CK6jIbK0 MH* H3B'feCTH0. 

CK6jibK0 n Mory npHndMHHTb. 
jB^^^i^aib npbTHBT, o;^Hor6. 
^pea-b Mtpy. 

J16 CMepTH. 

Ha ^po;^4acy. 

;i,o, Ha, ex, etc. 

This book belongs to me. 

God has revealed his will to man. 

Are you not father to this boy? 

My aunt is godmother to this 

He was a friend to the poor. 

As two to four, so is four to 

I shall go to the theatre. 

From Cologne to Leipzic. 

He will never consent to your 

We must yield to current opi- 

From door to door. 

They fought hand to hand. 

To my knowledge. 

To the best of my remembrance;. 

Twenty to one. 

To excess. 

To death. 

To be sold. 



Up, BBepx'b, 

IIofi;neM'b HasepxTit 

Oht. xd^^HTb B3a^T» H BHepe^^t no 

3act;[dHie napjiaHeHxa OKbH^eHO. 
KpoBb KJunAvb BO uwh. 
y Men^ He^ocTagTT. T6jibK0 o;^H6ft. 
Uocjvhfljiaa qeiB^pib (r6^a) npo- 

Ctj mo6S m6jio;i,octh. 
][o HacToiimefi MnnyiLi. 

With, c^, 

H HMt ^I.OBOJieH'b. 

Ohi> 6hijrh p4HeHi> noHc6Mi>. 
C-b B^mero no3BOJi6Hiji. 


Ona MCHBerb y CBoer6 ;^'fe;^ymKH. 

dTO y Hen^ np^BHJio. 

Oht* c6p;^HTCJi Ha Bacb. 

Orb Bcer6 c6p^n,a. 

On'b dujTb KaK-b 6e3yMHbifi orb 

Ci) H^MH cjiyq^Jiocb Tbace cdjfoe. 
H HamejTb dxo cjiy^^fiHO. 
Onii uji^jiB no Te^^HiK). 

H BaiTb ;i,OBtp^K) BCt CBOil T^ft- 

Er6 p.'kjik Efl^frb ne xopom6. 
Offb He ociaBJuierb ;^ypHIix•b 

YcntjTb JiH OHT> B-b ^Towb ;^ijrfe? 

Ha, no, etc. 

Let US go up stairs! 

He is walking up and down the 

The parliament is up. 
My blood is up. 
I want but one of up. 
The quarter is up. 

From my youth up. 

Up to the present moment. 

y, Ha, etc. 
I am satisfied with him. 
He was wounded with a knife. 
With your permission. 
With all possible speed. 
She lives with her grandfather. 
It is a rule with me. 
He is angry with you. 
With all my heart. 
He was mad with joy. 

It was the same with us. 
I met with it by chance. 
They swam with the stream. 
I trust you with all my secrets. 

Things do not go well with him. 
He goes on with his villany. 

Did that business succeed with 

On'b HHKor;i,4 He 

He roBop;i cb Evoi'b. 
^OM-b CTO^rb BH* r6po^a. 

£r6 Htrb flfiua,. 

Oht* ^Toro ne c^ijiaeTb, noKa bu 
eMy He CKaaceie. 

Without, 6e3'b, BnyTpn, etc. 

6biBderb ue- He is never without an excuse. 

Without speaking to him. 

The house stands without the 

He is without. 
He will not do it without you 

speak to him. 


Continuation. 1 — But though (ccjih) poetry had, 
as if by enchantment (tohho no BOJini66cTBy) risen so 
rapidly to such a height, prose had required, as in al- 
most all other literatures, much more time to attain a 

1 See page 206. 


212 Lesson 14. 

similar perfection. The historical and moral treatises 
of Muraviev (1757 — 1807) show indeed a remarkable 
improvement; but it was only with Nicolai Karamzin 
(1765 — 1826) that prose was to rise (fl^ojisKEi 6HJia no^- 
HflTBCH) to the height of modem literature. He made 
himself known first by some elegant lyrical poems, and 
later by the Letters of a Russian Traveller full of 
acute and witty remarks, and also by a series of li- 
terary articles in which he ridiculed the bombast and 
fallacious glitter of most Russian poets that had prece- 
ded him. 

He at last published his imposing History of the 
Russian Monarchy, which remains to the present day 
the greatest monument of its kind. Valuable from two 
points of view, historical and literary, this great work 
commands admiration for its noble style as well as for 
its combination of (h KaKt o6p4iniHKx coeAHHema) liveliness 
with harmony, strength with simplicity. Yet his historic 
system reconducting all to the history of the Monarchy, 
soon ceased to satisfy fresher minds, who like Polevoy 
(1796—1846) already felt the necessity of a History 
of the Russian People. (To be continued.) 


CxenB H 3anop6»ecKafl ObHL. 

Ky^a Hap6;i,y fipan^jiacb na fiepery ci> nepesom,!!- 
KaMH. Ka3aK6 onpaBHJiii Koneft; Tapaci> npiocannjica, 
CTflHyjii> Ha cedi noKpin^e n6aci> h r6pA0 npoBejii> 
pyK6H) no ycaMi> ; MOJio/i;^e cuHii ero xdme 0CM0Tp:fejiH 
ce6^ ci> Hon, ;^o rojiOBii ch KaK^Mt-xo cxpaxoMi* h 
Heonpe;i,'fejieHHLiMi> y^OBOJibcxBieivnb h Bcfe BMicx-fe 
Bi>'£xaJiH Bi» npe;^MicxBe, Haxo;i^6Bnieeca sa nojisepcx^ 
0X1. Ci^H. IIpH BT»43;i;'fe, Hxt orJiymAjiH naxi>;i;ec^xi> 
Ky3H6u,KHX'L m6jioxobi>, y/i,aptomHXi> bx 25 Ky3HHU,axi», 

nOKp^XLIXt ^epHOMI> H 3lipHXI)IXI> Bl> 3eMJli. C^JIBHUe 

KoaceBHHKH ch;i,4jih noja^h naBicoMx KpLiJieu,i» na y-iH- 
n;'fe n m^jih cbo6mii ,t,i5hchmh pyK^Mii dti^a^BS 
KOflsn. KpaMapfi ci^ijin ci> KyqaMn KpeMHefl, ornA- 
BRMn II n6poxoMi». ApMaH^HX pa3B4cnji'i> ;i,oporie 
njiaxK^. TaxapHffL Bopo^d;ii» na poacHaxi> KaxK6 ci> 


TicTOMt. 3Kh/i,i>, B]^CTaBHBi> Bnepe/i,!* CBOib r6jiOBy, 
Ton±jii> H3i> 66qKH ropijiKy. Ho nepBuft, kto nonajicfl 
HMi> Ha BCTpi^y, i^TO 6bijii> 3anop6meD;x, cnaBmiii na 
caMofi cepe/i.^H'fe ;i,op6rH, pacK6HyBi> pyKH h H6rH. Ta- 
pact ByjiB6a ne Monb ne ocTaHOBfcBca h ne nojiH)6o- 
BaxBCH Ha Her6. 

«9xTb, KSLK'h BaatHO pa3BepHyjica 1» ^y tm, KaKaa 
niiniHaH (|)Hrypal roBop6jii> ohi>, ocTaHOBfoniH koh^. 

Bi> cdMOMT* ji,iji% 6Ta KapTfea 6HJia ;i,ob6jibho 
CM^jiaa. 3anop6meiiii>, KaKi» jieBi> pacTanyjica na ;pfi' 
p6r*. SaK^HyTHfi r6p;i;o ^y6i> 3axBaTHBajii> na nojii>- 
apm^Ha 3eMji6. IIIapoBapLi ajiaro /i;opor6ro cyKna 6^- 
jiH 3ana^KaHH ;i,erTeMi» ;i,jia noKasania nojiHaro Kt 
HHMi> npespinia. 

nojiio6oBaBmHCB, ByjiB6a npo6pajica ji.kji'he cko3b 
TicHyio yjiHB;y, K0T6paa 6HJia 3arpoM02K;i,eHa nacxe- 
poBiiMH, TyTTb ate oxnpaBJijiBmHMH peMecJi6 CBoe h 
jiK>ji,hM^ BcixTE> Hanjift, HanojiHjiBmHXi> 6to npe^^Micxie 
Ci^H, Koxopoe 6]6jio noxoate na ^pnapKy h KOx6poe 
o/i.iBajio H KopM^jio C'fe^B, yMiBinyio xojibko ryji^xB 
^a najiAxB nsTb pyacefi. 

HaK0H6nii> oh6 MnnyjiH npe^^Micxie h yB^ji^^jim Hi- 
CKOJiBKO pa36p6caHHBixi> Eyp^Hefi, noKpiixBixi* ;i;ep- 
HOMTb 6jih no xaxapcKH, B6fijiOKOMi>. Hni^e o6cxaBJie- 
HBi 6^jiH nyniKaMH. Hnr/i,* ne b6;i,ho fiiijio 3a66pa, 

6JIH X'feXB H63eHBKHXl> ^I.OMHKOB'B CT» HaBicaMH Ha h6- 
3eHBKHXB ;i,epeB)iHHBIXB Cx6jl6HKaXB, KaKie 6hULK Bt 
npeAMicxill. (npodoAMeuie 6yderm.) 


PascKam^Te mh^ HX0-HH6yAb npiixaBmn ki ^ninpy, ne- 


CtHB? CJltsJIH CB JI0fflaj^6S CBO- 

iftxB H B30inj[H Ha na- 


SaqtMB 3X0? Ci% HaxoAHjracB xor^d na 

ocxpoB-fe XopxHi^i. 

KaKB 3X0 xaKB? PasB-fe Hix^; 3anop6atn;H ntcKOJiB- 
Ci^B He BcerAa 6HJia na ko pasB nepenocfijiH cxo- 
xoMB ate Micxi? jifiuiy cbok) cb o^Horo Mi- 


Lesson 14. 

^OBes'B-jiH HX'B napoM'B 
npaMO AO r6po;i;a? 

PasBi Kpoirfe Ky3HHn;'B hh- 
nero wb npe^i.M'fecTbH 66- 
jibine He noM-femajiocL? 

PasB* KasaKfi 6h;ih oxothhkh 
AO pasryjiLHOfi Mshh? 

cTa fla Apyroe ; ^to 6ujo 
H He Tpy^HO, TeiWb KaKt 
Ct^b 6Hjra 66j[ie noxoata 
Ha KOH^BBe, H^aejiH na 
HacTOflffliyK) CTOJrt^y. 
Hfet, nepeBoat 6hjpb aa 
nojTBepcTH OTi r6po;i;a, 
B6JIH36 iipe;i;M4cTBa, r^i;* 
noMi^iii;ajiHCB h KysHHi^H, 


Bfi;i:iTb Bt 66jiBfflefi tocth 
pyccKHXi ropoAOB'B; Kys- 

HHIi;iI Ci^H fiuJTH BpM- 

Upe^iiMtcTLe 6hno ToproBoro 
^acTBH) Ct^H, TypB npo- 
AaBajiHCB H Epeimfi Aji<a 
pyateft, h nopox'B, h boo6- 
m<^ Bce, HTO Hyano 6hjio 


poAy ; Tyrt Cujeh h Ka6aKH 

H XapH^BHfl. no BTOMy 

HamH nyremecTBeHHHKH 
TOT^act ate jBAjiibjm o6pa- 
ni;HRH pasr^JTBHoS atfisHH 


^a, KaKi* jierKo Moatno ceSi 

B006pa36TB, B^AB 3A'bcb 

co6HpajiHCb tjjiAksl hs'b 
Bcix'B noHTfi CTpaffib Eb- 
poHH, oc66eHHO ate h3'b 
cjaBiHCKaro Mipa, a B^ji^h 


jrK)6iT'B atHTB na pacnani- 
Ky. CaM'B aBTopx noBi- 


H jiBo6fijia ryMTB ^a h3*b 
pymeji naji^TB. 



Hto CAtJiajt Tapact cb to- 
BdpHmaMH? OcraHOBfijEHCL 
jiH oh6 Bt npeAM-hcTBH? 

EomeBoS b-I^poatho mfLJVb 
BO ;i;Bopi^i? 

A KasaKH BipojiTHO o6HTa;iH 

HiT'B, oh6 npoAOJiatajEH nyTb, 
MHHOBajiH npe^MicTbe h 
HanpaBHjiHCB k'b x,}ijifim,j 

Wkvb, ero atHjifimie HH^tut 
He OTjHqdjiocB ovh noM-h- 
iii;^HiJi npo^HX'B KasaKOBi. 

HxGb H36u 6iij[H BecbMa npo- 


BaeMiie Kyp^HH, noKpHTiie 
AepHOMi fijiH, no Taxap- 
CROHy o6uHaH), BoJijiOKOirB. 

ILeUH. H3'E» HHXl 6hj[h 

o6cTaBj[eHH nyniKaMH. Bt 
cjiy^ai BHesdnnaro nana- 
jij^EiK TaTap*B, 3TH Kypenfi 
cjyatHJiH Hxt BJiaAiTejiaMt 

(j)6pTaMH, Bt KOTOpHXl 

OHH 3aiii;Hiii;ajiHCB, a TaR'B 
KaEt y Taxapi, npncKa- 
KaBmux'B na jieri^i, He 
6hjio opy^ifi, to KaaaKfi, cb 
noMomiH) nymeK-B no^Tfi 
Bcer^a blixo;i;hjih nodi- 
;i;fiTejraMH h OTfiuBajiH Ta- 



XoTji ypoKt 6bijn> Tpy;^eHT», ofl- 
HaKO a Bi^yqnjTb er6. 

XOTfl BLI He XOlfiTe npH3HATI>Cfl, 

o;^h4ko ^HKTb He MdsKexe ox- 

lioHfl^eTb-JllL OWb ^JIH Htxi>, MHt 

BCS paBH6. 
Bu M63Kexe bsaxb ji^5o xo, jlAGo 

Ji He nofi^^y bI) 3LKa,flfimio hh ce- 

r6;^HJi, hh aaBxpa. 
Ona He yniexT. hh qnx^xb, hh 


Though the lesson was difficult, 
(yet) I have learnt it. 

Though you will not acknow- 
ledge, yet you cannot deny 
the fact. 

Whether he will go or not, it 
is the same to me. 

You may take either this or that. 

I shall not go to the academy, 

either to day or to-morrow. 
She can neither read, nor write. 


Lesson 15, 

H cer6;^Hii ne 6ujrb wh ynHBepcH- 
Terfe, H a^BTpa ids&e Taiii. He 

Oht. h He 6orknQ MCHJi. 
OhI} TaiTb ace npHJi^eHi), KaKt 

ero 6pan». 
OhI} He T4in> npHji^xceHi), K&K-b 

er6 6pan.. 
Er6 6paTT» nfiraerb Tant ace, KaKi. 

H OHT.. 

Il,apb 6Mjn» TaiTL cHHcxo^^dTCJieffB, 

mo roBop^ji'b cb b6hhomi>. 
By^bTe .TaKT, ;!^o6pii nannc^TL 

KaKt T6jibK0 OHt yB^^^tjii. ee, oh-l 

H dujii) sA'i^cb, HO He roBOp^jrb cb 

IIocJiymafiTe T6jibK0, KaKi* rpoin. 

R T6jibK0 ^TO er6 B^^^'i^jrb. 
Ona noTepjfjia Bcfe CBOii 3y6M 

Kp6Mt OAHor6. 
Owh T^JibKO H /^-fejiaeTL, qio CMt- 

Kynji OT^dbi TO Hfi 6ujio, T6jibK0 

He TO. 

Jlowb 6bijrb noqTfi paaptuieHij. 
il HHKor;i4 er6 He B^acy Cesi to- 

r6, qToChi ne ^^ynaTb o mo^mt* 

Ona He Moacerb Bfi^^tTb cjie3T> 

desi) Toro, qT66iii caMbfine UJik- 

£cJiH 6u He Bbi, Hfai noTepjfjiH 6h 

Bce Hame cocTOJiHie. 
fl He Mory He Mo6^Tb ev6. 

I have not been at the univer- 
sity to-day, nor shall I be 
there to-morrow. 

Nor is he richer than I. 

He is as diligent as his brother. 

He is not so diligent as his 

As he writes, so does also his 

The Emperor was so condescend- 
ing as to speak to the warrior. 

Be so kind as to write to me. 

No sooner had he seen her, 
than he ran away. 

I was here, but I did not speak 

to him. 
Do but hear how it thunders. 

I have but just seen him. 
She lost all her teeth but one. 

He does nothing but laugh. 

Buy whatever (thou likest), but 

The house was all but destroyed. 
I never see him, but I think 

of my brother. 

She cannot see tears, but she 
must weep herself. 

But for you, we should have 

lost all our fortune. 
I cannot but love him. 


Continuation.! — At that time, Shishkov (1754 
till 1841), the President of the Russian Academy, en- 
thusiastic for the ancient Slavonic language, endea- 
voured to show its superiority over the borrowings 
that Russian writers continually made from foreign 
languages and literatures, and he wrote a Dissertation 
on the Old and New Style. His patriotic work was not 
entirely useless and there was no lack of poets of the 

1 See page 212. 


new school. Ozerov (1770 — 1816) in his tragedies 
parted with pseudo-classicism and approached to ro- 

Soon after him, Ivan Dmitriev (1760—1837) com- 
posed Odes, Elegies and Tales full of charm, and an 
epic poem on the conquest of Siberia entitled Ermak. 
The Apologue (HpaBoynfiTejLHaa 6acHa) was cultivated 
by Izmailov and, with still greater success, by Ivan 
Krylov (1768 — 1844), the only European writer worthy 
of being [considered as a] rival of La Fontaine. His 
Fables, shining with grace and wit, have for a long 
time furnished excellent lessons of literature and morals 
to Russian school-boys. They are for the most part 
quite original and bear a stamp of nationality, which 
charms the foreign reader. (To be continued.) 


CienB H 3anop6»ecKafl CibHB. 


He6ojii>in6ft Ba.ix h aacina, ne xpanAMHe p*m6- 
TejiBHO HHKiMt, HOKasHBajiH CTpainHyK) 6e3ne^HOCTb. 
HicKOJiLKO ;i,ibmHXT> 3anop6mii;eBi>, jiemaBinHX'L ci> 
TpfdKaMH BT> 3y6axi> na caMoft ;i;op6r*, nocMOTpijiH 
Ha HHXt ;i;ob6jii>ho paBHo;i;ymHO h He ;i;BfiHyjiHCi> cl 
MicTa. Tap4ci> ocTop6mHO npo4xajn> ct> chhobb^mh 
M63K;i;y hhxt>, CKasaBmn: «3;i;paBCTByfiTe, nanoBe!)) — 
«3;iip&BCTByftTe h bh !» OTBd^^ajiH 3anop6miiiH. Ha npo- 
CTp^HCTB* HflTH BepcTt 6iijiH pasSpocaHBi TOJinii na- 
p6Aa. 0h6 Bcd^ co6HpajiHCb bi> He6ojiBmifl Ky^KH. TaKi> 
BOTT> ona C*^B I BoTi to rH*3;i;6, OTKy;iia BBiJieTaiOTTb 
BCt T* r6p;i;Bie h Kpinme KaKT> jibbhI Boti> OTKy;i;a 
pa3JiHB4eTCfl BOJia h Ka3a^ecTB0 na bck) yKpMnyl 

HyTKHKH BiiixajiH Ha o6m6pHyK) nji6m;a;iiB, vji,'^ 
o6bikhob^hho co6HpajiacB pa;i,a. Ha 6ojiBin6fi[ onpoKii- 
HyTOft 66^K* CH;i;ijii> 3anop6meii;'B desi) py6&inKH; OHi> 
;^epatajii> ee bi> pyKaXT> h M6;i,JieHH0 3amHBajii> na neft 
;i;^Bi. Hmi> ohjItb neperopo;i,6jia Aop^ry iijijiaH TOJina 

My3BIKaHT0BT>, Bl> Cpe;i;6H* K0T6pBIXT> OTHJIliCHBaJI'L 

MOJio;i;6fi 3anop6ateii;T>, sajioac^BniH ^6pT0MT> cboi5 man- 
Ky H BCK^HyBmH pyK^MH. Owh KpH^ajn> tojibko : «3Kh- 
bM HrpafiTe, My3HK&HTBil He majiM, GoMa, ro- 


Lesson 15. 

pijiKH npaBocji4BHiiiMT> I» H 0OM&, CT> no;ii66TLiM'L 
rjiasoMt, Mipfljit 6e3i> CTOTy Kaat;iiOMy npHCTasaBine- 
My no orpoMHMmeft KpymKi. Okojio MOJio;i,6ro 3ano- 
poatna ^exiipe CTdpHXT> BupaS&TiiiBaJiH ;i;ob6jii>ho mcji- 
KO cbo6mh HoraMH, BCKA^^JBaacb, kslk'b B6xopi> na cto- 
poHy, no^iT^ Ha rojiOBy MyswKiHTaMt, B;i;pyri> onycT^B- 
niHCB Hecji^cb Bi> npHC^Ky h 66jih Kpyxo h KpinKO 
CBO^MH cepe6paHHMH no;iiK6BaMH hjiotho ydAryio seM- 
JKO. (KoHS^^ 6ydetm.) 


Ho cjiyqaio nacTHX'b Ha64- 
roB'L TaTapi, KasaKfi st- 
poflTHO yKpinAjiH C*b%? 

B'b nepBufi-jH pas^b Tapacx 
npiisataji'b b'b Ci%? 

Il03T0My y Hero 6ujih SAicb 


OcTaH0Bfijica-j[H Tapacx no- 



KaKoe 9T0 6w;io 3p4jimii;e? 

JI,a, TSiWb 6ujuh HedojiBinoft 
Bajix, H sac^Ka, ho onii 


H Bx 6ojihm6wb 3anyni;6- 
hIh; Bce Hocfijio OTnena- 
TOK'B 6ojihm6& 6e3neqHO- 
CTH. HH^;^4 ne bh;i;ho 6bijio 
3a66poB'B; Bci fi36H 6ujik 
OTEpMTH ji,jia BCAKaro. 
Ero nocimenie ne Chjio 


npi-hxajH Ty^a BnepBHe. 

JI,a, y Hero 6mjio mhofo sna- 
EOMux'b. TojibKO sano- 
p6atii,u rop^fiJiHCb t^m-b, 
HTO h6 6ujai pasroBop- 
^HBBI, n03T0My H npHBiT- 
CTBk 6uJLa. KpaxKiH. 

HiT'B, ero BHHManie 6ijjio 
npHBJie^eHd oahhm'b hs'b 
Tix'B sp-hjinn^t, KOToptia AOBOJihHO nacTH bi. 
Ci'iH H Boo6ni;e Me3Kji;y 

no BCeft BipoiTHOCTH B03- 

BpaTfiBmificH Cb AoSuneio 
B'B C'b'ib, npa3AH0Baji'B 
CBoe BOSBpanii^Hie, OKpy- 
atCHHHft TOJinoK) MysHKan- 


Rkmarkb on construction. 



Ta^ ace ims'b MOJiOAod Ea- 
sds'b? B'B Ka6aKi? 

IlbAHUfi CiaEflHHH'B JIH)6hT'B 

TaHii,OBaTb H BecejinTLca 
He TaKT, KaK'L Apyrie na- 
poAH; anrjiHqaHe, Hanpu- 
Mipx, KorAa nanbioTca, 
AepvTca, (i»paHiii)^3H my- 
unTb, a pyccKift nrpaeT'B 
xoTii 6u. na 6ajiajiaSR']^, 
TaHmyeTX Ajih npocTO npn- 
TonHBaeTx HoroH) h noeT'b. 
HtiTb, y 3anop6«ii;eB'b Bce 
A'ijiajioch OTKpHTo: ecjH 
KaaaKy BS^yMaeTCfl ryjiHTL, 

OH'L BeJifiT'b BHKaTHTb 66- 

roByio njiomaAb h ^aBafi 
HHTb H Apyrfixt nOAMH- 
Baib. TaK^b ji^kjiaiJUb h 
MOJ[o;^6ft aanopoateu'b, on-b 
ujiHcAjub, ^liaBajE'b nHTb b6;i;- 


no3TOMy H He yji;HBfiTejii>- 
HO, ^TO Kpyr'b njracaBniHX'b 
yBejiu^HBajica Bce fiojiie 
H 66jiie. 
Ohh TanitOBajiH TaK-b nasM- 
BaeMHft Kasa^eK'b, nauio- 

HajIbHHfl, AOBOJIbHO niLKl^, 

Taneu'b, ho ji^jik KOToparo 


KHM'b, 660 Taneit'b cocto- 
ilT'b HS-b npHci^Hift Ha 

KOpTO^KH H npuatKOB'b 

MyTb jiH He B-b qejiofit- 
qecKift pocTb. 



Though the Russian construction does not on the 
whole widely differ from English, yet there are a few 
rules which cannot be passed by in silence: 

Hto ae OHfi njiacajia? 

220 Lesson 16. 

The negative adverb He must be placed immediately 
before the word to which it refers: 
fl iiHm^ He cthx4mh, a npdsoio. I do not write in verse, but in 

Ohi CujUt He SA'Icb, a laHi. He was not here, but there. 

It would not be at all correct to say : a He nnniiy 
CTHxaMH, a np630H); ohx ne 6wiiy sa'^^cb, a tslwe. 

The same rule applies to all words used in the 
sense of adverbs: 

npHmjiHTe MH-t XOTA t6jibko ABa- Send me at least twenty-five 
;i,HaTL nsttb py6ji6tt. roubles. 

The signification of the sentence would be greatly 
altered, were it to be written thus : npHnuiATe xotl tojb- 
KO MHi ABaAmaTb nnnh py6j[6ft. 

The conditional particle 6u must not be used more 
than once in the same proposition: 
£cjiH 6hi a TaKi) K6poTKO ne Had I not so intimately known 
3Hajn> Bact, to hg noBtpiiJii. 6u you, I would not have believ- 

BaMTj. ed you. 

It would be quite wrong to say : ^cjih 6h k TaK'L 

KopoTKO He 3Haji'b 6h Bacb, TO He noB'fepHj'b 6u BaM'b. 

To merely express a number approximately, the 

numeral is sometimes placed after the substantive: 

^Ta KHAra ctoAti py6ji6ii ;^Ba- This book costs about twenty 

flfljBLTh. roubles. 

Eiiy 6x1 ^ojiy jl^tl j[ji&jmB.Tb» He is twenty years old or there- 

Beside this, there are several inversions and a few 
other trifling deviations from the ordinary English con- 
struction, which however cause no difficulty, in as 
much as the inflections of the words sufficiently in- 
dicate their respective concord or dependence. 

Ancient authors exhibit however many peculiari- 
ties of style, as may be seen in the following example 
taken from Lomonossov (ReifE's Engl.-Russ. Grammar) : 
HoBejiiiTeJib Mnonixi, ii3UK6B'b a- The Russian language, the parent 
aiiKT. pocciiicKifi ne T6jibK0 o6- of many others, is superior 

uitipHOCTbK) MtcTb, rfl,t OHT> TO- to all the languages of Europe 
cn6;^CTByen», ho KynHO h c66- not only in the extent of the 

crBeHHLiM-b cE06in> npocTp^Hci^ countries where it is domin- 
BOMT, H ;^0B6jibCTBiein> bcjiAkt* ant, but also in its own com- 

nepe^^t bc^mh bi» EBpdnt. prehensiveness and richness. 

Kapji^ V, PiiMCKifi HMnep4Topi», Charles the Fifth, Emperor 

roBapHBajii, nio Hcn^HCKHirb of the Romans, said that one 

ii3i>iK0Mi> ci> EdroMi), (j[)paHi^y3- ought to speak Spanish with 

CKHMt ch ;^py3bjlMH, HtM^i^KniiT. the Divinity, French to one's 

Rkmakks on construction. 221 

cii HenpulTejUMH, HxaAiiiHCKHirb friends, German to one's cne- 

cii SK^HCKHirb n6;iOM'b roBop^Tb mies and Italian to ladies. But 

npHJi^tiHO. Ho ecJiH 6bi ohi^ had he been acquainted with 

poicciicKOHy muivf Chijvb hck^- Russian, he would assuredly 

cewb, TO KOH^QHO Ki> TOMy npH- have added that one could 

coBOKyn^jTb 6hi, <ito iimi> co speak it with each and all. 

BC^MU 6hiiI1ih rOBop^Tb npH- He would have discovered in 

ct6Mho. H6o Enmejvb 6u bi> it the majesty of the Spanish, 

HSiTb BejiHKOJiiHie Hcn^HCKaro, the vivacity of the French, the 

aKABOCTb ^paHi^yacicaro, upi- strength of the German, the 

nocTb HiM^i^icaro, H'&JKHOCTb sweetness of the Italian, and 

HrajuiHCKaro, CBepxt Tor6 60- in addition energetic conci- 

r&TCTBO H cfijibHyio Bt H3o6pa- seness in its imagery with the 

jK^Hiiixi} KpdTKOCTb pp^^ecKaro richness (of the Greek and 

H JiaT^HCKaro asuKd. Latin). 


Continuation. ^ — Foremost in the Dramatic Art 
stands Shakhovskoy (1777 — 1846), a comic poet endo- 
wed more than any other with a fertile and humorous 
imagination, and Alexander Griboyedow (1784 — 1829), 
the author of a charming comedy. Sorrow [comes] from 
Wit, which soon became very popular and remains so 
to the j)resent day. The comic irony (HacM-hniKa) of 
Griboyedow, like that of his predecessors, confined itself 
to trifles at which it was very easy to laugh. 

Another great dramatic writer was Nicolai Gogol 
(1809 — 1852), who, in his biting comedy The Revisor, 
ridiculed the pilferings (BopoBCTBa) of small provincial 
towns and unveiled without mercy (o6jraHaji'B) the cor- 
ruption of government officials. As a novelwriter Go- 
gol's name has become known beyond (nepemjio ^pes'b), 
the frontier of Russia. In Tarass Bulba we find a faith- 
ful and attractive picture of the savage life and customs 
of the Cossacks; and in Dead Souls, we see, not so 
much a novel, but rather a (66;ii>me ^wb) remarkably 
bold psychological study and a pitiless denunciation 
(KpfiTHKy) of the imperfections of Russian society. 

(To he continued.) 


CTenB H 3anop6»ecKafl ObHh. 

3eMJi^ rjiyxo ry;i;i.ia na bck) OKpyry, 11 b-l bosji^j- 
X* t6jibko OT;i;aBajiocL : xpa xa xa, xpa xa xa ! To.ina, 

1 See page 216. 

222 Lesson 16. 

n'hu'h ]i,kji±e, pocjia ; ki> TaHn;yiomHMi> npnCTaBajiH ;i;py- 
rle^ H BCH no^Ti^ njidrnfiiji^ noKp^jiacL npHC^;i;&ioii](nMH 
3anop6mii;aMH. 9to hm^jio bi> ce6i ^to-to aapasfixejib- 
Ho-yBJieKiTejiBHoe. HejiLs^ 6]&jio 6e33> ^^BHat^Hia Bcefi 
;i;ym6 b6;i;*tb, KaKi> bc^ tojeh^ OTji^jskjiSL T4Hen;T>, ca- 
MBift B6jiBHHft, ciMHfi 6inieHHBift, KaK6ft t6jibko b±- 

Jl.'hJl'h KOTJl^k JIh60 MipT> H K0T6pi>lfi no CB0HM1> M6m- 

HBiMi> H3o6p^T&TejiHMi>, H6cnTi> HasB^Hie Kasa^Ka. 

Tap^ci ByjiB6a Kp6KHyjii> ott> HeTepninia h ^o- 
c4;i;ei, ^to kohb, na KOT6poMB cnji^^jrh oni>, u^rnkjiiy 
eny nycTtoBca caMOMy. Hni^e 6i^jm ^pesBi^aftHO 
CMiniHi^ cbo6k) B^acHOCTBio, CB KaK6H) oh6 padoTajiH 
Hor^MH. ^epe3T>-^ypi> ;i;p^xjiBie, npncjiOH^BniHCB kb 
CT0Ji6y, Kiy KOTopoMy o6bikhob6hho Ha C4^6 npHB^- 
SHBajiH npecTynHHKa, T6najiH h nepeMHH^JiH HoraMH. 
Kp^KH H ntcHH, KaKla t6jibko Morji6 npifix^ bt rojio- 
By ^ejiOB^Ky bt> pa3ryjiBH0Mi> Bec6jiBH pa3;i;aBajiHCB 

TapaCt BCK6pt BCTpiTHJIT) MH6ateCTB0 3HaK6MBIXl> 

jijijs.'h. OcTkwh H AH;i;pfft cjii&majiH t6jibko npHB^T- 
CTBia : «A, i§to tbi, Ile^epiina 1 3;i;p4BCTByfi, Ko30JiynB I 
OTKy^a BorB HeceTi> Te6^, Tap^CT>? Tbi KaKi> cjofl^k 
3amejiB, ]I^ojiot6? S^p^BCTByfi, SacTeatKal TJ^ynajiB 
jiH a B6;i,iTB Te6^, Pen^HB ? I» H B6Ta3H, co6p4Bniieca 
CO Bcer6 pa3ryjiBHaro Mipa BOCTO^Hofi Poccin, d;*jio- 


KacB^Hi>? Tji.'h Bopo;i,4BKa? ^to Kojionepi>? ^to 
JIiiji.c^TOii'h ?» H cjL^nna.Ji'h t6jibko bi> otb'£ti> Tapaci> 
ByjiB6a, ^to Bopo;i;4BKa noBimeHi* bi> Tojioh^h*, ^to 
ch Kojionepa coji^^kmi Kdasy tioji,i> KH3HKpHMeH0Mi>, 
^TO nH;i,c^KOBa rojiOB^ nocojieHa bi> 66^k* h oxnp^B- 
jiena 3% caMHfi Ii;apB-rpa;i;i>. IIoHypHJii* r6jiOBy cxa- 
pHft ByjiB6a h pas/iiyM^HBO roBopiijii>: «Ji;66pBie 6]^jih 


TaKB KasaneKB hh ^to HHoe Jifl, npHca^Ka o^ghb noxo- 
KEKB npHCflAKa? aca na kbssl^bA, ho Kasa- 

^eKB KpacHB-fee, ocofienno 
Kor^a ero TanuyroTB h 


Remarks on cokstrugtion. 


V&avk H ac^HiD,HHu npHc£- 

^TO ;^4JlaJI'B Tapaci bt, to 
sp^Hfl, KaK'b njuflcaji'b sa- 


npHHHMdjra yqacxie bi 

H BC6 9T0 A'feJiajiocB nyfijiH- 


HiTb, OH-fe He npHciAaioirb, 
nanpoTHBi nxi ;i;BHaceHiA 
6^eEh njiaBHH n rpaii;i63- 


crb, H TOJiLEO ABHaeniflMH 
CBO^MH BEiKasuBaioarb CBoe 
ynacTie wb Tann;*. Oni 
n.iaBH0 H t6xo KanaroTca 
no;i;66HO tpocthhk^, koto- 
pHft KOJiHineT^ BtTep'b, 
Wb TO BpeMfl EaEi> EaBa- 
ji^pt A^Jiaerb n^pe^'t nfi- 
MH pasHLie OTqaAHHue 
npHatKfi H cTynfiTi Ka6jiy- 

KaMH, flJlVL Cep^6paHHUMH 
nOAEOBaMH, KaElA hochjih 

sanopomipi H BOo6ni;e Ea- 

Owb HOTepnijfiBO ;i,epraji'b 
jiomsiAh 3a noBOABfl, TaE'b 
qTO EOHL BCTaJll Ha Au6u, 
TaE'b Tapacy xot^jiocb 
caMOMy nofiTH njixicaTB. 

HtTx, 6mjih h CTapHEfl H 
OEfi 6iiji0 o^eHL cMtmHi;! 

C^ TOfl BaatHOCTLK), CB KO- 

CBOii npu3KK6 n pa66Taj[H 
HoraMH. ^epest-Hypt ate 
;^pflXJIHe, EOTopwe ne mo- 
rjifi yndcTBOBaTL b'b njri- 

CJIOHflBfflHCB B'B ^0^6^^, 

TonajiH HoraMH h nepe- 


TaE-B EaE'B y 3anop6aKii;eB'B 
He 6hijio HH ceMBd, hh 

j&eWhy TO Bce H npOH3BO- 

^fiJiocB ny6jifi^H0, onfi bx 

XaTaX'B CBOflX'B h6 atHJEH 


Lesson 17. 

H TEKt Tapact ne cjifet 
ct jioinaAH? 

IIo^eMy me Hxt TaKt ae- 


Hti^, OH'b yxepntji, cko- 
jiBKO Tpy^a 3T0 eMy hh 
CTOHjo, HO OH-B pascnpa- 
niHBaji^ SHaKOMEix'B pa3- 

HMX-B ^HpyStiX'b, KOTOpHX'b 
OWL He BfifijbjiT> Wb HX-B 

TOCJit. Tyra OHt b3;i;ox- 
Hyji'b, ycjMmaB'b, ^to 

OA^H'B H3'B HHX'b CuJTh 

noBtmeHt, hto cb Apy- 
roro BB D^apb-rpaji;* co- 
ji;pa;rH Koay, hto Tp^TKaro 
HocaA^JH Ha KOJi'b H T. ;i;. 
Bi^L yme ne pas^ 6ujio 
CKasaHO, HTO KaaaKfi ^i- 
jrajiH BTopmenia to b-b 
Typmiio, TO B'B nojibmy, 
no-9TOMy H TypKH H nojii- 
KH He cnycKajiH t^m-b, 
BOTopue nona^ajiHCB hmx 
B'b pyKH, H TepsajH hx-b 


npeAaBajTH hxi juoT-feftraefi 
CMepTH. Tapac'B^ycjnjxaB'B 

06'B y^aCTH pdSHHX'B TO- 

BapHmeft, rjiyfioKO b3A0x- 


CKa3aBmH: «JI|66pHe 6mjih 



Idioms are modes of speaking peculiar to a 
language, which cannot be literally translated into 
another. We give therefore a list of those which are 
most frequently used in English with their Russian 
equivalents : 

OcT^BbTG ero B'b noK6'fe. Let him alone. 

IIoKdsuBaTb npiiji^qnuft bh^^Tj or To keep up appearances. 

co(5jik);^^ti> npHji^qie. 
HacKOJibKO MH-fe nsBtcTHO B-L npn- For aught I know. 



Ohtj HMterB cTOjn> h KBapTApy y 


Ohi. cfejTB Ha napox6;^T>. 
Cy;^HO OTopaBjufjiocb Bt M^jibTy. 
Sto y6heTh er6 r6peMT>. 
Kor^^a fl.'hjio odnaptMCHJiocb. 

yCnp^fioji ! 

Co Bp^MGHeMT,. 

Si 33i.xoji,Ajvb iTb BaMT» B^epk b6- 

ttCJin 5to TaKT>. 
^Toro Ct^ert ^ocT&xoqHO. 
SI noK6HqHjrb cb Euwb. 
BuTb Ha ^^eacypcTBt. 
no;^afiTe MH-fe Menib. 
Oh6 norfemaiOTCfl Ha;^^ hhmt>. 
HrpaTb no 6ojibm6fi. 
ynep^Tb cb MyacecTBOMT*. 
On-b cKJidnewb K'b objincTBy. 
B6ace M6ft! 

Oht, yq^cTBOBajTb wb ^tomt,. 
y He^ xop6iiiifi ndqepKij. 
Oht> CTOiijrb TaKT*, ^to Morb cjiii- 

H HHqer6 He Mory c;^'feJIaTb. 
CoCpanie cocto^tch na 6y^;^yH^eft 

3aMOJiq6Te-JiH bu? 
Si dneuh cntmy. 
Jlepac&Tb nap^. 
Ohtj qyib He yiOHyjTb. 

Offb MCHBeTT> CO flfl^ Ek Ji^BUb. 

Si coBepraeHHo He^^oyM-feB&io. 

Byflbie KaK-b ;^6Ma. 

Oh6 iS.K'b ace 6iicTpo ydtacdJiH 

KaKi h npHinji^. 
Btj ^ewb fl^'kjio? 
Bee paBH6. 

He 3a6yAbTe npifii^ ^o 06'fe^a. 
MH'fe oqeHb x6^e^Ci^ c^'fejiaTb ^to. 
Si nepeMtn^JiT, cBoe naM-lpeHie. 

B'b H0qH6fl THinHH-fe. 

EMy npiimjiocb dopoTbCH He na 

paBHUx'b ycjidsinxT,. 
CiaBHTb Bonpocb. 
Bbi. Menii cb yna CBe^^eie. 

Russian Con v. -Grammar. 

He boards and lodges with his 

He went on hoard a steamer. 
The vessel was bound for Malta. 
This will break his heart. 
When the transaction was 

brought to light. 
Go about your business. 
By and by. 
By the by. 
I called at your house yesterday 

If that is the case. 
That will do. 
I have done with him. 
To be on duty. 

Let me have the bill of fare. 
They make fun of him. 
To play a deep game. 
To die game. 
He is given to drinking. 
Good gracious! 
He had a hand in it. 
She writes a good hand. 
He was within hearing. 

I cannot help it. 

A meeting will be held next 

Will you hold your tongue? 

I am in a great hurry. 

To lay a wager. 

He had like to have been 

He lives from hand to mouth. 

I am quite at a loss to under- 

Malce yourself at home. 

They made away as fast as they 

To make up one's mind. 

What is the matter? 

No matter. 

Mind you come before dinner, 

I have a great mind to do it. 

I have changed my mind. 

In the dead of the night. 

He had to fight against great 

To put a question. 

You will drive me out of my 

226 Lesson 17. 

ycTpeM^Tb rjtaaa. To set eyes on. 

$ap4)6poBi>ifi npnCdpi). A set of china. 

IIoacMeMi. ;^pyrb flpyry pyKH. Let us shake hands. 

Ght> o6MaHyjicn b-l CBOtot oan- He ciEune short of his expecta- 

fl.kBisix'h. tions. 

Owb y61ixAjrb. He took to his heels. 

JaBH6 nop4 htt6. It is high time to go. 

Ci» ^Tofi t6^kh aptnifl. From this point of view. 

Owb FB xop6mHX'b o6cTO)iTejn»- He is well off. 


Oiq^CTH cfijOK) H OTq^cTH xii- What by force, and what by 

TpocTBK). policy. 

Hoaj^paBJijiK) Bacb cl Hbebun. r6- I wish you a happy New year. 


Mflt orb ^Toro He xyae. I am not the worse for it. 

9to 6uji6 HBXopoind ct er6 cto- It was very wrong of him. 


Continuation. 1 — Heroic poetry, both original 
and imitative (KaK-B opHrHHdjEbHaa, TaKt h no^npaatdTejiL- 
Haa) was successfully cultivated by Gnedich (1784 — 
1833), who translated the Iliad, and by Ivan Kozlov 
(1774—1838), an imitator of Byron, but endowed with 
a more devout and fervent inspiration. This amiable 
poet made himself celebrated by his charming original 
poems, not less than by pretty translations from foreign, 
authors, chiefly English. 

As a lyric poet Zhukovski (1783—1852) is parti- 
culary famous, but he was more appreciated as a 
translator than as an original poet; it was through 
him that romanticism gained its (npo66j['b ce6t) way 
into Russia. Among his translations are especially to 
be mentioned Gray's Elegy, Burger's Lenore (JleoHopa) 
and certain poems of Schiller, Goethe, Uhland, Byron^ 
Moore, Southey, Homer and of some ancient Indian 
authors. Among his original productions The Bard in 
the Camp of the Russian Warriors, and the Imperial 
Hymn ("God, save the Tsar !") are the most celebrated. 

(To be continued.) 


BocnHT&Hle OnirHHa. 

OH'£rHHT>, ;^66pHft Mofi npi^xejib, 
Po;i;fijica na 6per4xi> Hcbi^, 

1 See page 221. 


T]i,% M6meTi> 6htb, po;i;6jiHCi> bh, 
Hjih 6jiHCTdjiH, MOfi ^swrkTejibl 
TsiWh H'£Kor;i,a ryji^Jii> h a: 
Ho Bpe;i;eHi> CiBepi> ^jlh uenA, 
Cjiym6Bi> 0TJi6^H0, 6jiarop6AHO, 
JI^ojiraMH SRJijrh er6 OTen;T>, 
J^aBkRiy Tpn 6ajia eater6;i,H0, 
H npoHOT^JiCfl HaKOHen;i>. 
CyAi>6^ EBrenia xpanfijia: 
CnepBa madame sa hhmi> xofi^Ajia,, 
noT6Mi> monsieur ee cm*h6jii>. 
Pe6eH0KT> 6lijit> p*36bi>, ho mmji-l. 
Monsieur TAbbe, (|)paHn;y3i> y66rofi, 
^To6i> He HSMy^HJiocb jSyWrA, 
y^6jii> er6 Bceny myxi 
He ;i;0Ky^^jii> Mop^JEbio CTp6rofi[. 
CjierKd 3a hi^jiocth SpaH^jr-L, 
H Bi> JliTHia Cdiji.'h ryji^B bo;i;6jii>. 

Kor;i,a me ibnocTH Max^atnoft 

HpHniJia EBreniio nopa, 

Hop^ Ha;iieat;i,i> h rpycTH Himnofi, 

Monsieur npornajiH co ;i^op&. 

BoTB Mofi OnirHHi* na CBo66;ii*; 

OcTpfiaceH'B no nocjri/i.Hefl mo/j;* ; 

KaKi> dandy Ji6H;i,0HCKifi o;i,4tt>, 

H HaKOHenTb yB6/i,*jii> cb*ti>. 

Ohi no-(|)paHii;y3CKH coBepmeHHO 

Mort H3T>acH^Ti>ca h nacajit, 

JlerKO MasypKy TaHii;oB&jii> 

H KJianajica HenpHHy3K;i;eHH0 : 

^er6 3Ki> BaMi> dojiBme? Cb*tt> p*m6jiT>, 

^TO OHi> yneHt h 6neB.h mhjii>. 

Mh bc* y^^jiHCL noHeMHory, 
^eny HH6y;i;i> h KaKi> HH6y;i;i>: 
TaKi> BocnHT4Hi>eMT>, CJi&Ba Bory, 
y HacL He My;i;peH6 SjiecnyTB. 
OnirHHB 6bijib no mh4hbk) MHdrnxB 
(CyA^fi piin^TejiBHBixi* h CTpdrnxB) 
y^eHHfi M^jiHfi, HO ne;i;aHTB: 


228 Lesson 18. 

Beai npHHym/^eHBfl bi> pasroBdp*, 
KocHyTBca ;i;o Bcer6 cjierK^; 


XpaHtoL MOJiqiHBe bi> bAjkhomi> cn6p'fe, 
H B036^m;i;aTB yji]&6Ky ;iiaMT> 
OrneMB Hem;i;4HHBixi> 9nHrp&MMT>. 

JlaTi^HB H3i> m6;i;bi Bi^iinjia hi^h*: 
TaKt, 6cjiH npaB;i;y Bant CKaaiTB, 
Ohi 3HaJiT> ^ob6jibho no-JiaT]&H* 
nTo6T> 9nHrp4$Bi paaSnp&TB, 
IIoTOJiKOB^TB o6b lOBeHajit, 
Bt> KOHni HHCBM^ HOCTaB^TB vale, 
fla n6MHHjiB, xoTB He 6e3'h rp*xa, 
H3i> 9He6;i,Bi ;i;Ba cthx^. 
Oht> pi^TBCH He HMijii> ox6tbi 
Bi> xpoHOJior^^ecKofi hbiji^ 
BHTOHHciHia 3eMJi6; 
Ho ;i;Heft MHHyBmHXi> aneK/iidTH, 
Ot-l P6Myjia ;i,o nainnxB AseS, 

XpaH^JIB OHI> Bl> n^MHTH CBoefi. 
BHC6K0ft CTp^CTH He HM^a 

Ji^jia. 3ByK0Bi> at63HH He m;a;ii6TB, 

He Mor-L OHT> Au6si oti> xopea, 

KaK-L MBT HH 66jiHCB, otjih^6tb ; 

Bpaniijii, roM6pa, GeoKptoa, 

3a TO qHT4jii> A;i;aMa CM^xa 

H 6bijii> rjiy66Kifi 9Koh6mt>, 

To ecTB jM^jiiy cy;i,6TB o tomi>, 

KaKB rocy;i,4pcTBO SoraxiexB, 

H q*Mi> mHBeTi>, H no^eMy 

He HyjKHO 36J10TO eny, 

Kor;i;^ CBip6ft npo;i,yKTi> HMieTt. 

OTeii;i> noHiiTB er6 ne Mori> 

II 36MJIH OT;i,aBiji'L Bi> 3aji6ri>. n^wmm. 



A great number of substantives are derived from 
other substantives, from adjectives and verbs, chiefly 
by means of terminations. 

Formation of russiax words. 229 

To form abstract nouns the terminations ctbo^ octl, 
HHa, are often used: 

xiiH children AiTCTBo childhood 

h6bhh new h6boctl novelty 

THxiH tranquil thiiihh4 tranquillity. 

Names of tradesmen smd workers are formed with 
the suffixes aKt, apt, an'b, aKX, apL, hhk'b, maivb and 

pii5a fish puCdK^b fisherman 

sBOH'b sound 3B0HdpB heUHnger 

Tpy6& trumpet Tpy64Hi trumpeter 

H6pe sea mopak'b seaman 

CTOJTb tahle CTOJiap^b cabinetmaker 

M^AB copper MiAHHR'b coppersmith 

nepeB6A:b translation nepeB<5;i?HK% translator 

o66h {plur,J tapestry o66fiimisi'h upholsterer. 

A great many nouns are derived from verbs by 

means of the suffixes Hie, Tie, Tte, Ka, 6a, CTBje, etc. : 
Tepn^Tb to tolerate Tepninle patience 

ryjiixB to walk ryjiflHie walk 

nHTB to drink nnTbg drinking 

pisaTB to cut p'&sRa cutting 

nHnkTB to saw niuRa little saw 

npoc^TB to request np6cB6a request 

nyrem^cTBOBaxB to travel nyxeni^cTBie journey. 

Every Russian word, whether primitive or deriva- 
tive, simple or compound, is thus traceable to a root 
or reducible to certain radical letters or syllables, 
which become words by junction of other letters or 

The latter are by no means destitute of signifi- 
cation by themselves, and must be considered as auxi- 
liary roots .^ 

Let us take e. g. : the words po^^ race, padcmeo 
parentage and npupoda nature. It is evident that Iheir 
common root is po;^ which has assumed various signi- 
fications by the addition of t, ctbo and npH. 

By means of derivation and composition a great 
many words are formed from one and the same root. 
Thus we see by the two following lists that around the 
root poA may be grouped 25 derivative and 80 com- 
pound words. 

^ Modem linguists have sufficiently demonstrated the truth 
of this fact, which applies of course to all languages of the 
inflectional type. 


Lesson 18. 


Poi6tb to engender 
poAi^iejiB father 
poAHTejiM parents 
poAi^TeiBHHua mother 
poff^TejiBcsid paternal 
poff^ieJiBHHg genitive 
poA^BHHiuiH'B a lying in woman's 
poAiljiBHHua a lying in woman 
poA^MHft native 
poAHHa native country 
poA^Ei delivery, birth 
P6aei birth 

poiseH^i^a a 

po^nqi a relative 

poAH6& german (of brothers) 

p6AHEid full-grown 

poAQfl relation 

Poaob6h hereditary, patrimonial 

p6ACTBeHHHK'B kinsman 
. . . pdACTBennni^a kinswoman 

P0ACTB6 parentage 

posAeHHEilt born 

posA^Hie birth 

po2RAecTB6 nativity, Christmas 

posEA^CTBeHCKifi of Christmas 
lying in woman. 

Compound tvords. 

BpoA^TB to influence 
^posA^HHHft. inborn 
Bposj^^nie inborn quality 
Bospox^TejiB restorer 
BospoA^TBca to be restored 
B03poa;^6Hie revival 
B^poxHTBca to degenerate 
BupoAOKi hybrid 
6e3p6AHH3 parentless 
6e3p6Aie orphanage 
6e3p6xcTBo want of relations 
6jiarop6AHHH noble 
6jarop6Aie nobility 
6jiarop6ACTBO nobleness, nobility 
6jiaroposAgHHH& of noble birth 
£orop6AHi;a God's mother 
BoroposA^HHEifi God's son 
BoroposA^Hie Christmas 
BOAopdxB hydrogen 
3apoA^Tb to produce 
sapox^TbCii to germinate 
^^poAOKi germ 
3ap6AHin'B » 
sapdxEimeK'B » 
sapoxA^Hie formation 
HHop6AHiiH foreign 
HHopdAeni a foreigner 
,KHCJiop6A'B oxygen 
MexAyHap6AHEig international 
HapdAi nation, people 
HapoA^TB to produce 
napoA^TBCfl to be produced 
Bap6AHH& national 
naposA^Hie birth, origin 
HCAopdA* a diformed being 

neAoposA^TB to produce little 
HOBoposAeHHHd now-bom 
oTpoA^TBCfl to be bom again 
OTposA^HHHg restored to life 
oTposA^Hie regeneration 
oTpoAOKB sprout 
0Tp6Aie breed 
nepepoA^TB to reanimate 
nepepoA^TBca to revive 
nepepoxA^nie revival 
nopoA^TB to breed 
nop6Aa origin, extraction 
noposA^Hie breed 
nopoAHi^TBCfl to become relations 
nopoAHCTHi thorough-bred 
DpHp6Aa nature 
npHpdAHHH natural 
npnpoacA^HHEiS innate 
npapoAAxejiB first father 
npapoAHTejBCKin the first father's 
poA^^TBCfl to be born 
poAOA^JiaTeiB the Creator 
poAORa^diBHHK'B family stock 
poAocjioBB genealogist 
poAocjidBie genealogy 
poAocji6BHHH genealogical 
poAocji6BHafl pedigree 
cp6AHEi& of the same origin 
cpdAHHKB a relative 
cpdACTBeHHHKB kiusman 
cp6ACTBeHHHi;a kinswoman 
cp6AHHHift a relative's . . . 
cpoACTBd relationship 
cp6AHHi;a a female relative 
yrjiepdAB carbon 

Formation op russiax words. 231 

yp6AH]iie monster ypoA^TB to eogender 

ypoA'B » ypoAi&TBCfl to be engendered 

yp6AHHa monstrous creature yp6AJiHB0CTB monstrosity 

j^dxAtLBuk monstrous ypox^nei^'b a native (man) 

ypox^Hsa a native (woman). 

Many other compounds are certainly used or are 
permitted to be so. 

Learners may exercise themselves in tracing the 
following words to their roots: 
BcnoMor^TejiLHHft. auxiliary. 

npeH36iiToqecTBOBaTi>. to superabound. 

3acBH;^'feTeJIbCTB0BaHie. attestation. 

npeBocxo;^6TejiBCTBO. Excellency. 

They will likewise do well in trying to form as 
many words as possible with the following roots: 
ywb (yM) wit 
BHA'B (bha) sight 
Aapt (;^ap) gift 
aHio (a**) affair. 


Continuation. 1 — After so many poets of un- 
questionable merit (6e3^ coMHiHia et AOCTOHHCXBaMH), but 
not entirely original, there arose the gigantic figure 
of Alexander Pushkin (1799—1837), the greatest ho- 
nour and glory (BejiH^dfimyio h HHCTifinxyio cjiihy) of 
Russian Literature. He served in the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, but having written an Ode to Liberty, 
he fell into disgrace and was sent to Bessarabia. Here 
he wrote a fine epic poem, Ruslan and Ludmila, in 
which he undertook to treat in the manner of the 
romantic school a subject drawn from the heroic times 
of Kiev. At a later period (no3;i,H4e) he wrote the 
Prisoner of the Caucasus, the Fountain of Bakhchisa- 
rai, the Gipsies, and began the poetical novel Eugene 
Onegin, which he finished several years later, wherein 
he gives (iipe;i;cTaBJiaeT'B) us a living picture of Russian 

Then he published in almost uninterrupted succes- 
sion (no^Tfi ojiifiH-B 3a jipjTfiwb) the Brigand Brothers, 
Count Nulin, Poltava [which is] one of his best poems, 
many detached writings, some novels in prose, the best 
of which is the Captain's Daughter, and various tales. 

1 See page 226. 

232 Lesson 18. 

The most admired of his dramatic works is (Hs-b ;^pa- 
MaTfi^ecKHX'b ero co^HH^Hifi oc66eHHO BHjiaeTca) Boris 
Boris Godunov, a tragedy in prose mingled with verse, 
which his death did not permit him to finish. Received 
again into favom- and appointed as Imperial Historian, he 
wrote the Rebellion of Pugachev, and was preparing a 
great History of Peter the Great, when he was killed in a 
duel. The general mourning following his death showed in 
the best manner (jiy^me Bcero) his popularity. Though at 
one time an imitator of Byron and A. Chenier, Pushkin 
yet treated with great inspiration subjects purely na- 
tional, expressing in an admirable way the joy and 
grief, the glory and beauty of his country. Among the 
followers of Pushkin's school in poetry are reckoned 
Delvig, Baratynski and Yazykov. (To he continued.) 


SopHCb rOAyHOB'b. 

(Ho^fc, K^jiui vh ^yxoBOMi MonaCTHpi, 1603 r. Ot^i^i IlibfeHi; 
rpHr6pifi cnjniii§.) 

n^MeH^ (nAmerb n^pex'B laun&xofi). 

En^g o;i,h6, nocjii;i,Hee CKaa&HBe — 
H jiiTonHCB OKbH^ena Mod; 
Hcn6jiHeHi» ;i,ojiri>, 3aBiin;aHHHfi oti> Bora 
Mh4 rpiniHOMy. He ;^ipoMi> MHornxt jiiTt 
CBH;i;iTejieMi> rocn6;i,i> Mend nocTasHJii. 
H KH6acH0My HCKyccTBy BpaayMiijii.: 
Kor;i,A-HH6y;i;B Monaxi* Tpy;i,ojiio66BBift 
Hafi;i,eTi> Mofi Tpy;i,i> ycep;i,HBift, eesHM^HHuft ; 
3acBiTHTi> OHi>, KaKi* a, CBOib jiaMna;i,y 
H, nujiB B^EbBt OT-B xiprifi OTpaxnyBi*, 
npaB;i,6BHa CKaa^Hta nepenAmeT-B, 
Jl^a B4;i,aH)Ti» nordMKH npaBocjiABHBix'B 
3eMJi6 po;i,H6ft MHHyBmyio cy;i;B6y, 
Cbo6xi> n;ap6fi Beji6KHXi> noMHHaioTi* 
3a Hx-B Tpy;i,]6, aa cjiiBy, 3a ;i,o6p6 — 
A 3a rp*x6, 3a TeMHHa ;i,4dHBa 
Cnac6Tejia CMnpenno yMOJidiOTi*. 
Ha CTapocTH a c^3H0Ba acHBy: 
MHHyBinee npox6;i,HT'B npe;i,o mhoioI 
Ji;aBH6-JiB oh6 Hecji6cB cofiiirift hojiho, 

Formation of Russian words. 233 

BojiHyaca, KaKi> Mope-OKeani* ? 
Tenepb oh6 desMOJiBHO h cnoKofiHo: 
He MH6ro jihh,i> mh* n&MHTb coxpaniijia. 
He MH6ro cjiobi> ;i;ox6;i;hti> ;i,o nen^, 
A npo^ee jiotA6ilo HeBOSBp^THo! . . . 
Ho 6ji630ki> A^Hb, jiaMna;i,a ;i,oropdeTi> — 
Eii3,e o;i,h6 nocjii;i;Hee CKaaaHte (immeTi,). 

TpHropifi (npo6y3KA^eTca). 
Bee TOTx ace cohx I BosMomno-jib ? bi> Tpexift pa3i> I 
npoKji^TLifi coHi> I ... A Bce nepe;i,i> jiaMna/i,ofi 
CTap6Ki> ch;i,6ti> ;i,a n6meTi>, h ;i,peM6T0fi, 
SnaTb, BO BCH) HO^b OHi> He CMHKajix o^eft. 
KaKx a jiH)6jiib ero cnoKofiHHft bti^%, 
Kor;i,a, ji^ymofk bi> MHHyBmeMi> norpysKeHHHft 
Ohi> jiiTonHCb CBOI& Be;i;eTi>l h ^acTO 
S. yra/i,4TB xoxiji-B o ^eMi> ohi> n^meT-B: 
TCMHOMx-jiH BJia^ii^ecTBi^ TaTapx ? 
K^SHax-B-jiH CBBpinHX-B loaHHa? 
dypHOM-B-jiH HOBorop6;i,CKOM'B Bi^i? 
cjiaB-fe-jiH OTe^ecTBa? HanpacHo! 

Hh Ha nejii BHCdKOM-B, HH BO B36paxi> 

RejLbsA npo^ecTB er6 coKpiiTBixi> aY^^; 
Bee TOT-B ate bh;i,i> CMHp^HHBifi, Bejin^^Buft . . . 
TaK-B t6^ho ji.hRK'b, B-B npHKas* noc*;i,ijiBifi, 
CnoKofiHO 3pHTi> Ha npaBBixi> h bhh6bhhxi», 
^o6py H sjy BHHMaa paBHo;i,ymHO, 
He Bi;i,aa hh atitjiocTH, hh rfiiBa. 

n li M e H i>. 
HpocHyjica, dpaTt? 

r p H r 6 p i fi. 
' BjiarocjiOBA Menil, 

^ecTH6ft OTen,!*. 

BjiarocjioBii rocnoAB 
Te6il H ;i,HecB, h np6cH0 h BOBiKH. 

r p H r 6 p i fi. 
Th BCe HHcajit h chomi» ne nosafiiijica; 
A Mofi noKoft 6'fec6BCKoe Me^Tante 
TpeB6atHJio, h Bpart mch^ MyTJiji-B: 
Mh* ch6jiocb, ^to jiicTHHn;a Kpyxda 

234 Lesson 19. 

MeHjl Bejia na 6dmHio; ct bhcot]^ 
Mn-fe B6A*Jiacb Mockb& ^to MypaBeftHHKi> ; 
Bhh3y Hap6;i,i> Ha njidn^a^^n ^1101^31%, 
H na Mend yKaauBajnb co CMixoMi>; 
H CTii;i,HO MHt, H CTpaniHO CTaHOB6jiocB ; 
H, na;i,aa CTpeMrjiABi>, a npo6yaK;i,djica . . . 
H TpH paaa mh* CH^jica tot-b me cohx 
He ^y;i;HO-jiH? 

Mjia;i;aa KpoBB nrpdex-B; 

CMHpM Ce6jl MOJI^TBOft H nOCT6Ml>, 

H CHH TBOii BH;i;iHifi jierKHXi> 6y/i,yT'B 

HcnojiHeHBi. ^ohi^h*, 6cjih a 

HeBdjiBHOH) ;i;peM6Toft o6e3c6jieH'B, 

He coTBopib MOJiiiTBH ;i,6jirofi ki» ho^h, — 

MoS CTApBift coHi> He t6xi» h Hefiearpiineni* ; 

Mni^ ^y;i;aTca to inyMHHe nnp^, 

To paTHBifi CTant, to cxb^tkh 6oeB^a, 

BesyMHBia nOTixH i&hbixi. ji^t'l ! 

r p H r 6 p i S. 
KaKi> Becejio npoBeji-B cboi& th MJia^ocTBl 
Tm BoeBajit no;^i» 6iniHaMH KasAnH; 
Tbi paTB Zhtb^ npH niyflcKOMi> OTpaacS-jr-B, 
Tbi b6;i;*jii> /^Bop-B h pocKomB IoS,HHa 
C^acTji^BBl A a otb dTpo^ecKHXt ji^tb 
Ho KejiiaMB ckhtS-iocb 6i;i;HHS Ahok'bI 
3a^iMB H MH* He T^niHTBca bi» 6oiixB 
He HHpoBaTB 3a n,ApcKOio Tpanesoft? 
YcnijiB 6bi a, KaKi> tbi, na CTdpocTB ji*tb 
Otb cyeT^, oti> Mlpa, OTjioat^TBca, 
npoH3HecT6 MOHdmecTBa o6iTB 
H Bi> T^xyio o66TejiB 3aTBop6TBCa. 

CnpodoAOKeme 6ydeim.) 



As learners will have seen, it is impossible to write 
Russian correctly by the ear alone. In cases of doubt 
the following hints may prove useful: 

Kemarks on orthography. 235 

Russian consonants are never doubled ; whenever a 
double consonant occurs, it must be considered as the 
result of derivation or of composition: 

P^ccRit Eassian from Pycb Russian and CRi§ a desinence 

6e33^6Hfi toothless » 6631 without 3761 tooth 

BBo;(i^B to introduce » vh into boa^tb to lead. 

Foreign words are, of course, an exception to 
this rule: 

a66dT'B an abbot; MeT^juii a metal, etc. 

The two vowels which foreigners most frequently 
confound are e and i. In order to know which of 
them ought to be used recourse must be had to the 
dictionary. It may however be observed that the letter 
i is never used in words taken from foreign languages, 
except in Bina, which is properly speaking a Slavonic 

The greatest attention is required not to confound 
the hard termination, -b, with the soft one, l. We sub- 
join here an abridged list of words differing only by 
their hard or soft terminations: 

6jiH3ib near 6sEZh proximity 

6uTh condition 6htb to be 

6^jL'h white (apocopated form) 6ijiB thread 

^parB brother 6paTB to take 

BOHB begone! bohb stink 

BASB elm-tree basb morass 
iJiaAB hunger (obsolete for fojoab) rjia^tB smooth place 

rpaHB grain rpaBB side 

HJiB mud HJiB or 

KOJTB perch kojb if, when 

BOHB stake roiib horse 

RpoBB roof RpoBB blood 

MarB mast MaTB mother 

njioTB float of wood njioTb flesh 

nwsh flame nujiB dust 

CTOJiB table ctojib so much 

^roji* corner ^fojib coal 

iC&nB flail u'ibnb chain 

ji^^B poison siih nurture. 

To these must be added a great number of similar 
analogies resulting from substantival and verbal in- 
flections, such as Bnji'b I struck and 6hjil a hilly 6uxh 
I was and 6hjil a fhct, BsaTt taken and B3aTB to 
take, uyvh of the fetters and nyTL wag, etc. 

286 Lesson 19. 

The division of words into syllables is made accor- 
ding to the following rules which are based on ety- 
mology and use : 

Monosyllables, as CTpacTB, 3;^paB•B cannot be se- 

In compound words their various parts are dis- 
jointed, as OT-pd^a, o-TpdBa, pas-yM'B, p;^c-CKiS, D^apB- 
rpd^t, etc. 

For the rest, attention must be paid to carrying 
on regular syllables, as 6jia-ro-pa-3yM-HHft, TO-Jio-BiKt, 
ro-cy-AapL, etc. 

One letter only of polysyllablic words cannot be 
transferred to the other line, as ap-iiia, CBOi (not 
apni-fl, cBO-i). 


Continuation. 1 — Since the death of Pushkin, 
the most distinguished poet has been Mikhail Lermon- 
tov (1814 — 1841), who was likewise killed in a duel. 
[Being] an officer in the Guard, he was suddenly sent 
to the Caucasian army by order of the Emperor Nicho- 
las himself, for having written some sharp verses asking 
vengeance for the death of Pushkin. Yet, some time 
after he was allowed returning to St. Petersburg, but 
the self-loving, irritable and sarcastic poet could not 
live long with the world (ne ymfijica b-b CBirfc) and he 
voluntarily went again to the Caucasus. Like Pushkin, 
Lermontov hastened to draw his inspiration from the 
country. He sang of the wild scenery (npHpo^), the 
warlike customs, the legends and popular traditions of 
the Caucasus. 

To his best poems, [which are] all marked with a 
sweet and profound melancholy, belong Izmail Bey, 
Valerik, Hadji Abrek, the Song about the Tsar Ivan 
Vasilievich, and above all the Demon. There is also 
a very interesting novel of his, a Hero of our Time. 
Here again the Caucasus provided him with a back- 
ground {nocjiy»HJi'B eMV s&jsjisiwb njiaHOMi») for this com- 
position, which is affirmed to be a personal confession 
of the author and a protestation against the social con- 

1 See page 232. 

Kemarks on orthography. 287 

dition of his country. Lennontov exhibits a striking 
example (aeji^Hie) of a precocious maturity of mind. 
Before (He ;i;ocTfirHyB'B) he was twenty-five, he had 
already attained in the eyes of the critic and the public 
such a height as genius alone can attain. 

(To he contintied.) 



He c^Tyfi, 6paTi», TtiTO p&HO rpiinHBiS cb*ti> 

HoK^Hyjix TH, ^TO M^Jio HCKynienift 

nocjiajii> Te6i Bces^niHifi. B*pi> th mh*: 

Haci ik3ji,3iJivi nji'feHjiK)Ti> cjiaBa, pbcKoniB 

H ateHCKaa jiyKaBaa jiio66Bb. 

SI ji^ojiro SRHJiiy H MKbrHMt Hacjia;i;6jica ; 

Ho ci> Toft n6pBi jiHniB Bi;i;aio 6jia;KeHCTB0, 

KaKi> Bi> MOHacT^pB TocnoAB ueuA npHBejiB. 

no;i;yMaft, chhb, tbi o napilxB sejiAKHXB: 

Eto B^nie HXB? E;i;6HHfi BorB. Kto CM^eTB 

HpoTiiBy HHXB? Hhkto. a ^to SECe? ^ACTO 

3jiaT6il B'fenen.B Ta^KejiB hmb CTanoBi^JiCfl : 

0h6 ero uI^kAjiji na KJio6yKB. 

HapB loaHHB HCK^JIB ycnoKoeHBfl 

Bb no;i;66iH MonaniecKHXB Tpy;i;6BB. 

Ero /i;Bopen;B, jiH)66Mn;eBB r6p;i;HXB hojihbiS. 

MoHacTHp^ bh;i;b hobbiS npHHHMajiB: 

KpOMiniHHKH BB TatjBllX'B H BjiacaH^HjaxB 

nocjiyniHBiMH HBJiAjmch ^epHen;aMH, 

A rposHBiS n;apB nrfMHOMB doroMOJiBHBiMB. 

SI BlkjI^^Jlli 3;i,'feCB, BOTB B'B !§TOS cAmoS KeJIB* 

(Bb Heft aKHjiB Tor;i,a Knp^jiJiB MHorocTpa;i;&jiBHHft, 
MyacB npaBe;i;HBift ; Torji^k yacB h MCHii 
Cno;i;66HJiB BorB ypaayjiiTB HH^T6mH0CTB 
MipcK6xB cyeTB), 3;i;*cb b6;i;*jib a n;ap)t, 
YcTajiaro otb rniBHHXB aY^b h Kaaneil, 
3a;i;yM^HBB, thxb CH;i;ijiB MeacB h^mh TposHHS; 
Mbi nepe;i;B hhmb Kej5,B±SRiiuo ctoAjik, 
H Tiixo OHB 6eci;i,y cb naMii bcjib. 
Ohb roBop6jiB nryMHy h Bceft 6paTBi^: 

238 {Lesson 19. 

((Otd;^ mo6, ffltejiaHHwfi cohi> npH;i,eTi>: 

IIpe^^CTdHy 3;i,tcB ajiKaiom;ifi cnaceHBa. 

Th, Hhko;i;6mi>, th, Ceprift, th, Khp6jijii>, 

Bh bc*, o6iTi> npHMiiTe Moft ]ijx6bbmSl: 

npi6;i;y Kt BaMi>, npecTynHHKi*, OKainnjiift 

H cxijiy 3;i,*ci> ^ecTHyio BOcnpHMy, 

Ki> CTonaMi> tbo6mi>, cbstt^A OTen,i>, npHnd;i,iiiH.» 

TaKi> roBop6jii> ;i,epaK&BHiiift rocy;i,apB, 

H cjikji^Ko pi^B H3i> ycTi» er6 snjikcs., 

H njLkK2iJLi> OHB. A Mil bi» cjieaaxTb MOJiAjiHCb, 

Jl^a HHcnomjieTi> rocn6;^B jiio66bi> h MHpi> 

Er6 fljmi CTpa;i;aH)inefi h 6ypHofi. 

A CBiHi> er6 0e6;i;opi>? Ha npecTOJit 

Ohb bo3;i;bix&jii> o m^phomb m^rivi 

Moji^ajn>HHKa. Ohb n,dpcKie ^eprorn 

npeo6pa3]ijii> bb MOJi6TBeHHyio KeJEbio. 

TaMB T^aKKia ;i;epaK4BHHa ue^kjm 

CsaTdft ;i,yin6 er6 ne B03Mym4jiH. 

Bori> bo3jih)66jib CMnp^nie n;ap^, 

H PycB npH HeMi> bo cji^b* 6e3MaT6atHOfi 

yTiniHJiacB; a bb ^acB er6 KonmiHBi 

CBepm^jioca HecjiitoaHHoe ^y;i,o: 

Kb ero o;i;py, n,apib e;i;6Hy 3p6MBiil, 

JlB^jicfl MyatB HeofiBi^MHO CBixejiB, 

H HMajiB CB HHMB 6ec4;i;oBaTB Geo^opB, 


H Bcfe KpyroMB o6b^th 6^jih CTpaxoMi* 

YpasyM^BB He6ecHoe Buji^inhe, 

Sane CBaTiifi Bjia;i,]6Ka npe;i,B n;apeMB 

Bo xpdMHH* Tor;i,a ne naxo^^^Jica. 

Kor;i;a me ohb npecraBHJica, naji&TBi 

IIcn6jiHHJiHCB CBaTioiMB fijiaroyxaHBCMB, 

H jiHKB er6, KaKi> c6jiHne npociiijiB. 

ysRi> He BH;i;aTB TaK6ro naMB n,ap)i. 

0, CTpaniHoe, HeB6;i,aHHoe rope I 

nporniBaJiH mbi Bora, corpim^jiH: 

Bjia;i;^K0H) ce6i ii;apey6ifiD;y 

Mbi HapeKJl6. (Hpodojiotceme 6yderm.^ 




The accentuation of polysyllabic Russian words is 
very variable, so that practice and the dictionary can 
alone enable foreigners to place the accent correctly. 

But the dictionary itself proves often insufficient, 
because many nouns, adjectives and verbs have a 
moveable accent. Such a displacement is however in 
most cases subjected to fixed laws, that learners will 
do well to commit to memory: 

Masculine nouns, especially when polysyllablic, 
commonly preserve through all the cases both of the 
singular and plural, the accent of the nominative singu- 
lar, as 6apaH'B, Micai^'B, etc. Yet the accented ter- 
minations aK-B, apL, aTb, ck'b, hki, apL, jh^b, npb, hutb, 
mostly shift their accent on the inflections, as in ;i;y- 
paK-B, ;i;ypaKa, AypaKy, etc.; 3B0HapL, BBOHapa, 3B0HapK), etc.^ 

Feminine nouns in a and a which have the accent 
on the termination generally admit of a displacement 
in the nominative plural, to distinguish it from the 
genitive singular, as BOsaKa, seMM, etc. Among those 
in B, there are several which transfer the accent to the 
inflections, from the genitive plural downwards, as 


In most polysyllabic neuter nouns, the accent 
serves to distinguish the nominative plural from the 
genitive singular, as in bhho, Mope, etc. 

Adjectives and participles with full terminations 
retain the accentuation of the nominative masculine 
singular through all genders, cases and numbers, as 
;i.66pB[fi, c;i,4jTaHHiifi, etc. — In the apocopated termi- 
nations, on the contrary, the accent is often shifted to 
the last syllable, sometimes only in the nominative 
feminine, as in hob-b, and at other times in the neuter 
and in the plural, as in C^bjuh or xopom'B. 

In regular verbs the first person of the present 
generally takes the accent of the infinitive, as ^ht4tb, 

1 Here must be noted that in the substantival inflections, 
when the accent is once displaced, the change is, with a very 
few exceptions, retained in all subsequent cases. 

240 Lesson 20. 

JiijiaTb, etc. The other persons of the present generally 
preserve tiie accent of the first person, with the ex- 
ception of several verbs in htl, otb and Hyrt accented 
on the last syllable, as jih)66tb, koji6ti», TanyTb, etc. The 
'past tense most commonly retains the accentuation of 
the infinitive. 

In many homonymous words the accent varies ac- 
cording to signification. A knowledge of those which 
are in most frequent use, is necessary to prevent many 
an unpleasant mistake. They are: 

dTJiact atlas aTJidcb satin 

64rpHTB to angle 6arpHT]> to purple 

B^xpo fine weather sexpd pail 

B^pcTaTB harpoon Bepcxdib to rejoin 

B^xoMi above Bepx6M'B on horseback 

BdjiHa wool BOJiH^ wave 

BilsyuaTB to bathe BHRyii^Tb to redeem 

sdpRoe hot sapR6e roast-meat 

sdHOE'B castle saBioKi lock 

3aciinaTB to fill up cmcutidTB to fall asleep 

K^ca she-cat rhc4 purse 

Koiia slow-fellow Ron^ heap 

sp6iia loaf RpoMd list 

M^JiGBaTB to pardon MEJOBdih to caress 

M^Ra torment wyRd flour 

nipHTB to steam napHTB to soar 

n6AaTB tax iio^aTB to ^ive 

np&BHJio rule npaBHjo helm 

uycTKHfl convent nycxMFifl desert 

pdRa shrine paR6 first-drawn brandy 

^ojbhhS coal yr6j!HHH corner 

ii;@rojiB dandy n^erojn* gold-finch. 


Continuation. 1 — Among writers [endowed] with 
a less bold spirit, but who also more or less escaped 
foreign influence, must be mentioned in the first place 
Constantine Batiushkov (1787 — 1855), whose elegies 
entitled the Dying Tasso and On the Ruins of a Castle 
in Sweden are remarkable for grace and tender simpli- 
city. Here must also be noticed the lyric poets Nikitin, 
Koltsov, Polezhayev and Khomiakov, the novel writers 
Dostoyevski and Goncharov, the journalist Hertzen, the 
critics and essayists Bielinski and Chemyshevski, the 
satirist Saltykov and the dramatist Ostrovski. Contem- 

^ See page 237. 


porary Russian literature now rivals [all] other ancient 
and modem literatures both in the beauty and number 
of its master-pieces. It may now be said to be entirely 
independent; in every branch of science, in literature 
and in poetry Russia has her mighty representatives. 
But it is in novelists, good and bad, that Russia 
especially abounds. The best among them are Ivan 
Turgenev (1818—1883) and Count Leo Tolstoy (bom 
1827). The former's Memoirs of a Sportsman and his 
many novels have two merits: they exhibit excellent 
pictures of Russian scenery and introduce to us multi- 
farious original types of Russian society. The latter's 
War and Peace and Anna Karenina are known to every 
body in the whole civilized world. Towards the end of 
the nineteenth century became famous Anton Chekhov 
(1851 — 1904), the author of some charming sketches 
of citizen life, and Maxim Gorky, astonishing the reader 
with the originality, and not seldom with the boldness 
of some tales drawn from popular life. We may then 
say that Tolstoy is the representative of the nobility, 
Chekhov of the middle class and Gorky of the proletariate. 

BopHCb rOAJHOB'b. 



flaBH6, ^ecTH6il oxen.'b, 
XoxijiocB MH-fe Te6}l cnpocfob o CMepxH 
J^HMfcpia-I^apeBH^a ; bi> to BpeMa 
Tbi, roBopitri, 6hjii> b'b YrjiHxii^. 

n 6 M e H i>. 
Ox-B, noMHiol 
IIpHBejii> MCHil Bon> B6;i;i^TB sjioe ji^i^o, 
KpoBaBBift rp*xi>. Tor;i;a a Bt ji^kshKuS. YrjiH^'B 
Ha H^Koe 6mjii> ycjianx nocjiyniaHBe. 
IIpHmejii> a b'j> ho^b. Hayrpo, b-b ^acB o6i;i,HH, 
B;i;pyri> cjiiaLmy 3bohi>; y;i;apHJiH bi> Ha6&Ti>; 
KpHKi, myMi>. B*ryTi> na ;i,Bopi> I];ap6D;Bi. SI 
Cnimy Ty;i;a-aKi>, a TaMi» yaK6 bccb r6po;i,i>. 
rjiaaty: jieatATi* sapiaaHHHfi n;ap6BH^i; 
I];ap6n;a-MaTB bi> 6eBn&MaTCTB* Ha/iii» hhmi>, 

Russian Conv. -Gramme r. "^Sk 

242 Lesson 20. 

KopM6jiHD;a bi» OT^iantH pH;i;4eTi>; 

H TyTi> Hap6;iii>, ocTepBeniicb, boji6^hti> 

Be366atHyio npe;i;iTejiBHHD;y-M4MKy .... 

B;i;pyri> M6ac;i;y hhxi>, CBHpini>, oti> 3Ji6cth 6jii;i,eHi>, 

SiBji^eTCs. Iy;i;A-BHT^OBCKifi. 

«BoTi», BOTi> 3Jio;i;4SI» PasA&Jica 66ii3,ifi bohjib, 

H BMHri> ero ne ct&jio. TyTi> Hap6;^i> 

BcjL±ji,i> 6p6cHJica 6*aKaBmHMi> TpeMi> y61ftD;aMi»; 

yKpiiBmnxca 3jio;i;ieBi> cxBaT^jiH 

H npHBCJiA npe;i,i> Tenjitifi Tpyni> MJia;^6Hn,a, 

H ^y^o, — B;i;pyri> MepTB6D;i> 3aTpeneTdjii>. 

«noKafiTecfl l» Hap6;i;i» hmi> 3aBon6ji'b. 

H Bi> yacac*, no;i;i> Tonop6Mi», sjio]i^%k 

noKaaJiHCb — H H43BaJiH BopAca. 

r p H r 6 p i ft. 
KaK^xi 6hjii> ji-feTt ii;apeBHm> y6ieHHiiift? 

Jl^a ji'kT'h ceM6; eMy 6m h^h^^ 6:^jlo 

(ToMy npoinji6 ysKx ;^6caT'F> jii^Ti> Hi^Ti>, fioJiBine : 

^B4Ha;i,D,aTi> ji*ti>) — ohi> 6mji% 6m tbo6 pob6chhki>, 
H n;&pcTBOBajii> ; ho Bori> cyjifijLi> hhoc. 
Ceft noBiCTBH) njia^6BHofi saKJiio^y 
S. JiiTonHCb CBOI&; ci> t*xi> nopt a m^jio 
BHHKajii> Bi> ;i;:fejia nipcKia. Bpaxx rpHr6piftl 
Tbi rpaMOTOH CBoft pa3yMi> npocBi^T^jix, 
Te64 CBofi Tpy^^-B nepe;i;ai&. Bi> ^ac^ 
CBo66;i,HHe oti> n6;i,BHroBi> ;i,yx6BHHXi>, 
On^CBiBaft, He My;i,pcTBya jiyKdBO, 
Bee TO, ^eMy CBH;i;iTejiB bi> at63HH 6y/i,eniB: 
Boftny H MHpt, ynpany rocy;i,dpeft, 
yr6;i;HHK0Bi> CBaT^a ^y;i;eca, 
IIpopo^ecTBa H 3H4MeHBa He66cHBi. 
A MHi^ nopa, nopA ym,i> OT;i;oxHyTB, 

H norac^TB jiaMn&;i;y Ho 3boh^i> 

Ki> sayxpeH* BjiarocjiOB6, rocn6/i,B, 

Cbo6xi> pa66Bi> ! IIo^^M koct^jib, rpHr6pift. 

r p H r 6 p i ft. 
Bop6ci>, Bop6ci>! Bce npe;i,i> To66ft Tpenein,eTi>,, 
Hhkto Te6i ne CMieTi> h Han6MHHTB 
acpe6iH nec^acTHaro MJia;i;eHn;a ; 

The displacement of the tonic accent. 243 

A M6at;i;y T'feMi> 0Tm6jiBHHKi> bi» TCMHOfi KejiB* 

3;i,*ci> Ha Te6jl ;i,oh6ci> ymS,CHHft ntaieTx, 

H He yft;i;emi> tli oti> cjji^k MipcK6ro, 

KaKB He yfi;i;eniB otb B6atBaro ey;i,a. Eymmm, 


0TH0c6TejitH0 HCT6piu pyccKoft JiHTepaxypu 1. 
KaKOB^ nepBo6iiTHaa pyccKaa jiHTepaxypa? 
Kor;^a JiB^jiack n^cbHeHHOCTb na Pyc6, wh KOT6poirB cTOJi'&TiH? 
^'feM'b 6ioLjL}i n^pBLie pyccKie nnc^TejiH, h RaK6fi xap^KTepi* 

npeACTaBJi^exi coAepnidHie hxI) npoH3Be;z^^Hifi? 
^TO cjiy:KHTi> ^^peBH'i^finiHirb n^HTHHKOU'b p'^ccKofi pyKonHCH? 
K'feMT, HanticaHO EB^Hrejiie h ^jlsi Kor6? 
^TO ABjuieTca no EB^Hrejiiio? 

KaK6e co^^epnc^me ^thxii c66phhkobi> CBATOCJi^BOBbix'b? 
OxKy^^a npoH3oniji6 MH6acecTB0 TorxamHHX'b npoHseeA^Hifi ? 
Bi. qein. BiipasHjiacb caMociojiTejibHaa napd^naa ;^*HTejibH0CTb? 
Aoinjid jiu AO Hacb HHend niROTopbix'b xfeTondci^eBi> h KaRiA? 
KaKi) HasbtBaexcH ji'&TonHCb H6cTopa? 
^tM-b 6bijrb H^CTop'b? 
r^^ij OHT. acHJTb H Kor^a OH-b ynep-b? 
KaKi} HasbiB^eTCfl n^pBug n^M^THHK'b ;i^peBHepyccKoii CBircKofi 

^TO OH'b H3o6pa«^eTb? 
IIoqeMy bt. cjii^^yiomearb CTOJiiiiH h6 6bijio jiHTepaiypHaro 

Kto Hannc^jni sHaiieHdTbifi AoHOCTp6fi? 
KaK6e co^^epac^Hie ^Tofi kh^h? 
Kor;^^ H^qajiocb KHHroneq^Tanie bi^ MocKBi? 
^To CA-fejiajn* Ki'eBCKifl MHTponojiiiTb Ileip-b Mornjia? 
Kto dbijTb Bi> 1644 r. B^3Baffi> hsI) KleBCKoi aKa^^uiH B-b MocKBy? 
^TO c^^tjiajn. CHMe6ffb n6jioii,Kifi B-b MocKsi? 

KoMy^ o^jfaana jiHTepaxypa, bi^ c66cTBeHH0ui> cMii^cjri^ cJioBa, 

n^pBUlfb CBO^BTb TOJI^Kdui}? 

^er6 mejidjrb IleTpTi BeJiliKifi h qxo OH'b cosAaB^jrb? 

BA;^'feJI•b jiH IleTp-b BejiliKifi ^JIo;^Ii CBoer6 Tpy;^4? 

^To HanHc^j!!} KHHSb KaHTeu^pi)? 

Kto dbijii) n^pBburb 3HaMeHliTbiMi> pyccKHirb nHc^Tejieu'b? 

KaK^fl cjidBa npHHa^i^JiCHClirb JoMOHocoay? 

3HdeTe jih bli HiKOTopuH coqEH^nia JIoMOH6coBa? KadA? 

Uto c^tjiajn. Bacfijiift TpeAbiiKdBCKifi? 

Kto n^pBbifi cozji^kxh Hai^ioH^jibHHH Te&Tpi? 

^tM-b npiodp'feT^erb EKaTepAna Il-aa noqexnoe M-fecTO vh HCT6piH 

pyccKoii jiHTepaTypu? 
Kade nHc^Tejin BucTyndiorb bo Bp^Ma i^&pcTaBOBaHia EKa- 

Tep6Hbi II-oS? 
KoT6pbifi mrh HHxi> c^^ijiajicfl nonyjufpHbiHT*? 
^.'^wh ^epm^BHH'b oc66eHHO HSB'i^cTeH'b? 
HaaoB^Te eme ;^ptria coqHH^Hia ^epHc&BHHa? 

1 These questions refer to the contents of Translations 9—20. 

244 Lesson 20. 

KorA^ XEJVh HHKOJiafi Kapa]i3^Hi>? 

^MT. OHT, CTaJIt HSB^CTem.? 

^TO nHC^t KapaMsAHT, wh cbo6xt> jiHTepaxypHbixx CTaTLjix-b? 

^TO Hs^ajTb KapaMs^Hi HaKOH^i;!.? 

no^eiiy ^TO npoHaBe^eHie BUSUBderb H^me y^^uBJienie? 

Kor^a XHJi'b inHinK6B'b? 

^^o OHT> CTapamca ^OKaadTb? 

Bujn. jiH er6 Tpy^i no Ji^zewb Ajih ntrb? 

KaKie no^TM CJI•fe;^OBaJIH aa hhm'b? 

Kor^a KHjn> h ^to nHcajrb OaepoBt? 

^TO cocTaBiijn. Hb^hi> Jl^^Tpiewh? 

KiiWh 6bijia odpadoTana npaBoy^liTejibnaa 6acHfl? 

WbHUl> COnepHHKOlTb dblJIl} KpbUIOBrb? 

K'feMT, 6bijn, M^OETewh? 

Kto npocjiaBHj[Cii bt. ^paMaT6qecK0MT> HCKyccxB'fe? 

Kor^^d XHjn, rpH^otAOBT*? 

KaKi} HaabiBAeTCH nanlicaHHaA mn> Komfl,ia? 

Bi, KOTdpoMT, ^o;^y fMepi r6rojib? 

KaK'b osarjiaBJien^ er6 JiymnaM KOH^;^iii? 

^^0 OCM'hAjl'h Offb BT. ^TOfi KOMe^^H? 

Wto onAcano bt. «Tapac'fe Byjib6i^»? 

Wto naxd^HM-b bt, ftM^piBUXi. Ji;yniaxT>»? 

Kto nepeBejii HJIi^;^y? 

Kto 6uji'b no;^pa3K^TejieMi> B^iipoHa? 

^tMT, CTaJTb HSB'feCTeH'b K03Jl6Brb? 

KaKoro bu M6aceTe naaB^Tb mh* jiHpAqecKaro no^Ta? 
Bhijvb JIH JKyKOBCKifi opiirHH^jibnHirb no^TOM-b? 


KaKoe caMoe HSB-fecTHoe npoHaBe^^Hie 5KyK6BCKaro? 
KoTdpuH H3T» pyccKHXT, DO^TOBi cocTaBHJTb Be.iHq&ftmyK) H 

qHcrfefimyio cji^By CBO^fi cTpaHii? 
Kor;^^ po;^<ijicH h KO^;^a fMepi AJIeKcaHJ^p^ nymKHH-b? 


IToqeMy oht, Bnajn> bt, nen^JiocTb? 

Ky;^a oht, 6ujrh cdcjiaHT,? 

^To HanHcajn, oht, bt, Beccapa6iH? 

H3T. nerd B3iijrb oht, ciOMceTT, «PycjiaHa h JlK);pifij[bi»? 

Kor6 npeACTHBJi^eT'b naMT, UfmKBWb bi ceo^M'b «EBr6HiH OnirHHi^? 

KaKiii no^MH E3fl,kjrh oht, ndcjit On'ferHHa? 

KaK'b nastiBdeTCJi Ajmaee ApaMax^^ecRoe npoesBeA^Hie nymRHHa? 

IToqeMy oho hg 0K6HqeH0? 

KaK6K) cM^pTbK) ynepT, IlyniKHHT,? 

Kor;^a 3khjit, JI^pmohtobt,? 

^'hWl* 6bIJrb JI6pM0HT0BT>? 

3a qTo 6bijiT, owb cdcjiam, na KaBKasT,? 

HaaoB^Te h'^kotopmh hst, er6 jiyqniHXT, npoHSBeAeHift ! 

Wto cocTaBJljierb «rep6ii Hamero Bp6MeHH»? 

Bt, KaK6MT, Boapacrfe ynepT, JI^pmohtobt,? 

WiJMT, CA'fejiajica HSB'tcxeHT, BaTiomKOBT,? 


Wto ^pe;^CTaBJuiK)T^, oh6 bt, cbo^xt, poM^naxT,? 
Kto CA'feJiajicfl HaB^CTHUMT, kt, Koni^y XIX B'feKa? 

KaK^ p43HHI^a M63K;^y ToJICTIJMT,, ^eXOBblMT, H FopbKHMT,? 

Additional exercises. 245 



The great calif Aaroun-al-Rashid began to suspect 
that his vizier Giafar was no longer deserving of (ne 
sacjiysKHBaeTt 66jiie) his confidence. The women of 
Aaroun, the courtiers and the dervishes bitterly (cb 
ropeqbK)) censured the vizier. The calif loved Giafar, 
he would not condemn him upon the clamours of the 
city and the court: he visited his empire; everywhere 
he saw the ground well cultivated, the fields smiling 
(npiHTHHH iia BSFJi^At), the villages opulent (st H3o6fijiiH), 
the useful arts in honour, and youth full of gaiety (wb 
paAOCTH). He visited his fortresses and seaports ; there 
he found numerous ships, which threatened the coast 
of Africa and Asia; he saw soldiers disciplined and 
content; these soldiers, the seamen and the inhabitants 
of the villages exclaimed: "0 God, pour thy blessings 
upon the faithful (6.JiarocJiOBfi npaBOBipHUxt), by giving 
them a calif like Aaroun and a vizier like Giafar". 
The calif affected by these exclamations, enters a 
mosque (wb mch^tl), falls upon [his] knees and exclaims : 
"Great God, I thank thee; thou hast given me a vizier 
whom my courtiers blame, and whom my people bless". 

The emperor Charles the Fifth, being once out 
hunting (aa oxort), lost his way (sagjiyA^Jiefl) in the 
forest, and having come to a house, entered it to refresh 
himself. There were [in it] four men (qcTBepo jnoA^ik), 
who feigned to sleep (KaaajiHCb cnamnMa). One of them 
rose and, approaching the emperor, told him : "I have 
dreamt (MHi iipHCHfijiocB) I take your watch", and took 
it. Then another rose and told him that he had dreamt 
that Charles' surtout (cropTyKt) fitted him wonderfully, 
and took it. The third took his purse. At last the fourth 
came up (npH6ja[fi3HJiaa) and told him: '*I hope you 
will not take it amiss (bh hc paacepAHTecB), if I search 
you", and in doing it he perceived around (ua) the 
emperor's neck a small gold chain, to which was atta- 

246 Additional exercises. 

ched a whistle. The robber wished to take it, but the 
emperor told him : **My friend, before losing (jiHinfiTBca) 
this jewel, I must tell you its virtue (cBoficTBo)". Saying 
this he whistled. The attendants (jih)ah), who were al- 
ready seeking him, hastened to the house and were 
filled with astonishment to see his Majesty in such a 
state. But the emperor, seeing himself out of danger, 
said : **These men have (BoTt jk);i;h, KOTopHMx) dreamt 
all that they liked. I wish also to dream in my turn 
(bt> cbok) oqepeAb)", and after having mused a few minutes, 
he said : *'I have dreamt that you all four (Bct bh 
q^TBepo) deserved to be hanged", and this was no 
sooner spoken than executed (TaKt ate CK6po Hcnojc- 
HeHO RaRTi H cKasaHo). 


Pearls are as much esteemed as precious stones. 
They are found ia shells, which bear {HMtroTi) some 
resemblance to oysters. Each shell contains (in itself) 
a small animal, which when diseased has pearls over 
all parts of its body. The most considerable pearl- 
fisheries are carried on (npoHSBOAHTca)^ in the Pacific and 
Atlantic Ocean (wh Moprix-b o6Mx'r HHAift). After [that 
of] mining (pa3pa66TKa pyAHHROB-B) the pearl-fishery is 
the hardest and most perilous trade. The persons who 
dive to the bottom of the sea to collect the pearl-oysters 
are called divers. They are taught from Uieir infancy 
to hold in their breath. The nose and ears of the diver 
are stopped, round his waist a cord is fastened, the 
end of which is made fast (npHKpinjieH'B) to the boat, 
and to one of his feet is attached a weight of twenty 
or thirty pounds, to make (sacTaBHTb) him go to the 
bottom as fast as possible (ex bosmosrho 66jiBinefi cko- 
pocTbK)). As soon as he has reached the bottom, he 
loosens with a knife the shells from the rocks and 
throws tliem into a basket. As soon as this is filled^ 
or if the diver sees that a shark is approaching, or that 
he has no longer breath enough to remain under the 
water, he unties the stone from his foot, and shakes 
the cord as a signal for the others to pull him up, 
which is done instantly and very quickly. The oysters 
are opened with a knife, or are allowed to putrify; then 

Additional exercises. 247 

they open of their own accord (caMH co66fl) and the 
pearls are taken out. They are different in size, form, 
colour and brilliancy; and it is according to this 
difference that various names and prices are given 
to them. 


One day a mail-coach full of travellers was proce- 
ding (ix&juh) to York. They spoke much about high- 
waymen and robbers that were frequently met with on 
the way and on the best means of concealing one's 
money. Each [person] had his secret, but no one 
thought of (p'tmfijie^) telling it. One young lady of 
eighteen had not such prudence. Imagining no doubt 
to give a proof of her cleverness (noKasaTb cbok) 
jiOBKOCTb), she said with great candour, that she had a 
draft for two hundred pounds which was her whole 
fortune, and that the thieves must be very clever, if 
they succeeded in finding (qxcd-B nanaTL HCKaTt) this 
booty in her shoes, or rattier (h Aaae) under the sole of 
her foot, as to find it, they would be obliged to rob 
her of her stockings (HMt npHmjocfc 6h CHaTf* cl nda nyjiK^). 

Soon afterwards the coach was stopped by a gang 
of robbers, who requested the frightened and trembling 
travellers to give them their money. The latter emptied 
their purses, well knowing that resistance would be of 
no use and even dangerous. But as the sum [thus 
produced] appeared too small, the robbers threatened 
to search all the luggage (bc* B^mH), if a hundred 
pounds at least were not given to them. 

"You will easily find that sum and even twice as 
much (h Aa»e B^Boe 66jrbffle)", said an old gentleman 
from the corner (h3t» TJiy6mLu) of the coach, **if you 
examine the shoes and stockings of that lady". The 
advice was very well taken, and the shoes and stockings 
being pulled off (h CHixHe 6aniMaKH h ^yjiKfi) the pro- 
mised treasure was discovered. The robbers humbly 
thanked the lady, paid her some compliments on her 
beautiful foot, and without waiting for her answer, 
they wished a happy journey to the whole equipage 
which continued their way. Hardly were the robbers a 
few paces distant (E^Ba Bopn y^ajifijiHCL Ha HicKOJLKO 

248 Additional exercises. 

maroKb), when the consternation of the travellers was 
changed into indignation. It would be impossible to ex- 
press with words the sorrow of the poor w^oman, or the 
resentment of the whole party against the betrayer. 

The strongest and even the most insulting epithets, 
and even those (BpoA*) of rascal and accomplice of the 
robbers, were lavished on him by all (nocunajiHCb Ha He- 
ro OTOBCK)Ay); to all the marks of the general indigna- 
tion, was added the threat of beating the informer, of 
throwing him out of the carriage, and of instituting legal 
proceedings against him (ofiBHHfiTB ero) in short, all 
seemed to concur in forming schemes for taking exem- 
plary vengeance on the offender. But this remained 
perfectly unmoved and guarded his tranquillity, and 
only once tried to justify himself, saying that one could 
have nothing dearer to him than himself; and when 
they reached the end of their journey, he suddenly 
disappeared, before his fellow travellers could accom- 
plish any of their intended measures. 

As to the unfortunate young person, it is easy to 
imagine that she passed a most unhappy night, and 
that sleep did not shut her eyes; but what must have 
been her astonishment and joy, when she received the 
next morning the following letter: 

"Madam, — The man whom you must yesterday 
have hated as an informer sends you besides the sum 
you advanced him, as interest thereon (Bt bAa* npoi^^H- 
TOBt), a trinket of at least the same cost to adorn your 
hair. — I hope this will be sufficient to silence your 
grief. — I will now in a few lines explain you the 
mystery of my conduct. — After having spent ten years 
in India, where I amassed a hundred thousand pounds, 
I was returning to my native place loaded with drafts 
for that sum, when we were yesterday attacked by the 
robbers. — My savings must have inevitably been 
sacrificed, if the shabbiness of our fellow-travellers 
exposed us to a search on the part of the highwaymen. 
— Judge [for] yourself, if the idea of returning to India 
thoroughly empty-handed could be supportable te me! 
Excuse me, if this consideration led me to betray your 
confidence and to sacrifice a small sum, though not 
belonging to me, rather than lose my whole fortune. 

Additional exercisbs. 249 

The service you rendered me is great, and I would 
esteem myself happy to give you a proof of my grati- 
tude; consider as a mere trifle the feeble marks with 
which I hasten to assure you of it.'* 



A man who is accustomed to be always well, and 
has consequently cause to believe himself exempt from 
the ordinary ills that flesh is heir to, naturally feels 
aggrieved — as if some one had inflicted upon him an 
undeserved injury — when he suddenly finds himself 
ill. At first he refuses to believe the fact, and, as far 
as possible, takes no notice of the disagreeable symp- 

Such was my state of mind on being awakened 
early one morning by peculiar symptoms which I had 
never before experienced. Unwilling to admit to myself 
the possibility of being ill, I got up, and endeavoured 
to dress as usual, but very soon discovered that I was 
unable to stand. There was no denying the fact: not 
only was I ill, but the malady surpassed my powers 
of diagnosis; and when the symptoms increased 
steadily all that day and the following night, I was 
constrained to take the humiliating decision of asking 
for medical advice. To my inquiries whether there was 
a doctor in the neighbourhood, the old servant replied, 
"There is not exactly a doctor, but there is a Feldsher 
in the village". 

**And what is a Feldsher?" 

"A Feldsher is .... is a Feldsher." 

"I am quite aware of that, but I should like to 
know what you mean by the word. What is this 

"He's an old soldier who dresses wounds and 
gives physic." 

The definition did not dispose me in favour of the 
mysterious personage, but as there was nothing better 
to be had I ordered him to be sent for, notwithstanding 
the strenuous opposition of the old servant, who evi- 
dently did not believe in Feldshers. 

In about half an hour a tall, broad-shouldered 
man entered, and stood bolt upright in the middle of 

250 Additional exercises. 

the room in the attitude which is designated in military 
language by the word "Attention**. His clean-shaven 
chin, long moustache and closely-cropped hair confir- 
med one part of the old servant's definition; he was 
unmistakably an old soldier. 

**You are a Feldsher**, I ^aid, making use of the 
word which I had recently added to my vocabulary. 

"Exactly so, your Nobility!" These words, the 
ordinary form of affirmation used by soldiers to their 
officers, were pronounced in a loud, metallic, monoto- 
nous tone, as if the speaker had been an automaton 
at a distance of twenty yards. As soon as the words 
were pronounced the mouth of the machine closed 
spasmodically, and the head, which had been momen- 
tarily turned towards me, reverted to its former po- 
sition, as if it had received the order "Eyes front!" 

"Then please to sit down here, and 1*11 tell you 
what is the matter with me.'* Upon this, the figure 
took three paces to the front, wheeled to the right-about 
and sat down on the edge of the chair, retaining the 
position of "Attention" as nearly as the sitting posture 
would allow. When the symptoms had been carefully 
described, he knitted his brows, and after some reflec- 
tion remarked, "I can give you a dose of . . .**, here 
followed a long word which I did not understand. 

"I don't wish you to give a dose of anything, till 
I know what is the matter with me. Though a bit 
of a doctor myself, I have no idea what it is, and, 
pardon me, I think you are in the same position." 
Noticing a look of ruffled professional dignity on his 
face, I added, as a sedative, "It is evidently something 
very peculiar, so that if the first medical practitioner 
in the country were present he would probably be as 
much puzzled as ourselves". 

The sedative evidently had the desired effect. 
"Well, Sir, to tell you the truth", he said in a more 
human tone of voice, "I do not understand what it is." 

"Exactly; and therefore I think we had better 
leave the cure to Nature, and not interfere with her 
mode of treatment." 

"Perhaps it would be better.'* 

"And now since I am to lie here on my back and 

Additional exercises. 251 

feel rather lonely, I should like to have a talk with 
you. You are not in a hurry, I hope?" 

"Not at all. My assistant knows where I am, and 
will send for me if I am required.'* 

"So you have an assistant, have you?*' 

"0 yes ; a very sharp young fellow, who has been 
two years in the Feldsher school, and has now oome 
here to help me and learn more by practice. That is 
a new way. I never was at a school of the kind myself, 
but had to pick up what I could when a servant in 
the hospital. There were, I believe, no such schools 
in my time. The one where my assistant learned was 
opened by the Zemstvo." 

"The Zemstvo is the new local administration, is 
it not?" 

"Exactly so. And I could not do without the 
assistant", continued my new acquaintance, gradually 
losing his rigidity, and showing himself, what he really 
was, a kindly, talkative man. "I have often to go to 
other villages, and almost every day a number of pea- 
sants come here. At first I had very little to do, for 
the people thought I was an official, and would make 
them pay dearly for what I should give them ; but now 
they know that they don't require to pay, and come 
in great numbers. And everything I give them — 
though sometimes I do not clearly understand what 
the matter is — seems to do them good. I believe that 
faith does as much as physic." 

"In my country", I remarked, "there is a set of 
doctors who get the benefit of that principle. They 
give their patients two or three little balls no bigger 
than a pin's head, or a few drops of tasteless liquid, 
and they sometimes work wonderful cures.'* 

"That system would not do for us. The Russian 
peasant would have no faith if he swallowed merely 
things of that kind. What he believes in is something 
with a v^ry bad taste, and lots of it. That is his idea 
of a medicine; and he thinks that the more he takes 
of a medicine, the better chance he has of getting well. 
When I wish to give a peasant several doses I make 
him come for each separate dose, for I know that if I 
did not, he would probably swallow the whole as soon 

252 Additional exercises. 

as he was out of sight. But there is not much serious 
disease here — not like what I used to see on the 
Sheksna. You have been on the Sheksna? 

"Not yet, but I intend going there.'* The Sheksna 
is a river which falls into the Volga, and forms part 
of the great system of water-communication connecting 
the Volga with the Neva. 

"When you go there, you will see lots of diseases. 
If there is a hot summer, and plenty of barges passing,, 
something is sure to break out — typhus, or black 
small-pox, Siberian plague, or something of the kind. 
That Siberian plague is a curious thing. Whether it 
really comes from Siberia, God only knows. So soon 
as it breaks out the horses die by dozens, and some- 
times men and women are attacked, though it is not 
properly a human disease. They say that flies carry 
the poison from the dead horses to the people. The 
sign of it is a thing like a boil, with a dark coloured 
rim. If this is cut open in time the person may recover, 
but if it is not the person dies. There is cholera, too, 

"What a delightful country", I said to myself, "for 
a young doctor who whises to make discoveries!" 
The catalogue of diseases inhabiting this favoured re- 
gion was apparently not yet complete, but it was cut 
short for the moment by the arrival of the assistant^ 
with the announcement that the Feldsher was wanted. 

This first interview with the Feldsher was, on the 
whole, satisfactory. He had not rendered me any me- 
dical assistance, but he had helped me to pass an hour 
pleasantly, and had given me a little information of 
the kind I desired. My later interviews with him were 
equally agreeable. He was naturally an intelligent, ob- 
servant man, who had seen a great deal of the world, 
and could describe what he had seen. Unfortunately, 
the horizontal position prevented me from noting down 
at the time the interesting things which he related to me. 



Of course, travelling in Russia is no longer what 
it was. During the last quarter of a century a vast 

Additional exercises. 258 

network of railways has been constructed, and one can 
now travel in a comfortable first-class carriage from 
Berlin to St. Petersburg or Moscow, and thence to 
Odessa, Sebastopol, the Lower Volga, or even the foot 
of the Caucasus ; and, on the whole, it must be admitted 
that the railways are tolerably comfortable. The car- 
riages are decidedly better than in England, and in 
winter they are kept warm by small iron stoves, such 
as we sometimes see in steamers, assisted by double 
windows and double doors — a very necessary pre- 
caution in a land where the thermometer often descends 
to 30^ below zero. The trains never attain, it is true, 
a high rate of speed — so at least English and Ameri- 
cans think — but then we must remember that Russiaixs 
are rarely in a hurry, and like to have frequent oppor- 
tunities of eating and drinking. In Russia time is not 
money; if it were, nearly all the subjects of the Tsar 
would always have a large stock of ready money on 
hand. In reality, be it parenthetically remarked, a 
Russian with a superabundance of ready money is a 
phenomenon rarely met with in real life. 

In conveying passengers at the rate of from fifteen 
to thirty miles an hour, the railway companies do at 
least all that they promise; but in one very important 
respect they do not strictly fulfil their engagements. 
The traveller takes a ticket for a certain town, and on 
arriving at what he imagines to be his destination, he 
may find merely a railway-station surrounded by fields. 
He finds, to his disappointment, that the station is by 
no means identical with the town bearing the same 
name, and that the railway has fallen several miles 
short of fulfilling the bargain, as he understood the 
terms of the contract. Indeed, it might almost be said 
that, as a general rule, railways in Russia, like camel- 
drivers in certain Eastern countries, studiously avoid 
the towns. This seems at first a strange fact. It is 
possible to conceive that the Bedouin is so enamoured 
of tent life and nomadic habits, that he shuns a town 
as he would a man-trap: but surely civil engineers 
and railway contractors have no such dread of brick 
and mortar. The true reason, I suspect, is that land 
within or immediately without the municipal barrier 

254 Additional exercises. 

is relatively dear, and that the railways, being com- 
pletely beyond the invigorating influence of healthy 
competition, can afford to look upon the comfort and 
convenience of passengers as a secondary consi- 

It is but fair to state that in one celebrated in- 
stance neither engineers nor railway contractors were 
to blame. From St. Petersburg to Moscow the loco- 
motive runs for a distance of 400 miles, almost as the 
crow flies, turning neither to the right hand nor to the 
left. For fifteen hours the passenger in the express 
train looks out on forest and morass, and rarely catches 
sight of human habitation. Only once he perceives in 
the distance what may be called a town; it is Tver, 
which has been thus favoured simply because it happe- 
ned to be near the straight line. And why was the 
railway constructed in this extraordinary fashion? For 
the best of all reasons, because the Tsar so ordered it. 
When the preliminary survey was being made, Nicholas 
learned that the officers intrusted with the task (and 
the Minister of Ways and Roads in the number) were 
being influenced more by personal than by technical 
considerations, and he determined to cut the Grordian 
knot in true Imperial style. When the Minister laid 
before him the map with the intention of explaining 
the proposed route, he took a ruler, drew a straight 
line from the one terminus to the other, and remarked 
in a tone that precluded all discussion, "You will 
construct the line so". And the line was so constructed. 

Formerly this well-known incident was often cited 
in whispered philippics to illustrate the evils of the 
autocratic form of government. In recent years, ho- 
wever, a change seems to have taken place in public 
opinion, and some people now venture to assert that 
this so-called Imperial whim was an act of far-seeing 
policy. As by far the greater part of the goods and 
passengers are carried tiie whole length of the line, it 
is well that the line should be as short as possible, and 
that branch lines should be constructed to the towns 
lying to the right and left. Apart from political con- 
siderations, it must be admitted that a good deal may 
be said in support of this view. 

Additional exgrgises. 255 

The water communication has likewise in recent 
years been greatly improved. On all the principal 
rivers are now tolerably good steamers. Unfortmiately 
the climate puts serious obstructions in the way of 
navigation. For nearly half of the year the rivers are 
covered with ice, and during a great part of the open 
season navigation is difficult. When the ice and snow 
melt, the rivers overflow their banks and lay a great 
part of the low-lying country and many villages under 
water ; but very soon the flood subsides, and the water 
falls so rapidly, that by midsummer the larger steamers 
have great difficulty in picking their way among the 
sandbanks. The Neva alone (that queen of northern 
rivers) has at all times a plentiful supply of water. 

Besides the Neva, the rivers commonly visited by 
the tourist are the Volga and the Don, which form 
part of what may be called the Russian grand tour. 
Strangers who wish to see something more than St. 
Petersburg and Moscow generally go by rail to Nizhni- 
Novgorod, where they visit the great fair, and then get 
on board one of the Volga steamers. For those who 
have mastered the important fact that there is no fine 
scenery in Russia, the voyage down the river is 
pleasant enough. The left bank is as flat as the banks 
of the Rhine below Cologne, but the right bank is high, 
occasionally well wooded and not devoid of a certain 
tame picturesqueness. Early on the second day the 
steamer reaches Kazan, once the capital of an 
independent Tartar khanate and still containing a con- 
siderable Tartar population. Several mosques with their 
diminutive jninarets in the lower part of the town, show 
that Islam still survives, though the khanate was an- 
nexed to Russia more than three centuries ago, but 
the town, as a whole, has a European rather than an 
Asiatic character. If any one visits it in the hope of 
getting **a glimpse of the East", he will be grievously 
disappointed, unless, indeed, he happens to be one of 
those imaginative tourists who always discover what 
they wish to see, especially when it can be made the 
subject of an effective chapter in their "Impressions de 
Voyage". And yet it must be admitted that, of all the 
towns on the route, Kazan is the most interesting. 

256 Additional exercises. 

Though not Oriental, it has a peculiar character of its 
own, whilst all the others — Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov 
— are as uninteresting as Russian provincial towns 
conmaonly are. 

The deck of the steamer is generally much more 
interesting than the banks of the river. There one 
meets with curious travelling companions. The ma- 
jority of the passengers are probably Russian peasants, 
who are always ready to chat freely without demanding 
a formal introduction, and to relate to a new acquain- 
tance the simple story of their lives. Often I have thus 
whiled away the weary hours both pleasantly and 
profitably, and have always been impressed with the 
peasants homely common sense, good-natured kindli- 
ness, half-fatalistic resignation, and strong desire to 
learn something about foreign countries. This last pecu- 
liarity makes him question as well as communicate, 
and his questions, though sometimes apparently 
childish, are generally to the point. Among the pas- 
sengers are probably also some representatives of the 
various Finnish tribes inhabiting this part of the 
country; they may be interesting to the ethnologist 
who loves to study physiognomy, but they are far less 
sociable than the Russians. Nature seems to have 
made them silent and morose, whilst their conditions 
of life have made them shy and distrustful. The Tartar, 
on the other hand, is almost sure to be a lively and 
amusing companion. Most probably he is a pedlar or 
small trader of some kind. The bundle on which he 
reclines contains his stock-in-trade, composed, perhaps, 
of cotton printed goods and bright-coloured hand- 
kerchiefs. He himself is enveloped in a capacious 
greasy dressing-gown and wears a fur cap, though the 
thermometer may be at 90^ in the shade. The roguish 
twickle in his small piercing eyes contrasts strongly 
with the sombre, stolid expression of the Finnish 
peasants sitting near him. He has much to relate about 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, and perhaps Astrakhan; but, 
like a genuine trader, he is very reticent regarding the 
mysteries of his own craft. Towards sunset he retires 
with his companions to some quiet spot on the deck to 

Additional exercises. 257 

recite the evening prayers. Here all the good Mahome- 
dans on board assemble and stroke their beards, kneel 
on their little strips of carpet and prostrate themselves, 
all keeping time as if they were performing some new 
kind of drill mider the eye of a severe drill-sergeant. 
If the voyage is made about the end of September, 
when the traders are returning home from the fair at 
Nizhni - Nowgorod, the ethnologist will' have a still 
better opportunity of study. He will then find not only 
representatives of the Finnish and Tartar races, but 
also Armenians, Circassians, Persians, Bokhariots, and 
other Orientals — a motley and picturesque but deci- 
dedly unsavoury cargo. 

Railways and steamboats, even when their arrange- 
ments leave much to be desired, invariably effect a 
salutary revolution in hotel accommodation; but this 
revolution is of necessity gradual. Foreign hotetkeepers 
must immigrate and give the example; suitable houses 
must be built; servants must be properly trained; 
and, above all the native travellers must learn the 
usages of civilized society. In Russia this revolution 
is only in progress, and is as yet by no means complete. 
The cities where foreigners mostly congregate — 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa — already possess 
hotels that will bear comparison with those of Western 
Europe, and some of the more important provincial 
towns can offer very respectable accommodation; but 
there is still much to be done before the West-European 
can travel with comfort even on the principal routes. 
Cleanliness, the first and most essential element of 
comfort, as we understand the term, is still a rare 
commodity, and often cannot be procured at any price. 

Even in good hotels, when they are of the genuine 
Russian type, there are certain peculiarities which, 
though not in themselves objectionable, strike a 
foreigner as peculiar. Thus, when you alight at such 
an hotel, you are expected to examine a considerable 
nmiiber of rooms, and to inquire about the respective 
prices. When you have fixed upon a suitable apartment, 
you will do well, if you wish to practise economy, to 
propose to the landlord considerably less than he de- 
Russian Conv.-Grammar. 17 

258 Additional exercises. 

mands; and you will generally find, if you have a 
talent for bargaining, that the rooms may be hired for 
somewhat less than the sum first stated. You must 
be careful, however, to leave no possibility of doubt 
as to the terms of the contract. Perhaps you may 
assume that, as in taking a cab a horse is always 
supplied without special stipulation, so in hiring a 
bedroom the bargain includes a bed with the necessary 
appurtenences. Such an assumption will not always 
be justified. The landlord may perhaps give you a 
bedstead without extra-charge, but if he be uncorrupted 
by foreign notions, he will certainlfy not spontaneously 
supply you with bed-linen, pillows, blankets and towels. 
On the contrary he will assume that you carry all these 
articles with you, and if you do not, you must pay for 
those which you borrow from him. 

This ancient custom has produced among certain 
Russians a curious kind of fastidiousness to which we 
are strangers. They strongly dislike using sheets, 
blankets and towels which are in a certain sense public 
property, just as we should strongly object to putting 
on clothes which had been already worn by other 
people. And the feeling may be developed in people not 
Russian by birth. For my own part, I confess to having 
been conscious of a certain disagreeable feeling on 
returning in this respect to the usages of so-called 
civilized Europe. Evidently fastidiousness is not an 
innate quality, but the result of the conditions to which 
we have been accustomed ; and, as such, it may easily 
take very curious forms. Besides, the inconvenience 
of carrying about these essential articles of bedroom 
furniture is by no means so great as may at first sight 
be supposed. 





At the Frontier. 

OTKy;^a Bw i^^eTe? 

M3i> FepM^H. 

KaK6ii Bu Haii,ioH^Jii>HOCTH? 

noTpy;],^Tecb ;^aTb mh^ Bami> 

BoTb Mod ndcnoprB. 
Bu Hafi;i,eTe Bann> nacnoprB bt* 


Hd^o-jiH iipe;^i>JiB^Tb 5ar^arb ajih 

ocMdrpa 3;^'fecb? 

?T0 HaH'b A0JiacH6 ^'^jiaTb? 
Htrt-jra y Baci» qer6-HH6y;^b, sa 

OTo cjii^^yerb njiaTfiTb ndmjiH- 

y MeHj! TdjibKO B^n^H HeodxoA^- 

uhui uwh caMOHy. V ueEi ntrb 

HHKaKJ&X'b TOB4pOBl>. 

^TK) y Bacb B-b ^Toft Kop66K'fe? 

Borb KJiK)q6. A BOTb Taoce kjijo- 
^A OTh BHCJtqaro saMK^ Moer6 
qeMO^^^Ha, B'b KOT6po]rb Bbi nafi- 
Pfine flfia. npe^Mera no^Bep- 
seHHbie n6mjam% to ecTb qe- 
Tiipe ({)yHTa q^ h 6kojio Ti&ca- 
qH nanHpdcb. 

Boft^^^Tc BT, K0HT6py, sanjiaT^TG 
c66piii.HKy H cnpocdre pacniic- 

Mod 6a>Tkwb npondjii}. 

Tflfb TaM6»ceHHbit Ha^^SHpaTejib ? 

Tfl^'k qHH6BHHK'b? 
r^t ^^OCMbipmHK'b? 

Where do you come from? 

From Germany. 

What is your nationality? 

I am an Englishman. 

Please to hand me your pass- 

Here is my passport. 

You will find your passport at 
the custom-house. 

Must we have our luggage exa- 
mined here? 


What must we do? 

Have you not anything that is 
liable to duty? 

I have only such things as are 
indispensable for myselt I 
have no merchandise at all. 

What have you in this box? 

Here are the keys. And there 
are also the keys of the pad- 
lock of my trunk, in which 
you will find two articles liable 
to duty, that is four pounds 
of tea and about a thousand 

Go into the office, pay the re- 
ceiver and get a receipt. 

My luggage is lost. 
Where is the customs-inspector? 
Where is the (customs-j officer? 
Where is the customs-guard? 

Travelling by Railway 

Hoc^jibmHK'b, B03bM6Te 5th Beiii.H? Porter, take these things! 
Tflfk 6HJi6THaa K^cca? 
^;^■fe npieMT, 6araaca? 

Where is the booking-office? 
Where is the luggage-booking 




Tflfk Bii^^aqa 5araac4? 

KaK6fi y Bact Car&an,? 

y mbeA j[fia> qeMo^dHa, Aop69BHBift 

CK6jibK0 cjiiAyeTb CT> MeHj! :;a 

CK6jibK0 cJiiflyerB ct» mohjI sa 

ji6fflHift (Jar^ki,? 
^dftie mhIj 6HJi6rb n6pBaro (bto- 

p6ro, Tp^TbHro) KJidcca ^o Ile- 

JdfiTe MH* 6hji6tti npaM6ro coo($- 

m^Hia ^0 MocKBii. 
J^afire mh^ o6paTHi>ift 6EJi^rb ^o 

Ha CK6jibK0 AHeft A'^ficTB^TejeFb 

^TOTb dHJI^TTb? 
nop4 JIH Ca^^TbCfl? 

Ca^i^Tecb no M'fecT^'b, rocnoA&l 
noTopon^Tecb, n6'fe3;^'b ceflq&cb ot- 

OcTajiocb-JiH eme CT6jibK0 Bp6- 

MeHH, qTo6'b Bi^nHTb K6({)e? 
M6MCH0-JIU Bfl'fecb Kyn^Tb ^Hrjiift- 

CKiii ((})paHi^y3CKifl, H'i^H^i^Kifl) 

Ha KaK6ft ct^he^Ih 6y4)6n>? 

Kor;^a uu npi't^^eM'b bt> Heiep- 

CK6JibR0 cji^fl^yevb npHOJiaTJ^b 3a 

Cnjierb bt* cn^jibHOMi. Bardnfe? 

KOH^yKTOp'b, Bct MtCT^ 3dHaTH, 

Hafi^^Te MH-fe Apyroe MicTO. 
Fflt HvacHo nepec^aHBaTbCfl? 
CnycifiTe, noa^JiyfiCTa, a^afitcB. 
}l'feTb, no3B6jibTe saKpi^Tb okh6. 

HojioMc^Te, noK^jiyflcTa, qeMo;^aHT> 

no;^i> CKaMeftKy. 
HojiosK^Te mjijlnbi h njian^^ Ha 

Bepxy BT, cfeiKH. 
Stotb Barbffb fl,JiK ^ain*. 
9tott> Bar6ffb ^Jia neKyp^iii.Hxi». 

JI0K0M0T6b1> CBHCTli'rb, Mb! ^B^- 

HoqeMy MM 3Aifecb ociaHOB^jiHCb ? 

Where can one get one's luggage 

What luggage have you? 
I have two portmanteaus, one 

travelling-bag and a hat-box. 
How much must I pay for my 

How much must I pay for over- 

Give me a first (second, third) 
class ticket for St. Petersburg. 

Give me a through ticket to 

Give me a return ticket to 

For how many days is this 

ticket available? 
Where are the waiting-rooms? 
Where is the refreshment-room? 
When does the train start? 
Is it time to take our places? 
Take your seats, gentlemen! 
Make haste, the train is going 

to start inmiediately. 
Have 1 still time to drink my 

coffee ? 
Can one get any English (French, 

German) newspapers here? 

At which station is there a re- 
f reshment-room ? 

When do we reach St. Peters- 

How much has one to pay for 
a berth in the sleeping-car? 

Guard, all seats are taken, please 
procure me another place. 

Where do we change carriages? 

Please, lower the curtain. 

There is a draught, will you 
permit me to shut the win- 

Please, put the portmanteau 
under the seat. 

Put the hats and cloaks up in 
the net. 

This is a ladies' compartment. 

This is a compartment where 
no smoking is allowed. 

The engine is whistling, we are 

Why do we stop here? 



KaKdji ^TO ct4hiuh? 
JlfijirO JIH CTOjfiTb 3;i,tci> n6'fe3;i,'b? 
r;i;1i 0Tx6acee m^cto? 
IlacaactipH bt> P6ry ;^6ji3khu a^^'fecb 

Fa*]^ Haq^JIbHHK'b CTdHI^iH? 

y MGHJi Ht-TB 6HJi4rra, « noTepjf JTB 

y HeH^ dHJi^Ti* T6jikR0 ;^o K6BHa. 
SI OTnpaBJijiiocb A^bme ci> cjit- 

jfjiom^EWb n6t3A0BrB. 


Ehji^tu noHC^JiyfiTe, rocnoA^I 
ApT^jibin.HK'b, BOTb MOJi 6ardacHa« 


Xopom6, BOBBMi^Te M^ac^^y TtMi> 

IIpHHec^Te MHt MoM 6ar&}K'b Vb 


Mflt He;^ocTaeT^> eme 0flH6fl B^mn. 
Xopom6! CBe3^ mch^ bi* AHrjdM- 

CKyio rocT^HHHi^y. 
Mu npiixajiH. 
Ck6jilko CT6HrB t3;^4 ct> 6ar^- 


CKOJibKO 3a K4^K;^oe m-Icto? 

Sto MHt (or qio-TO MH6ro) A<^PO- 

IIoKaaci^Te MHt B^my T^Kcy (Ta- 

ropo;i,OB6ft! H3B6mHK'B np6cHrB 

3a npo'fes^^'B OTB B0K3^Jia ;i,o dioft 

rOCT^HHHI^H O^fiH'B pyCjIb. 

CK6jbK0 eny cjii;^ye'rB? 

H-feTB JIH y ^e6A c^^qn cb py6ji^? 

H^K^K'B HtiT,, cy^^^pb. 

Hy, TaK-B a paBM^H^K) bt> toct^h- 


BoTB Bain» en^e rpi&BeHHHK'B Ha 

At the 

EcTb-jiH y BacT, Efueiprb cb o;^H6ft 
nocT^jibio — CB ;^ByM^ nocx^Jia- 


EcTb Hynep'b, noacajiyfiTe. 
npHsaacj^Te npHHecT^ uoA B^m,Ji. 
Jlyqmaro h^tb? 

What station is this? 
Does the train stop long here? 
Where is the W. C? 
Passengers for Riga must get out 

Where is the station-master? 
I have no ticket, I have lost it. 

I have a ticket for Kovno only. 
I will go on by the next train. 


Please, gentlemen, your tickets! 

Porter, here is my luggage- 

Very well, take a cab in the 

Bring my luggage after me to 
the cab. 

I still want one package. 

Weill Take me to the Hotel 

We have arrived. 

What does the drive and lug- 
gage cost? 

What must I pay for each 
package ? 

That appears to me very dear. 

Show me your tariff. 

Policeman! This cabman de- 
mands one rouble for the drive 
from the railway station to 
this hotel. How much am I 
to give him? 

Can you give me change for a 
rouble ? 

No, Sir, I cannot. 

In that case I must get change 
in the hotel. 

Here you have ten kopecks more 
for you. 


Have you a disengaged room 
with one — two beds? 

Yes, Sir, walk in, please. 
Have my things carried upstairs I 
Have you no better room than 



CK6jibK0 CT6HT'b ^TOTB Hyjiepi*? 

9to oqeHb ;^6poro. 
Sia KbMHaia na tJiHi^y. 
fl acejiaio ^^eraeByio K6MHaTy bo 
flBopt, r;i,t a Mon> 6h cnaib 


Jt^ftie MHt cefiq^ct CB-laceft Bo;^6, 
Mi^jio n nojiOT^Hi^e. 

Jl^^fiie MHt qepH^jit, nep6 h 6y- 

Bt KOT6poMT> qacy o6%]i,'b (Ta- 

OcT^Bbie MHt M'tCTO. 

Jlaftre mh* M^ac^^y 'rfeMT> q&mKy 

K6(j[)e — n6pi^iH) q^ro. 
H xoqy Ten6pb noa^BTpaKaib — 

no oCi^aTb — no yacHHaTb. 
BejifiTe nocKopie no;i,aB^Ti> naMi. 

ysHHaTb, naMi. cnaTb x6qeTCH. 
IIocTJiaHw-jiH nocTejiH? 
Mwb Ekflfl ^Bt no;^yniKH. 
Eo^^^fiTe cqerb. 
fl ^flj 3§,BTpa tTpoMt. 
PasCyA^Te mgh^ bt» mecib qac6B'b. 
Tflfk noateMHaji Mamfina? 

What is the charge for this 

That is very dear. 
It is a front-room. 
I want a cheap room in the 

back, where I can sleep 

Give me immediately some fresh 

water, a piece of soap and a 

Give me ink, pen and paper. 

At what o'clock do they have 

table d'hdte here? 
Keep one place for me. 
Give me in the meantime a cup 

of coffee — a portion of tea. 
I should like to breakfast now 

— to dine — to sup. 
Let us have our supper quickly, 

as we wish to go to sleep. 
Are the beds made? 
I want two pillows. 
My bill, please. 
I start to-morrow morning. 
Call me at six o'clock. 
Where is the lift? 

BOTB 0H§.. 

In an Eating-house. 

Where is the bill of fare? 
Here it is, Sir. 

^ependraift cyn-b. 
rop6xoBHft cym.. 
Cyn-b cb jiannioio. 
Cym, miojihewh. 


Jtibacnna ycipHn,!.. 
KycbK-b ;^iiHH. 
MapHH6BaHHbifi yropb. 
CjidBO^Hoe Macjio. 
JlamTerb hst, rycAnoft neqeHKH. 

Bap&Hbfl KOTji^ra. 
^dpenaa dapannHa. 







Cabbage soup. 

Cold side-dishes. 
A dozen oysters. 
A slice of melon. 
Pickled eel. 
Goose-liver pie. 

Mutton chops. 
A cutlet. 



l^apenaa Teji^THHa. 
JtymeHoe lufco. 
BuL^nn^KCb (ct> Rp6BbK)). 



^apeHaa KfpHi^a. 
HCdpeHLifi rycb. 

JttiKaa yTKa. 
Sksnbe m^co. 
Kjiei^RH HSi A^qH. 
3KapK6e K03tJK»e. 


CKyMdpijf (pi.) 








flHAa BT, CM^TKy. 

ilfiqa Ha djub^t. 
ilSi^a Ha CKOBop6;^t. 

FojiJidH^^CKifi cupi. 
UlBefii^apcRift cbipi>. 
Cji^Borawft CMpi*. 

Stewed meat. 
Beefsteak (underdone). 

A hen. 
A chicken. 
Roast fowl. 
Roast goose. 
A pigeon. 
A capon. 

A snipe. 
A wild duck. 
A roasted hare. 
A pheasant. 
A partridge. 
A quail. 

Croquettes of game. 
Roast venison. 

" Sturgeon. 


Green peas or beans. 

Boiled eggs. 
Fried eggs. 
Poached eggs. 

Dutch cheese. 
Gruy^re cheese. 
A lemon. 




An orange. 


















A water-melon. 





MajifiHa (sing.). 







An ice, ice cream. 


A tart. 









P^^HCKoe bhh6. 

Rhine wine. 

niaMn^HCKoe bhh6. 


B-fejioe bhh6. 

White wine. 

Kp^cHoe bhh6. 

Red wine. 









UpHHec^e uTvb ^ib^HHy ycTpni^'b. 
Jt^fiTC MHt c6jih h n6pn,y. 

^TOTb H03KT> HC X0p0ffl6 piaECTB. 

HpHHec^Te MH-b ;^pyr6ro xjitCa, 

^TOTb MHt He np^BHTCfl. 
OhT> COBCfelTb qepcTButt. 
^ejiOBiKT., y6ep6Te $th Tap&iKH! 
A^Te UHt Ten^pb 6yjib6Hi>, h 

noT6in» jL6uTttBi> bbt^hh^. 
UoA^ftre mh^ h^ckojibko 3y6o^c- 


npHHec^TC uwb 6H4)nrr^RCi> en* 

droTb 6E^un^Kcrb cji^mKOirb 

cbipt, ynecdTG er6! 
EcTb-jH y Bact fl,mh? 
npHHec^Te MHt acdpenyio sypo- 

J^afire uwh Apyr^K) B^jiRy h ^- 

CTyK) Tap^jiKy. 
H xorhjub 6u nocMorp^Tb Ha K4p- 

Ty BHH1>. 

Give me a dozen oysters. 
Give me some salt and pepper. 
This knife does not cut well. 
Bring me some other bread, 

this does not please me. 
It is too stale. 

Waiter, take these plates away! 
Give me now a cup of broth, 

and then a slice of ham. 
Bring me some tooth-picks. 

Bring me a beefsteak with po- 

This beefsteak is too raw, take 
it away I 

Have you any game? 

Bring me a roasted partridge. 

Give me another fork and a 

clean plate. 
I should like to see the wine-list. 



H ;^0B6jIbH0 tjTb H nHJTB. 

Uofl^kltre cqert. 
Xopom6; bott> TeC'fe. 

Co;^6pacHTe-JIH Bu h ua.Eci6wb? 
Ck6jibko ct6htt> y Bact nan- 

M6acH0-jiH adoHidpoBaTbCH na Ta- 

UozoBUvie MHt paac^jbHaro, ro- 

Bopjfii]^aro no-^HrJiifieKH. 

Bring the dessert. 

I have eaten and drunk enough. 

The bill, please. 

Very well; here is something 

for yourself. 
Do you board persons? 
What do you ask for board? 

Can one subscribe to attend table 

What is the subscription-price? 
Send me a messenger who can 

speak English. 

In a Coffee-room. 

^Bt pibMKH KOHbHKy. 

BoTb OHi. 5Keji^eTe-jiH bu cji6- 


Jlatt cn^qKH. 

^ejioBiKT., ;^afi mh* TafiMCb. 

FocnoA^H'b, 0Hi> saHitrb. 


Mipi), no»c4jiyficTa. 
H BaMi> er6 ceMq^cb npHmjiib. 

HsBHHfiTe, 6y;^>Te ;^66pii nepe;^^TB 


KaKi T6jibK0 Bbi KdnqHTe? 

Cilb MHHfTy, M^JIOCTHBUft Tocy- 


XoT^Te CMrp^Tb n^piiK) bt, m^x- 

Bbi BOSbMOTe 6'kjaLH ^jih qepHua? 

dTO UHt Bce paBH6. 

Tp6HyTaa 4>Hrypa, ciirpaHHaa ^e- 
rypa; BuHe M6aceTe nocTJ^Birrb 
o6p^THO na M^CTO B^mero e6hh. 

Hy TaK-b, fflaxT> KOpoji^Bt h TyptI 

niaxi* Kopojiib! 

Bh MH'b xax^Te dTHrpHini. 

He c^rpaeMii-JiH hu ndpTiio kl 

Ox6tho, HO Bt;^b Hacb T6jibK0 

Mbi c^rpaeiTb cb 6ojiB&noin>; Sto 

c^a^ HHrep^cHaH n^pTiJi. 

Waiter, two cups of coffee and 
two glasses of cognac I 

There they are. Will you take 

Bring us some matches. 

Waiter, give me the Times. 

It is in use, sir. 

Then, the Illustrated Worid, if 
you please. 

I will send it immediately to 
you, sir. 

Beg pardon, sir, will you be so 
kind as to hand me the Mos- 
cow Gazette, when you have 
done with it? 

In a moment, sir. 

Will you play a game of chess ? 


Will you take the white or the 

It is all the same to me. 
A piece touched is a piece 

played; you cannot put the 

knight back in his old place. 
Well then, check to your queen 

and castle! 
Check to the king! 
You are going to give me my 

Are we going to have a game 

at whist? 
Willingly, but we are only three. 

We will have a dummy; it is 
the most interresting game. 



Hrp^eBTb-jiH Hbi ;^boMh6S^j[h npo- 

CT6fi TpHKT.? 

H npe^^no^HTaio ^Bofindft TpHKi. 



Oh1> BCRpUJTb 6y6HIiI. 

BaMT. xo;i,6Tb. 

BOTB 0H6. 




Mbi Bi^HrpajiH. 

Bon> OTJEJ^qHbiM 6HJiJii4p;i,i>. 

:ficjiH xoTfiie, MH curpdeMT, n&p- 

Ct» yj^0B6jiBCTBieBn». 
SI HaqHHdH). 
Mbi nofi^^if'^ Ha Tp^A^^'1'^ Kapdu- 

Ten^pt Mojf 6qepe;^b. 
KaK6e necq^CTte! 
CMBHufi ;^y6jien»! 
9to cocTaBjiiterb ;^eBflTi> o^Kdwb. 
H c;^aibcb BaMt. 

fl He flOB6jIbHO CHJieHTi BT» $Ty 



Jla,jieK6-jni OTCi^^^a n^MarHHK'b 

IleTpa Beji^Karo? 
Bi. Kaicyio CT6poHy mh* Hvamo 

H;^6Te Bce npAuo. 
CTyn^fire no §TOMy nepeyjKy, om. 

Bi^me^^ert BacrB Ha nji6ma^i>. 
OqeHb BaM-b 6j[aroA4peH'b. 
He 3a qio. 
KyA^ Be;^eTT> ^Ta yjHi^a? 

B^pHO JIH a Efl^Y Kit S^MHOMy 

He 3HieTe-jiH 3;^tcb rocno^^Ha 

H 3HaK) er6 6qeHb xopom6. 
He M6KeTe-jiH nnt cRa34Tb, r^t 

OHT, acHBerb? 


ro M6cTa. 

Where are the marks and 
counters ? 

Do we count each trick a single 
or double point? 

As you please. 

I prefer to count double points. 

Be it so. 

Let us begin. 

He has turned up diamonds. 

It is your turn. 

A heart. 

Here is one. 


I cut (the cards). 

A trump. 

We have won. 

Here is an excellent billiard- 

If you like we will have a game. 

With pleasure. 

I begin. 

We will go to thirty by camions. 

What a lucky hit! 

It is now my turn. 

What a misfortune! 

Fine doublet! 

That makes nine points. 

I yield to you. 

I am no proficient at this game. 

the way. 

Is the monument of Peter the 

Great far from here? 
Which way must I go? 

Go straight along. 

Go along this lane, and it will 
lead you into the square. 

Thank you very much. 

Don't mention it. 

Where does this street lead to? 

Am I going right to the Winter- 

Do you know Mr. N. of this 
place ? 

I know him very well. 

Can you tell me where he lives? 

He lives near the Nicholas- 



M63EeTe jih noKas^Tb unt Aop6ry 

Kt er6 flfiuY? 
flnoKaay BaMt r;^'fe om> acHBeTb. 
r^t Aop6ra Kt B0K3^Jiy? 
Ct KaK6ro B0K3^Jia Hyacno ixaib 

Bt MocKBt? 
Fflt noqi^MTB? 
r^^li Tejierp^^T.? 

Can you direct me to his house? 

I will show you where he lives. 
Which is the way to the station? 
What is the station for Moscow? 

Where is the post-office? 
Where is the telegraph-office? 

At the post-office (telegraph, telephone). 

H'i^'rb Jin nncbM^ ^o BOCTp^doBaniA 
Ha uoe "kuH? 


EcTb 3aRa3H6e nHci>M6 A^a Bacb; 

HO BU ;^ojiacH^ npeAi>HB6Ti> 

Banrb bh;^!., ^To6'h nojiyq^Tb 

BoTB Moft n^cnopTB; na^^iiocb, 

TTO OHT, ;^ocTaToqeHt fl,jia y^o- 

^kftre iiEfb no^T6ByK) M^psy vb 

fl,^CHTb KoneeKT> {fl^Jisi AnrjiiH). 
Fflfk (noqrdBuft) iimHKT>? 
Kor;^^ 0Tx6 fljiTb n6qTa? 
Korji,k npHx6;^H'rB n^cbMa n3i> 

Kor;^4 BbiHBH^iOTCH n^cbica E31> 

Hklhe mh6 OTKpi^Toe nHCbM6 cb 

CK6jIbK0 Bicy BT> DHCbM'fe (BT, 

CK6jibK0 cb ueni cjrfe^^yerb? 
nomjiire mh*, noac^yficTa, Bct 

npHdi^Bmi^ flfi 12ro no dTOny 

a^p^cy iidcbMa bi* Bapind,By, ;^o 

Vflfb uou^mfiieTCH Tejierpk^'by npH 

n6q'rfe Ajih Ha B0K34it? 

OhT. 3flffiCh. 

CK6jibK0 CTdwTb npocT^ ;^en6ma? 
M6acH0-;iH Tejerpa(t)6poBaTb Ha 

Kksajl^OWb A3BIR'I? 

Mory-JiH 3anjiaT6Tb ceftq^cb h sa 


CBo66fleH'b-jiH nyTb h dy^^erb-JiH 
Mo^ ;^e^6ma cefi^i^cb OTop^B- 

Tfl,'k 6jiH3K4fimaA Tejie4)6HHaA 

Is there no letter poste restante 
for me? 

Here is my card. 

Here is a registered letter for 
you; but you must be iden- 
tified, if I am to give it up 
to you. 

Here is my passport; I hope it 
will be a sufficient guaranty. 

Give me a ten kopeck stamp 
(for England). 

Where is the letter-box? 

When does the mail start? 

When does the mail arrive 
from England? 

When do they clear the letter- 

Give me a post card with reply 

What is the weight of this 
letter (of this wrapper)? 

How much must I pay? 

Please send all letters that come 
(for me), till the 12th inst to 
this address at Warsaw poste 

Is the telegraph-office at the 
post-office, or at the railway- 
station ? 

It is here, sir. 

How much does a single tele- 
gram cost? 

Can I telegraph in which lan- 
guage I like best? 

Call I pay for the return-answer 
at once? 

Is the telegraph at liberty, so 
that my telegram can go 
out at once? 

Where is the neareet telepho- 
nic station? 


HtMep-B njiTHfi (N. N.). 

rOT6BT>, SBOH^e. 

3^HTi>, npomy nosBOH^b qpe8i> 
naTb HHHyTB. 

fl H. H.; KTO roBoptiTTi? 

In an omnibus 

r^t 6jins4fiinafl CT^Hi^ifl kohho- 

sejitsHoft Aop6rH? 
OcTanoBiiTe, nojK^jiyficTa. 

KOH;^tKTOpT», KJ Jl,k BH 'kflfiTfe? 
dTO He TOTB 6MHH6yC'B, K0T6pHfi 

HaMi> Kisaewb. 
Htrt irfecTa. 
dKHndacb n6jiOHT>. 
BoTb ;npyr6fi 6MHH6yct. 
MbI ^JlfiWb BTb 04)Hi^6pcKyio fjlE- 


Jt^ftre Mfffe 6hji6tt> ct> nepec4;^K0K) 

;^o 6acc6ttHoM. 
KoH^i.yKTop'b, Biica^^HTe uqeA na 

yr^t rop6xoBOft fjimsfii. 
H;^&n>-jiH ^TOTb 6MHH6yc'B no A;^- 

HHpajiT^ficKOfi Uji6n\a.flfl? 
no KaK^Hi> fjimi^aMh npojier^erb 

dTa ji^HiH? 
Bt. KaKie npoMeayTKH 0Tx6;^aTb 

6MHH6ycu 0TCib;i,a ^o Mock6b- 

CKaro BOKS^jia? 
J[o KOT6paro qac& B^qepa ot- 

x6fl,aTb 6uEE6ycu? 
Bt. KOT6poBrB qacy yrp^ oh6 na- 


Bf^i^bTe ocTop63KHu, cTyn^HbRa 



JHfiu&'jLE rocnofl]fiHT» H.? 

^oc^o;^]fiH^> H. acejiaerb aacBii- 

^^•feTejibCTBOBaTb CBoe noqidnie. 
y HeHji peROMeH^^aTejibHoe nHCbM6 

m. HGMy. 
Boft^^Te, nosc^jiyficTa. 
Htn., er6 Fferb ;i,6Ma; ohi 

T6jibK0-qT0 Biimeju.. 
Kor^^ BOSBpai^TCH rocno^^j^Eii H. 


Here is a station. 

Number five (N. N.j. 

Please, call. 

Occupied, call again within five 

minutes, please. 

I am N. N.; who is there? 

or tramway. 

Where is the nearest tramway 

station ? 
Stop here, if you please. 
I say, conductor, where are you 

This is not the omnibus we 

, There is no room. 
The omnibus is quite full. 
There is another omnibus. 
We are going to Officers' Street 

Give me a through-ticket for 
Basin Street. 

Conductor, put me down at the 
comer of Peas' Street. 

Does this omnibus go as far as 
tiie Place of the Admiralty? 

What streets does one pass in 
the drive? 

At which intervals do the om- 
nibuses drive from here to the 
Moscow Railway Station? 

How late in the evening do the 
omnibuses run? 

When do the omnibuses begin 
in the morning to run? 

Take care, the step is slippery. 

a visit. 

Is Mr. N. at home? 

Yes, sir. 

Mr. N. wishes to present him 

his compliments. 
I have a letter of introduction 

to him. 
Come in, please. 
No, sir, he is not at home; he 

has just gone out. 
When does Mr. N. come home 

again ? 


Kor^^ Mory a HaBtpnoe Bd;^Tb 
rocnO;^6Ha N.? 

BOTb, 0H1> yS^ BOSBpaT^JICH. 


KaKi noacHB^eTe? 

Kaici B^me 3Aop6Bi>e? 

£jiaro;i(apit) Bacb, a 3;i,op6B'b. 

A Bu? 

Ca;^6Teci>, noacdjiyficTa. 

O^eHb jiiod^sHO, qTO Bu uofl,fKa.jai 

H ;^aBH6 He hh^jtb y;^0B6;ii>CTBi)i 

BaCT» B^/^tTb. 

HicKOJibKO pasii a 6ujib y B&crb, 
HO HH p^ay He nfwhjrb y;^o- 
B6j[bCTBiH sacT^Tb Bacb ;^6Ma. 

BaiTL BtpojiTHO nepe^^JH M016 

J^a, H Hni 6qeHb acajib, qro he 
pday He y;^aJI6cb mh* Bacb 

KaKit 3Aop6Bbe B&mero d^TiomRH? 

Borb, yac6 nicKOJibKO AHeft, 'rro 
OHT» He3Aop6BT»; Offb npHHyaE- 
PfiWb ocTaBdTbCH flfiua., 

Mh* 6qeHb acajib. — Ha;^iK>cb 
^To 6to npofi^^erb. 

KaKi) Bairb hp^bhtch H^ma cto- 

O^eHb Hp^BHTCH; OEk BejiHKOjr&n- 
Hte riap^aca n JI6H;^0Ha. 

B^;^tjiH-jiHBu yac^ H']&K0T6pufl Hai) 
;^ocT0^pHM'feq4TeJIbH0CTefi $Toro 

BecbM^ HeMH6ro, ho a df^Y Bain> 
6qeHb o6A3aiWby ^cjih Bu Ha30- 
BeTe Mfffe c^Mue ;^0CT0^pHM*- 
^^.TCJibHue npe;^M6TU. 

EdMiiTHHK'b neip^ Beji^Karo, npo- 
HSBe^^Hie 3HaHeE^Taro ^ajibKO- 
H§Ta; 36MHift JtBOp^I^T, cb 60- 
rar&finiHM'b co6p4HieHi> KapTi^iH'b 
n p'l;^K0CTeM B'b Bpuwrkssfk; 
KyncTK^Mepa iijiH 3oojior6qec- 
Kifi MyaeM, AKa;^6Mia Xy;^6- 
acecTB'L, JliiHifi Ca^^'b h t. ;^. 

KaKi'ii HBi) i^epKB^fi sacji^acH- 
BaioTb oc66eHHaro BHHM^Hia? 

Co66pT> HeBCKOft JIaBpu, bi. ko- 
TbpoMT, Haxo;^)iTca M6nnH Cbji- 
Toro AJieKcdHApa HeBCKaro; Ka- 

When can I hope to see Mr. N.? 

There he comes ahready. 

Good morning, sir. 

How are you? 

How is your health? 

Thank you, very well. 

And you? 

Please to take a seat. 

You are very kind to have 

thought of me. 
It is long since I had the plea- 
sure of seeing you. 
I have called at your house 

several times, but have not 

had the pleasure of finding 

you at home. 
They must have given you my 

Yes, and I much regret that 1 

was not at home to receive 

How is your father? 
He has been imwell for some 

days past; he is obliged to 

keep his room. 
I am very sorry for it. — i I hope 

it will be nothing. 
How do you like our capital? 

Very much; it is more splendid 
than Paris and London. 

Have you already seen any of 
the curiosities of the place? 

Very few, but which are the 
most remarkable objects ? You 
will greatly oblige me by 
naming them. 

The monument of Peter the 
Great, a production of the 
celebrated Falconet; the Win- 
ter Palace and the rich col- 
lection of paintings and cu- 
riosities in the Hermitage; 
the Museum or cabinet of Na- 
tural history; the Academy of 
Arts, the Summer Garden, etc. 

Which of the churches are the 
most remarkable ? 

The church belonging to the 
Convent of St. Alexander 
Newky, in which repose the 



a&HCKift Co66pi>, bi KOT6poM'b 
PoccificKie Tpocf^H ocfeniiOTb 
n^MATHEUCB ^ejbA^apmajia KhjI- 
3H KyryaoBa CMOJi^HCKaro; e 
HeTpon^BJioBCKift Co66p'b Bt 
KpinocTH, TA* Hax6;naTca rpo6- 
HiSa^u BctxT> PoccificKHXi) Focy- 
fl,k]^e% Ha^HH^fl OTb IleTpd 

Bli TkKS&e Cb 6ojn>m^arb jflS)- 
BbjifcCTBieMT. ocMbrpHTe orp6M- 
HBifi BocnHT^TejibHiiid ;^OHi>. 

Bu n6cji'b no3HaK6uHTecb cb nt- 

CTOJI^I^bl ; Cb HMnep^TopcKHMH 
JliTHHMH J(BOpiI,^H Bl> I(^p- 

CKoiTb Ceji'fe, BT* neieprb^)*, 

B-b Opamend^yMt, raT^HHt, 

CTp^jibH*, P6nm'fe H T. A- 
H BaHi* BecbM^ 6jiaro;^^peHi> sa 

CT6jibE0 noji63HBix'b yKas^Hlfi; 

Bbi MH*]^ ^ocTdBHJiH 6oJibni6e 

Bu Bi) c^MoiTb ;^'6j[t cjijdmKOM'b 

H B-b B0CT6prfe, qro Morb 6uTb 

BaMi) nojiesHbUTb. 
Mory JH npe;^Jioac6Tb BaM-b kB- 

rjiificKyio cnr^py? 
Bjiaro;^4pcTByK), a He Kypib. 
He yr6flH0-jiH BaMi, nooCi^aTb 

BirlcTt Cb H^H? 

BJla^o;^apI5, a yac6 oStm^T. ;^py- 

Mu coBepm^HHo o^h^. 
Besi) i^epeMbHlfi. 
Bu yac6 xoTifiTe yfir^? 
Bu qio-TO cirfeinfiTe. 
a em,e fl,6ji:x.ewb c^tJiaTb HicKOJib- 


Mfffe eme HyacHO xo^^Tb no }ifi- 

HcKpeHHo Cjiaro^apib Bacb aa 

Bame nocJ^n^^Hie. 
JSfi CK6paro CBn;^aHiH. 

remains of that saint; the Ka- 
zan Cathedral in which the tro- 
phies of the Russian arms 
overshadow the monument of 
Field Marshal Prince Kutuzoff 
of Saint Peter and Paul in 
the Fortress, which contains 
the tombs of the Russian 
sovereigns since Peter the 

You will also be gratified by 
visiting the vast establishment 
of the Foimdling Hospital. 

You can then visit some of the 
environs of the capital; the 
Imperial summer residences 
of Tsarskoe-Selo, Peterhof, 
Oranienbaum, Gatchina, Strel- 
nya, Ropsha, etc. 

I am much obliged to you for 
so much precious informa- 
tion; you have done me a 
great favour. 

You are really too kind. 

I am delighted that I have been 
useful to you. 

May I offer you an English 

No, thank you, I do not smoke. 

Will you not stay and dine with 

I thank you; I am already en- 

We are quite alone. 

Without any ceremony. 

You want to leave us already? 

You are in a hurry. 

I have still some other visits to 

I have still some busmess to do. 

Thank you very much for your 

kind visit. 
Come again soon. 

Writing a letter. 

EcTb y Bacb noqroBaa 6yM4ra? Have you any letter-paper? 
HoA^fixe MH'fe H KOHBeprb, noac^- Give me also an envelope, 
jiyficTa. please. 



Mfffe Ha^oCHO Hannc^Tb H-fecKO- 

jiBRO n^ceH'b. 
KoT6poe qHCJi6? 
R HanHmy. Sto y ueuA He npo- 

A6jI3KHTCH flfiJlTO. 

B^me CijiTejibCTBo ! 

HHseno^^nHcaBiniMcH HM'^erb qecTb 
npocfiTb ay;^6HiyH y B§.meio 
npeBocxo^^iiejiLCTBa, ^t66u no- 
jiyqj^Tb no3BOJi6Hie na ... 

HaAtacB, qio er6 np6ci>6a 6y- 

flfiTb M^JIOCTHBO np^HflTa, HHHCB- 

noAnHC^Bmificfl miieTb qecTb 
6LiTb n6KopHiMniHMi> H np^^aH- 
ffbftnmirb cjiyr6fi Bamero Ilpe- 

N. N. 
M^jiocTHBufi rocy;i,4pb! 

Mofi;i,pyrb N.N. MHtyKas^jrb Ha 
B^me noqT^HHoe tain, Kaicb na 
npo$6ccopa pyccKaro azukL 
no3B6jibTe Bact cnoc^Tb, 
KaK6e B^me o5i>iKHOB^HHoe bos- 
HarpaHCA^Hie h KaR^H qacdUH 
Bu uoTsA-6u pacnojiar^Tb. Scjih 
se Bu MH'b c^ijiaeTe o;(OJi3KeHie 
H coo6iii,fiTe, B-b KOT6poMT> qacy 
A Horb-6u Bi) BaHi> npittrd s^b- 
Tpa yrpoiTb, to a co^Ty sa 
cq^CTbe ji6rao noanaKOMHTbca 
cb B^n. 

OcTaibcb Cb 6ojibm^Mi> ysamS- 
HieM-b Banrb np^^^annbifi. 
N. N. 
Jtopor6ft Mofi ^npyr-b! 

H Bacb ac;^y o6iA«i'Tb cer6;^H^, h 
na^^iiopb 6uTb na CT6jibK0 

CqaCTJrtBMMT., qTO HHWd BaMli 

He noMtrnderb npsHiiTb Hoe 
npHrjiam^Hie. Bami, np^Aan- 
HHft. N. N. 

Bdme jiH)6^3Hoe npHrjiam^me ono- 
3fl,kjio, flopor6fi Mofi Apyrb, a 
o6'hjn,kjrb cBH^^dnie no cn'feniHO- 
My A'^Jiy. H noTcpiJK) oAiin-b 

HSli CqaCTJI^BbIXl> ^Hefi Bl) 

MO^M Hc^sHH. Bamii. 

N. N. 
H He sadtfly npifiT^ no B^meny 
jiK)663HOMy npnrjiani^HiK). Banrb 
HCKpeHHift APyrT». 

N. N. 

I have some letters to write. 

What is the day of the month? 
I am going to write. I shall 
not be long about it. 

The undersigned has the honour 
of soliciting an audience of 
your Excellency in order to 
obtain the permission to ... . 
Hoping that his request will be 
favourably received, the under- 
signed has the honour to be 
his Excellency the Counsellor 
of State's most humble and 
obedient servant 

N. N. 
Dear Sir, 
My friend N. N. has given me 
your respectable name as a 
Professor of Russian. I take 
the liberty of asking you 
what your usual charge is, 
and what hours you have 
free. If you will be so kind 
and let me also know at what 
o'clock I can call on you to- 
morrow morning. I shall be 
glad to make your acquain- 
I am with the utmost respect 
your obedient servant 
N. N. 

My dear friend, 
I expect you to dinner this eve- 
ning, and I hope that nothing 
will happen to prevent your 
accepting my invitation. 
Yours truly 

N. N. 
Your kind invitation arrived 
too late, my dear friend; 1 
have an appointment for some 
important business. It will 
be one happy day less in 
my life. Yours 

N. N. 
I shall not fail to avail myself 
of your kind invitation. Yours 

N. N. 



^ejioBiK'b, OTHec^e ^th ndcbMa 

Ha n6«iTy. 
OTHec^Te dTH n^cbua no hxi» 

Waiter, take these letters to the 

Take these letters to their ad- 

With the laundress. 

Uodon^Te np&qxy. 

BoTb cn^coKTb rpjisHaro 6t;ibjf. 

Tpu py6&niRH. 

lUecTb napii MaHm^roKi. 


B6ceMb napi hock6bi. 
IlHTb napi noAinT&HHHKOBi>. 
IliiTHdAi^aTb njiaTRbBi. 
KorA^. Ht9Kno npHHSCT^ Bam* 

Bi cy066Ty ftipowb, HenpeMtHHO. 

IIpAnccjiH-jiii Bbi MHt Mo6 6tjibe? 

nOCMbTpHMl*, BipeHlt-JIH OHT>? 


MmI^ KAweTCH, vro dxa pyC&in£a 

He BiOli. 

H3Biihi)to, 0H& noHi^ieHa Bimmrb 


BopoTHiiK'A ne ;^0B6jibH0 HaRpax- 

Bbi MHt cRa3&j[H, qro Bbi He jub- 

ChTC, nrdCu BOpOTHHR^ 6^AE 
CJlAniROMl »eCTRti. 

CR6jibR0 n BaiTb A6ji»eHi»? 
H6coMbAOCnrb njrrb Ron^eRi? 
Dto He A<^poro; botb B&mn ;;6Hb- 



HecTb niiiio Bam* kji^atlcji. 

Call the laundress. 

Here is my laundry-bill. 
3 shirts. 
6 pairs of cuffs. 

10 collars. 
8 pairs of socks. 
5 pairs of pants. 

15 handkerchiefs. 

When must the linen be brought 

On Saturday morning, without 

You have brought me my linen? 

Yes, sir. Here is the bill. 

Let us see if it is all right 

Look it over. 

It seems to me that this shirt 
is not mine. 

Beg your pardon, sir, it is mar- 
ked with your cipher. 

The collars are not starched 

You told me that you did not 
like your collars too stifL 

How much do I owe you? 

Eighty-five copecks? 

Tlus is not dear; here you have 

your money. 
I have the honour to wish you 

good day. 


XotAto-jh bu nofirik co mh6io bi> 

TocTtouil jBopi? 
Mw BM xoTilTe 3a 5to? 
!>Ti> caAmkorb ;^6poro. 
CKaaafcre KpAlnioio irfeHy. 
Bi» ;^>yr6)rb iricrfe 6Ajo ;^ein4B- 


Ilpnnuilre dro URt na ;io3rb co 
AHrjiificKiixi» ]:Hnn»VBaci> vhvh? 


Will you go with me to 
Great Bazar? 

What do you ask for this? 

It is too dear. 

Tell me your lowest price. 

I could have got it cheaper else- 

Send this home with my bill 

Do you perhaps keep En^sh 



HtTB-jiH y Ba(n» KHdrB fljia aSr- 

Karo qT^Hiii? 
IIoA^MTe MHt bH^u r6poAa. 
il sceji^H) H6Boe HSA^eie. 
Htrt JiH y BacT» nyreBOfl^Tejia no 



noKaac^Te UHt ;^tTCKiH RH^rH. 

J[k^e MHt noacdJiyficTa Banrb Ra- 

H aceji^K) pyccKyK) rpaMM^THsy 

HB^HOBa, dHi^HKJioneA^qecKii 

cjiOB^pb KjiibqHHKOBa h co^h- 

E^Eia Typr^Hesa. 
H'^TB-JiH s^tcb b6jih36 xop6inaro 

H xoTijTb 6bi saKas^Tb canor6 

(Tt4>JIH) Ct npOCTliMH (^BOtiHli- 

mh) no;^6mBaMH h cl h^skhmh 
(BbIc6KHMH) Ka6jiyK^H. 
BoTh. He yr6AH0 jih hxi> npn- 


BOTb KpioqE^. 

Oh^( ysRti wb njfTRt h b% no^bS- 

Mt; oh6 facacHO aRMyrb mh^ 

Bbi c;^ijiaeTe unt APyi^^- 
Tflih acHBeiT, nopTH6fi? 
npomy Bacb cehti> cl hbeA Hip- 

Ky ^jia ciopTyRd. 
KaKi) BaMi) er6 c^^ijiaTb? 
C^j.ijiafiTe er6 no HOBifimeiiy 4>a- 

BaMTi yr6;^H0 T^Kae 3RHJieTEy h 

napy CpiORTb? 
KaKt c^^ijiaTb BairB KHji^TKy, ro- 

poTK6 6 JIH ;^ji6hho? 
no HOB'tfiineft udflik. 
He ;i,ijiafiTe mh^ 6pibRH cji^m- 


KaK6ro c6pTa ntroBHi^H Bu 3Ee- 

Tor6 ace cyKHd. 
Kor;^§, Bu npH^^eie ;i,jia npHMipn- 

n6cjit 3^BTpa. 

Xopoin6. ByAbTe aKKyp^THu. 
CiopTyKT, a B6BCce ne Mory na- 

Russian Ck>nY.- Grammar, 

Have you not any amusing books 
(light literature)? 

Give me some views of the town. 

I will have the last edition. 

Have you no handbook of 
St. Petersburg? 

Have you any humorous writ- 

Show me some books for 

Give me your catalogue, please. 

I want Ivanov's Russian Gram- 
mar, Kliuchnikov's Encyclo- 
paedic Dictionary and Turge- 
nev's Writings. 

Is there not a good shoemaker 
in this neighbourhood? 

I want a pair of boots (slippers) 
with single (double) soles and 
low (high) heels. 

Here, sir. Will you try them 

Here are the boot-hooks. 
They are too narrow in the heel 

and on the instep; they pinch 

me horribly. 
You will make me another pair. 
Where does a tailor live? 
Please, measure me for a coat 

How will you have it made? 

Make it just according to the 
latest fashion. 

Do you wish also a waistcoat 
and a pair of trousers? 


How do you wish the waist- 
coat, short or long? 

According to the latest fashion. 

Do not make my trousers too 

What sort of buttons do you 

Of the same stuff. 

When will you come and try 
them on? 

The day after to-morrow. 

Well. Be punctual. 

I cannot get into the coat. 



BplbKH CJI^inKOUl> KOpOTK^. 

Oh^ He nji6TH0 npiixb^HTCA. 

^HJI^Ka CJI^UIKOM'b ysKd. 

The trousers pinch me. 
They do not close well. 
The waistcoat is too tight. 

With a horse-dealer. 

H x.ejLk^'b-6u Kyn^Tb xop6inaro 


He seji^eTe-jiH Bu 6ep6epificKaro 


Htrb. Met EjMRk xop6inafl &a- 

rjdficKaa Ji6ina;^b. 
Msf^ HyacH^ BepxoB^A h Ka6pio- 

ji^THaa jL6ma,flf>. 
y ubeA ecTb o^H^, K0T6paji Bairb 

6fflfiTb ro^tirbca. Oh4 fb ko- 

IIocH6TpHin> n^^flfi koh^ kl ko- 

Owb 6qeHi> xy;^. Ofin> cJidniEOirb 

MajTb. noKaac^Te MHi APyr6ro. 
B^Be^HTe er6 hsi* KOHibmHH. 
CK6jn>K0 eiiy jitrb? 
nocM6TpHM'b y Her6 bo pxy. 
Ohi> cji&mKOWb CTapi. 
Ohi> nji6xo A^psKHTCA Ha Hor&rb. 
dxa HacTb HHt He hp^bhtch. 
BoT7> dxa Bop6HaH ji6maAb Bairb, 

H6ace'rb 6biTb, 66j[bnie nonp^- 


y Ee^ jifquiifi be;^!). 

CjfAi>Te-Ka Ha neg. 

SacT^Bbxe ee cnaqdjia httA m^- 

roMTb; nycTAie noT6Brb ee pii- 

cbK) (raji6no]n>). 
CK6jibK0 Bbi aa nee xotAtc? 
He oyrji^Bafl-jiH oh^. 
H noissy na nett. 
E6 Tpt;^HO y;^ep3KdTb pyicaMH. 
He xpoM^erb-jH ona? 
H BacT> yBtpiH), qro oh^ Ceai ne- 

AOCT^TKOBl. H 6e3i> 6oj[t3Heft. 
Xoponi6! H ee 6ept. 

I should like to buy a good 

Will you have a Barbary horse? 

No, I want a good English 

I want a horse fit for riding and 

I have one in the stable which 

will suit you well. 

First let us see the horse in 

the stable. 
He is very ugly. He is too 

little. Show me another. 
Bring him out of the stable. 
What age is he? 
Let me see his mouth. 
He is too old. 
He stands badly on his legs. 
This colour does not please me. 
This black one will perhaps 

suit you better. 

He looks better. 
Mount him. 

Walk him first, and then trot 
(gallop) him. 

What price do you ask for him? 

Is he not shy? 

Let me mount him. 

He is very heavy in hand. 

Is he not rather lame? 

I warrant him to you free from 

faults and disease. 
Weill he is mine. 

Travelling by steamboat. 

Kor^^ 0Tx6;^HTi> napox6^ b% 

Ho KaK^ifb ;^Hmrb? 
CK6j[bK0 pasi) Bi> wbcau.'b? 
F;^ np^cxaHb? 

r^t K0HT6pa? 

KoTji^k npHdyflerb napox6fl> bt> 

When does the steamer start 

for London? 
On which days? 
How often monthly? 
Where is the landing-place? 
Where is the booking-office? 
When does the steamer reach 


Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 


CK6jibK0 nojiardeTca Ceanji^THaro 

6araac4 na Ceji^tb? 
Jtaibrt-JiH CardacHyio KBHraniUK)? 
3a&M^Te MicTO ji^ia MeHjf. 
OcTanaBJiZBaeTC^-JiH ^totl napo- 

x6;i,'b BT» niTeTTdHt? KaKT» 



R B03LMy n^peyio Kaibiy. 

M6aCH0-JIH flfi^TkTh H OTA'tjIBHyK) 

r;^* CT0Ji6Baa? 
M6pe 6e3noK6fiHO. 
Mu ;^0JiacHii jiaBidpoBaTb. 

y MGHji rojiOBd Kpyac^Tca; mgh^ 

TasT.! Ta3T>! 

9to npofi;^^!^. 

BoTb MH iipH6;iHac&eucH in» dupe- 

What is the free allowance of 
luggage for every ticket? 

Do fiiey give a luggage-receipt? 

Retain a* place for me, please. 

Does this steamer stop at Stet- 
tin? How long? 

Can one get tickets on board? 

I take first class cabin. 

Can one have a special cabin? 

Where is the dining room? 

The sea is rough. 

We are obliged to proceed 

My head whirls; I am sick. 

Bring me a hand-basin I 
It will soon be over. 
Look, we are soon going to 
reach the shore. 


Acceptance, to accept. 

EjiaroBOJii&Te npnJiar^eMuM b^k- 
cejib aRi^enTOB^Tb n BOSBpax^Tb 

np6cHMt BacT> noTp66oBaTb aK- 
u^emku^R Ha npHJiar^enue .... 

npH ceMi> nM^K) qecTb npenpo- 
BOA^Tb Bani* aKi^enT6BaHHue 
. . . ., K0T<5pue npofflt BacB 

MB* BT. Kpe^ATB. 

npH npeA'MBi^Hin B^Rcejfl aR- 
i^enTaHTb OTRas^jioi njiax^TL, 

^TO WpEEfflflJlO UeuA y^HH^Tb 

npBJiar^eMuM npoT^CTB. 

Please provide the enclosed draft 
with acceptance and return it 
to us. 

We beg you to get acceptance 
demanded for the enclosed ... 

Annexed I do myself the honour 
of handing you .... duly ac 
cepted, which please cash and 
pass to my credit. 

On presentation, the acceptor 
refused payment, which in- 
duced me to get the enclosed 
protest made. 

Account, on account. 

Ob yfl0B6jibCTBieirb OTRpuB^einb 
BaiTb cqeTB b-l H^niHX'b rh6- 

OcM'^jiHBaeMCH npoc^Tb Bacb no- 
Rp^Tb Banrb c^erb. 

ScjiH Bbi npeAOCT^BHTe HaiTb npo- 
A^y Tor6 Ha Bann, cqgn>, to 
Mu Hcn6jiHHM'b Sto uopyq^Hie 
TaR'b-ace, RaKi> ^gjieCu TOB^pi* 
6ujrb Ekmeio c66cTBeHHOCTbK). 

It is with pleasure that we open 
to you an account in our 

We take the liberty of request- 
ing you to settle your account 

If you entrust us with the sale 
of this for your account, we 
shall carry out the order as 
if the goods were our own. 



np6CHBn> BaCl> ^OCT^BHTb HaiTb 
Wb CKdpOlTb sp^MeHH HSBJieq^- 

Hie Hsi cq@Ta, Tairb sairb h4- 
niH KH^TH ^0B6;^^H0Hy necorjidc- 


Mu no3B6jiHJiH ce6t TpacHpoB^Tb 

3a Bacb Bi saqerb B^mero 

;^6jira h pascqi&TbiBaeH'b na y- 
njiiry no ^TOMy B^Kcejiio. 

We beg you will send us an 
abstract of account shortly 
as our books apparently do 
not conform. 

We have to-day taken the liberty 
of drawing upon you ... on 
account of our balance with 
you, and count on our draft 
being duly honoured. 

Advance, to advance. 

£cjih6i>i Bbi ptm^JiHCb npHCJi&Tb 
HaMi> n^pTiio TOB^pa, to mu 6iiI 
ox6tho fl^kJiR Bawb Bnepe^ Ha 
66;rfee tJiu M^nte ;^6jirift cpoKi) 
Hy3KHyK) BaHi cyHify. 

npe^npijlTiH uo^6^jm 6hi TaK6ro 
p6;^a, TTO H flfijisBieE'h 6u Cujub 
Bu^^as^Tb 6ojibmiJi cfMHu bi> 

Bi dTBtrb Ha B&me nHCbM6 orb 
9ro c. M. yB'fe;^0MJuieJ^b BacT>, 
qTO cdMaji 66jibniaji cc^a^, ko- 
T6pyK) Mu BT* HacT0ji^^ee Bp6- 
HJi MbsKeMi) ;^aTb ecTb 

If you can resolve on consigning 
us a cargo, whe shall willingly 
advance you the sum you 
require at short or longer 

The nature of my enterprise 
would cause me to be from 
time to time with a pretty 
large sum in advance. 

In reply to your letter of the 
9th instant we inform you 
herewith that the highest ad- 
vance we can grant at present 
is ... 

Advice, to advise. 

H npH;^^p3KHBaH)Cb np^BHJia hh- 
Kor;^^ HO npHuuM^Tb a;(DH36- 

BaHHUXl} BBKCejI^fi, noK^ He 

nojiyqy yBt^OM^TejibHaro hh- 
Mbi fi^ojiTRE^ npoc^Tb Bacb pasi) 
HaBcer;^^ yBt^^oMjiJtTb nacb sa- 
p^Hte Bamnxi na Haci> Tpi- 


Agency, agent. 

It is a principle with me never 
to accept bills drawn as ad- 
vised, when such letter of ad- 
vice is wanting. 

We must once for all beg you 
to advise us betimes of draits. 

T^MOfflHift ar^HT-b nanrb, r-HT» 

nnckji'b HaiTb, qro bu rOTdsbi... 

n03B6jIbTe MHi^ OCB^^^OMHTbCJI CO- 

rJiicHbi JiH BU nepe^^iTb HHtna 
SAtmnift ^6po;^'b areHTCTBO Bk- 
mere 66mecTBa. 

Our agent in your place, Mr. ... 
has informed us that you 
would be disposed to ... 

Permit me to ask if you would 
be inclined to confide to me 
the agency of your company 
in this town. 

Agreement, to agree. 

H He Mor-b corjiac^Tbca cb r-wb 
. . . Hac^erb BpeMSHH nocT^BKH. 

Ho HdmsMy yroB6py bh HMieie 

nOCT^BHTb MH* C¥)fl,k Ha lltCTO, 

I could not agree with Mr. ... 

with regard to the term of 

According to our agreement, 

you have to deliver the oil 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 


KynjieHHoe y Bact mScjio, BcJit^- 
CTBie ?er6 a nocT&BHjrb ea saurb 
fl,^6eTb MoA Ha^^pacKH bt. cyM- 

Mt . . . . 

bought of you, here, freight 
free, on which account, I de- 
bited you for my expenses 
with ... 

Allowance, to allow. 

IIpn ynji^T* HaJiHqHUMH mu c^'fe- On immediate payment we will 
jiaeMt Bant CK6;^Ky 5o/o. make an allowance of 5o/o. 

H He Mory corjiac^Ttca na TaE6ft I cannot allow such a ground- 
HecnpaBeAJi^Bufi Biiinerb. less deduction. 

Amount, to amount. 

Hafi;^Jf M016 (j[)aKTypy sipnofi, no- 

Tpy^AxeCb OKpe^HTOB^Tb MOtt 
Cqerb CT6HM0CTbK) TaK0B6ft. 

Pacx6J^bI M06 cocTajiJtK)TT> . . ., 
K0T6pbie noTpy;^6Tecb ynjiax^Tb 
3a Mofi cqerb r. r. ... bt, Td- 
MomHeM'b r6po;i,'fe. 

Please credit me the amoimt of 

invoice in conformity, if found 

My expenses amount to ... which 

please pay Messrs. ... in your 

place for my account. 

Assets, assignee. 

cocTaBjijierb 6;^Ba The assets scarcely yield 20 0/0; 
non-privileged creditors will 
therefore suffer great losses. 

200/0; TaK'b mo KpeflHT6pbi, 
He n6jib3yK)ii;iecii upkBOWh nep- 
BencTsa, nonectTb 6om>misi no- 

Mbi nepe^^H Bce H^me Hajiti^Hoe 
HM"yin,ecTB0 KypdiopaM'b. 

Average, on 

napox6;^'b «Poccia», Ka.nmkwh 
HiOB-b, HMtBoiifl na rpyai 100 
TH)K6B'b K6({)e ;^jia Bacb, npA- 
CbiJTb cjofl^k B^epk ci> asapieio, 
H 20 TiOKbB'b TOBdpa 6^JiE c^a- 
Hbi Bi) noBpe»c;^6HHOHi> Btifl.'i. 

Cp6;^HHM'b qHCJi6MT> ciofl^k npHx6- 
fl,ETb eace^6;^H0 1000 cyfl6BT>. 

fiCJIH Mbl B03bMeM'b Cp^AHH)H) UJ^- 

Hy, TO Kiijio oCofi^eTca 

We have handed over all our 
assets to the assignees. 

an average. 

The steamer «Russia», captain 
Yatoff, which has 100 bags 
of coffee on board for you, put 
into port yesterday with aver- 
age, and 20 bags have been 
delivered in a damaged con- 

On an average 1000 vessels put 
into our port annually. 

If we calculate upon the average 
price, the kilogram will stand 
in at ... 

Bail, to be bail. 

Bbi BB CTineTe na uenA cep;^6Tbca 


Biime npHBeAeHHoft npaq^Ht, hb 
Mory Hcn6jiHHTb B^raero aejia- 
Hifl H B3flTb Ha ce6}t Tp66yeHoe 
ficjiH Bbi §Toro Tp66yeTe, to mu 
nopt^HMCfl 3a Herd. 

You will not feel offended and 
will excuse me if, from the 
reasons given, I cannot give 
the bail you desire. 

If you desire it, we will be bail 
for him. 




Hsi npe^JieaK^iAaro 6ajid.Hca bu 
yB^AHTe, iTO Bt cjifqaib koh- 
Kypca Ha^^K^a na y^osjieTBO- 
p^Hie Kpe;^HT6poB'B cd.Maji njio- 

ny6jiHKan;iji ro^OBbro 6ajid.Hca 
BcerA^ ;^'feJIaeTca bi> HaH66jrfee 
pacnpocTpaHHeHUXT> raa^raxt. 

npHji63KeHHOK) npn ceMt CtMMOIO 
6jiaroBOJi6Te noKpiiTb cojLbp,'h 
Moer6 c^eia y Bact, h ysi- 

AOMHTb MeHit T0M1>. 

Bank, bank-shares 

y^pew^^eme $Toro 6aHKa ;^aBH6 
qyBCTByeMaa noTp66HOCTb h 3Ha- 
q^TejibHO nocjit»HTT> kt» oacH- 
BJi^HiK) s^^'ImHeft Topr6BjiH. 


CTOJfmee Bp^MJi 6qeHb bmc6ko h 
Hey;^66HU ;^Ju^ noMtn^^Hifl Kann- 
Oc66a, KOT6pofiBu cnp&mHBae- 

Te, SaHHM^eXCfl, KpdMt CBO^tt 

SHaq^iejiBHofi Topr6BJiH in6p- 

CTbK), ikKS&e 6aHKlipCKHMH ;^t- 

E^HKOBbifi KanHTdJTb ;^6jiiceHi> co- 

OTB'lTCTBOBaTb E^HpicyjIJilUH 6^H- 

to balance. 

You will see from the balance 
that in case of bankruptcy the 
creditors have little chance of 
being satisfied. 

The publication of the annual 
balance-sheet appears always 
in papers of wide circulation. 

With the inclosed sum be plea- 
sed to balance my account 
with you, under advice. 

, bank-notes, etc. 

The establishment of this bank 
is a necessity which has long 
been felt and which will con- 
tribute greatly to the improve- 
ment of trade in this town. 

Bank-shares stand very high at 
present and are not suitable 
for investments. 

The gentleman in question trans- 
acts banking business besides 
dealing largely in the wool- 

The bank-funds must be ade- 
quate to the circulation of 

Banker, banking house. 

fl Mceji&K) BCiyntiTb bt* CHomenie 

Cb OAH^lTb daHK^pOMT} Bl) B^- 

mcM-b rbpoA*. 
IIp^cjiaHHbiA Haifb n;'lHHHH 6yHd,- 
FH Hbi OT^^^Jin noica Ha coxpan^- 
Hie o^^HOMt ESI) 3A'^inHHXi> 6aH- 

K^pCKHXT* ^^OMdB-b. 

I wish to enter into relations 
with one of the bankers of 
your city. 

We have deposited the securi- 
ties sent to us, provisionally, 
with a banking house in this 

Bankrupt, bankruptcy. 

o6'bJiB6jn» ceCjt HecocTOji- Mr has declared himself 

Messrs. . . .are indicted for frau- 
dulent bankruptcy. 



r. r. ... noAB^prnyTM cy;^66HOMy 

CJUkflfiTBllO no 3Jl6CTH0My 6aH- 


SaKjnoq^xe Toprb HeM^^JieHHO h Conclude the bargain at once 
;i,0CTaBbTe MHt (j)aKTypy. and send me the invoice. 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 279 

Bm M6weTe c^HT&Tb ce6ji c^acT- Yon may call yourself lucky for 
jiiiBMM'b, ^TO Bajn> y;^aJI6cb c^^- the good bargain you have 
jiaxb TaKtK) Biiro;^HyK) noKymcy. made. 


no;^4Tejib ^Toro nHCbM&, r-HT> ... The bearer of this Mr. ..., who 

nyTem^CTByji no jifinkwb, Hani- is travelling on business and 

peHi> npo6iiTb H^KOTopoe Bp^MA thinks of staying for a short 

BT, BameMT» rbpo^t. time in your place. 

Bill of exchange, of lading. 

np6cHMT» BacB He njia-rfTb no We beg you will neither make 

B^KceJiK), H He flHCKOHT^poBaTb payment on the bill (of ex- 

er6. change) nor discount it. 

XoTJi BeKcejui h h6 6uxa au^en- Though the bills (of exchange) 

T6BaHbi, HO Bce TaK6 onti m6- were not accepted, they will 

ryrb 6HTb ynji^qenu inpn npe^t- probably nevertheless be paid 

HBJi^HiH. when due. 

QTOTh flfiwb CTap^eTca no^wep- This house tries to keep itself 

maTb ce6A KaKi»-HR6tM njiyroB- up by accommodation bills as 

CK6ft TpaccHp6BKod Besceji^ft. well as it can. 

Ilpn n^pBOBTb Ekmewb hi Bain> The bill of lading will follow 

HHCbMi Mbi ;(oct4bhmi> BaMi> in our next letter, and we 

EOHHOcaM^HTb H no;^p66Hyio shall at the same time give 

n;'6Hy nimett noc^jncH. you the exact value of our 



Mhi cb y;^0B6JIbCTBieM^» yB^^^JiH We learn with pleasure from 

Hs-b B&mero nncbM^ OTb 16ro yours of the 15th inst, that 

c. M., qro npe;^B^;^HTca ndjiHaa there is every prospect of 

B03M63KH0CTb HOJiyq^Tb o6p&THO the mouey on the bottomry- 

qacTb CTpaxoB^HlH Ropa6juf bond. 

JlkTb ;^eHb^H BT* 3aji6rb Ha 6ojir To advance on bottomry. 

Broker, brokerage. 

H y^4 nopyq^JTb Hd.KJiepy saiuno- I have already engaged a broker 
q^Tb jijhjio. to conclude the business. 

C^HT^eMT, BaMT> Vs % KOMMHC- We charged you ^8% oommis- 
ci6HHbixi> H np^HTbiH s^tcb sion and the brokerage custo- 

KypT^mHbia no 1 Cb t^ch^h. mary in this place of 1 per 



HM-feio qecTb yB'I^OMHTb sacb, vro I have the honour of informing 

a ocHOBdjfb OTb Hoer6 ^enn you that I have established 

Topr6Boe npe;^npijiTie bt* sji^km- a business here under my 

HeMT> ^6po;^'fe, KOT6poe 6'^ji,&n» name for traffic in the pro- 

saHHMdTbCH o6op6TaMH c6jib- ductions of the country. 
CKHXT* npo;^yKTOB'b. 


TaKi) KaiTb fli^jik ho6 Tp^^yiorb 

Moerd qdcTaro OTcycTBia ot- 

c^b;^a, to a ce^6;^HJ^ ;^aJ^, ^^ob*- 

peHHOCTb HoeHy iiHoroji'l^THeHy 

coTpy;^HHKy, r-Hy . . . 
H 6yAy saHHH^Tbca npemifii^ecT- 

eeHHO K0MMHCCi6HBI>I]fH ^JlkiiR 

q^ ^t jTb 3a c66cTBeHHi>ifi c^eTb. 

3KejiiHie pacm^pHTb moi5 Topr6B- 
juo no^yx^jio HeHJt HCK^Tb b6- 

JIHBaiOCb ... 

B^fi^ewb Ha^-feaTbca, tto loprdBJw 

BCK6pt CHdBa OSHB^TCfl. 

To buy, 

Mu noKynd.eirb t6jibko hsi n^p- 
BHXT> pyiCB, H noTOMy He m6- 

xewb npHHjtTb BO BEHM^jie b4- 

mero juod^snaro wpeji^ox^Eisi. 
npomy Bacb Kyndrb ^Jia ubeA ..., 

uaxii T6jibK0 i^iH^ yna^^eTb Ha 

... jftjin H63Ke. 
no nojyq^HiH cer6, npomt sacb 

Heii4;^jieHH0 Kyn^Tb aa Mott 

c^erb no c^Hofi A^nieBofi ufkE% 

. . . ptccKHXi py6jieBi)ixi> accHr- 

E&nfili H AOCT^lBHTb MHi^ 6hUA 

cb npHJioxc^HieiTb no;[^p66Haro 
cqera H3pacx6;^OBaHHofi b&mh 
cyHMbi, KOHMHCcibHbix'b H np6- 
MHxi} Ha^^^paceiTb. 
HaHi. y^ajibcb naKOH^io nafiT^ 

noKynn^HKi Ha Baurb no 

Kp^finett Ha3Hd.qeHHofi b^h 

Jifijlk Cb I^THlTb TOB&pOlTb 61&JLE 

TaKi} B^jnj, qio mu ne Morji6 
Hafiid noKyn^TejiJi ;^4ace no ok- 

MbUTb H^SKHlTb I^tH^l*. 


^ocTiToqflutt KanHT^jTb H Tp66ye- Sufficient capital and the re- 

As business calls me away fre- 
quently, I have, under date 
of to-day, invested Mr. ..., my 
assistant for some years past, 
with my procuration. 

I shall occupy myself principally 
with conmiission-kusiness to 
and from Russia, but shall 
not exclude transactions on 
my own account. 

The wish to extend my business 
has impelled me to seek out 
new connections, for which 
reason I take the liberty . . . 

We must hope that business will 
soon revive. 


We always buy at first hand 
only, and regret therefore to 
be obliged to refuse your kind 

I must request you to buy for 
me ..., as soon as the price 
has sunk to ..., or less. 

Be kind enough, immediately on 
receipt of this to buy at the 
cheapest possible rate to the 
debit of my accoimt ... Rus- 
sian Paper-Roubles, and to 
send them to me with detailed 
note of your outlays for com- 
mission and all expenses. 

We have at last succeeded in 
finding a buyer for your ... 
at the price to which you limit 

Trade in this article was so dull 
that we could find no buyer 
even with the lowest prices. 

Moe SHiHle ;^ijrb fi,a.fl,frh Bain» 

B03H63KHOCTb y^OBJieTBOpjtTb 

BCtlTb Tp66oBaHiaMi>. 
Mli He Mdxceirb corjiac^moi no- 
H63HTb HHTep^ca, H npe^HoqE- 

TdeMl B3ATb 06p^TH0 KaDHT^UTb. 

quisite business - knowledge 
will place us in a condition 
to answer all demands. 
We cannot agree to reduction 
of the rate of interest and 
therefore prefer to recall the 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 281 


Bh jifiJiXEA npHroT6BHTt rpyat ki» You must have the cargo ready 

KOHut M'fecfl^a, qT66H Kop&6jib by the end of this month, so 

Mon> BCK6p'fe n6cjrfe cBoer6 npn- that the ship can sail with it, 

6^iia OTHJuiTb ct. 6hmmt» at ... soon after its arrival, to ... 


Bt» HacTOJimyK) MHHyry -a ne npn I am very low in cash at pre- 

;^^Hbi axi> H noTOMy ^6j[meHi> no- sent and must beg you there- 

opoci^Tb aacb nospeMeH^b en^S fore to have patience still. 

£cjiH Bbi Bit HacTOjiii^yio MEH^Ty If you cannot command cash 

He npn ^^^Hbraxi, to a y^OBd- at this moment, 1 shall be 

jibCTByiocb B^KcejieM'b Ha ^6ji- glad of bills at long date 

rift cpomb, KOidpuft 6hi a Morb which I can get discounted. 


npH cewby nocujikio BaMi> q^ciyio Enclosed I hand you the net 

Biipy^Ky OTb Mo6a npo^&KH sa proceeds of my last month's 

nocJii^^Hift wbcHB.'b wb cyMM% ... sales of .... in cash, the 

HajiiaqHHMH ;^6HbraMH, npocrf receipt of which please ack- 

Bacb yBt^OMHTb MeHJt nojiy- nowledge. 

q^HiH TaKOB^xi). 

Certificate of origin. 

JlojiaHii-JiH TOBdpu CfciTb CHadae- Must goods be accompanied by 

Hii cBH;^'feTeJIbCTBOM•b MtcTb a certificate of origin on 

^poHcxoK;^6Hia npn nepexd;^* crossing the Russian frontier? 
q^pesT* pyccKyio rpaHdn;y? 

Change, to change. 

PasMtHT* ptccKHXTi ^^^Hcrb coc- The change of Russian money 

^HHCffb a^-fecb CT» qyBCTBiTejib- is attended here with con- 

HUMi) y6^TK0Mi>. siderable loss. 

BuMiHHBaib cepe6p6 6jih 6yM4a- To change silver or notes for 

HLiJi A^HbrH Ha 36JI0T0. gold. 


no npHjiarieMOMy nepeB6^y Ha Please to cash to my credit 

r-na .... bi T4MoniHeHi> rd- the enclosed cheque payable 

poA*, njiaT^MOMy no npe^^'b- at sight on Mr. ... of your 

ABJi^HiK), 6jiaroBOJi^e nojiyq^Tb place, 
ynji^iy H BnecTt na Kpe^i^Tb sa 
Moft c^en.. 


H cjnlimajTb, qro y Bacb hi* koh- A situation as a clerk has, I 

T6pt OTKpiiiJiocb Mi^CTO HpHK^- have heard, become vacant in 

n^HKa; h hotom^ no3B6j[bTe npeA- your counting-house; permit 

jioxc^Tb BaHi Mo^ ycjitrH. me to apply for it 




Bt* Topr6Bji'fe dTofi cipaHii saMti- 
na nocTOjiHHajij xot^ h He 6qeHB 
C^CTpan, nepeifl^Ha kI) Jit^me- 

fl HM-fejTB qecTb nojiyqiiTB Banrb 
n;HpKyjiJip'b, bt» KOT6poM'b bh 
yB-fe^^OMJiJieTe Menii odt yqpea- 
;^^HiH Bkme& Topr6BjiH. 

Cep;^^qHO 6jiaro;^apji Baci> sa Bk- 
niH ToprbBUfl yB']^;^OMj[^HiH, np6- 

CHMT, BaCT> 6MTb TaKT» JIK)663- 


HacTOjimee nnctMd HMiert i^t- 
jibK) ocB^^^oHHTbCH; pacnoj[0»e- 
HU JIH BLI H Ha KaK6xi> ycj[6- 

JliA M04fi (j)d.6pHKH. 

Mu Hceji&eiTb BCTyn^Tb bi* CHom^- 

Bia Cb KOHHHCCiOH^pOlfb, kot6- 

poHy MLi Horjii^ 6u nopyq^rb 
coBepm^Hie EkmisTh saKynoiTb 
Bi T^MomHeifb rbpoflt. 


In the commerce of this coun- 
try, a steady if not very rapid 
improvement is taking place. 

I have had the honour to re- 
ceive your circular in which 
you inform me of the forma- 
tion of your conmiercial esta- 

We tender our best thanks for 
the commercial reports you 
have sent us till now, and 
hope you will kindly continue 


The purport of the present is 
to inquire whether and on 
what terms you would be in- 
clined to undertake on com- 
mission the sale of my manu- 

We wish to enter into connec- 
tion with a cormnissioner for 
our purchases in your town. 


^jia pa3pa66TKH H-fecKOJibKHxi* py;^- 
HHRdBT) odpasoB^ocb Bl* Sflfkm- 
EBWb ^6po;^ife TOBdpamecTBO 
{KOuukEia) cb KanHTdJiOM'b bI) ... 

For the working of several mines 
a company has been formed 
here with a joint-stock capi- 
tal of ... . 


Corji^cHO HdraeMy yroB6py, bbi 

06A3&Ehl fifiCTkBTSUb HaiTb 

According to contract you must 
deliver us .... 

Course of exchange. 

IIpHjiaraeirb ndmy ce^6;^HamHK)K) We annex our to-day's course 

KypcosyH) 3an6cKy h oaH^^iein* of exchange and await further 

BkmEiTb fl,aj[hwh&mviTh jB^jifiu- directions. 

Credit, to credit, creditor. 

HosBOJijieirB cedt odpaT^Tbca vrb 

BBI H Ha K&K^Tb yCJl6BiflXli OT- 

Rpi^ Eawb d^HKOBbift Kpe- 
jifivb Ha cfMMy .... 

We take the liberty of inquir- 
ing herewith, whether and on 
what conditions you would be 
inclined to grant us an open 
credit to the amount of .... 



Mu Kpe;i;HTOB§,jiH sa sanrb c^^Th 

Ha U&p^M'b, K0T6pi>iii bu 

6i^j[H TaKi> jiK)643Hi>i nepeBecTd 
na Hacb, (fb oroB6pK0fi ynjidiu 


Bi> nocjitAHeMi> co6p^HiH Kpe;^H- 
T6poBT» 66jio p*meH6 IIpo;^OJL 
ac^TL npoH3B6;^cTBO Topr6Bjin. 

We have credited you with .... 
on Paris kindly remitted to 
ns, reserving due payment. 

At the last meeting of credi- 
tors it was determined to 
continue the business. 

Custom-house, customs. 

Mbi nojit^HiTb jieac&^lM en^e bi> 
TaH6aKHt Bami) T0B&pi> n no. 


nieny npeAnHC^mio. 
HsBicTHoe noBum^Hie TaM6»eH- 
Huxb n6injiHHi> Bomji6 yace bi> 

We shall take in your goods 
still lying at the custom-house 
and proceed with them ac- 
cording to your directions. 

The known rise of customs has 
already entered into force. 

^T66hl npHBji^qb noKyn&Tejiefi, 
fifiAXEO npoAaBd.Tb no ;^eme- 

BUWb I^tHdlTb. 


To attract customers one must 
sell at cheap prices. 

Bi TaK6Bn> cjiyqat Bairt npHim 
Ji6ci> 6u HecT^ y6^TKH. 

IIocTOJiHHiiie jifixji,^ Mbryrb oAsbEO 
noBpe/t^Tb nodsairb. 

Damage, to damage. 

In this case you would have to 
bear the damage. 

The continuous rain must da- 
mage the seeds greatly. 


IIp^CJiaHHLlfi T0B4pi>, 6e31> COM. 

fffema, xop6iin>, ho oht> cji^m, 
K0Hi> A<^porb H HaMi> dy^erb 
Tpy-^HO er6 npo;^^Tb. 

The merchandise sent is cer- 
tainly fine, but much too dear; 
we shall have trouble in 
disposing of it. 

Debt, to debit, debtor. 

Mu yCt^^TejibHO np6cHirb sacb 

Oq^CTHTb, HaKOH^I^'b, ^TOTb ;^&B- 

HHniHitt ^ojirb. 
Bkum HSA^psKH npomy sanHc&Tb 

BT> ;^66eT^> Moer6 c^eia h ;^o. 

CT^BHTb uwk npH cjiy^a*]^ H3. 

SiOTb njiox6ft ;^0JIKH6K^» yace 10 

M'fecHUGB'b CTap&eTca npoBecid 

HeHii o6iii^^HiHHH, H Tasi KaKi» 

cjit^^yerb onacdTbCH, tto 

We urgently entreat you at 
length to settle this old 

For your outlay debit me, ad- 
vising me at your leisure. 

This bad debtor has been try- 
ing to keep me off with pro- 
mises these 10 months past, 
and as there is reason to fear 




qiiTejieHTi h cocTaBjuieTt ctioiy 

The deficiency discovered is a 
very considerable one, reach- 
ing the sum of ... . 


Mu EBM^^^JIfl npECTtnEMl. Kl> HC. 

nojiH^HlK) B^mero nopy^^sla. 
Mu He HdHceiTb corjiac^bcfl ea 
AajibH'IfiinyK) 0Tcp6qRy; bu h. 

M-fejIH ;^0CT4T0qH0 Bp^MCHH, Tr6- 

6U no3a66THTt>cji o H^mem* 

We will procede to execute your 
order without delay. 

We will not agree to a further 
delay (respite); you have had 
time enough to satisfy us. 

Deduction, to deduct. 

IIpH jujikrh E&ji^BhaiE uu cfl^^, 

jiaeHi> BaHi> CK^^Ky 5o/o; ho 

^cjiH Bbi TdKsce B^qTBTe nocqH. 

T^nyio KOMMficciH) TO a pa66. 

TajiT* ^^dpoiTb. 
npomy Bacb BiiqecTb Ha (faKrypt 

H3;i,^p»n no ynaK6BKt. 

On inunediate payment we will 
allow you a deduction of 5o/o ; 
but if you deduct also the 
conmiission I have charged, I 
have worked for nothing. 

Please deduct the charges for 
packages from the invoice. 


npHKaacdxe BSJiTb lOB^pi ^o hc- 
Tsq^Hla jibr6THbix'b ^^nett, ^6- 
6u EaLWb He npHniJi6cb njiaT^Tb 
3a coxpan^Hie bi. Maras^naxi). 

Have the goods removed before 
the expiration of the lay-days, 
so that the demurrage may be 
spared us. 

Deposit, to deposit. 

Ho HOJiyq^HiH cer6 ^0Tpy;^6Tecb 
B^AS'Tb HSi) H^mero 3aji6ra ... 

/(^Hoe HaiTb nopyq^Hie na .... 
py6Ji6tt BT, pyccKHXTb (j)6HAaxT,, 

Mbl HlfljIH B03M63KH0CTb HCn6jI- 

HHTb HO Kypcy BT, H coxpa- 

Hj^i} 6HbiA corji^cHO Bimeny 
npeAHHc^HlK) BHpeAb ;^o Bame- 
ro pacnopH3K^HiH. 
Mbi roT6Bbi Bfi^aTb BBMiy Bnepe;^ 

C^MMy BT, , 6CJIH BU ^a- 

;^^Te HaMi> Ha coxpaH^nie B'ip- 
BbiH 6yH^H p^BHOfi TOMy ct6h. 


IIo3a66Tbecb o lowb, qT66bi dra 
cyifMa 6ujik BeM^;i,jieHH0 BHece- 
H^ Bi) Banrb danKi. 

On receipt of this you will 
please dispose of . . . from our 

We had the opportunity to-day 
of executing your order for ... 
roubles in Russian bonds at 

rate of and shall hold 

the same according to direc- 
tions in deposit at your dis- 

We are not disinclined to ad- 
vance you the sum of if 

you will deposit with us good 
securities for this sum. 

See that the amount be depo- 
sited in your bank without 

Commercial phraseologt and correspondence. 




iHCK6H'n> CB 4 Ha 60/0, qxo, 
Bnp6qeMi>, He hm^jio 6ojibni6ro 
BJiijtHia Ha. ji,tJik. 


;^6Tecb BHecT^ na eanrb Kpe. 


IIpHJiardeHUfl Ha MUnujsrb 

OOTpyA^TeCb BeJitTb flJlCKOETk. 

to discount. 

The Imperial Bank raised the 
discount from 4 to 5 0/0, which 
however had but little in- 
fluence on the affairs. 

Be kind enough to credit us the 
discound with 

Please get discounted the ac- 
companying per Leipzig. 


Kit coHcajitHiK), a ^djixewb coo6. 

n^^Tb BaHit, qro a 6^eEb uejifi. 

B6;ieH'b HcnojiH^HieHi> ^Toro no- 

HaMi. 6^Jio 6qeHb nenpiitTHO ys- 

H^Tb, qTO Bbl HeAOBbjIbHbl H^. 

meft npHciiJiKofi; ho bu, K^xceT. 
cji, He saH^THJiH, qro hbi nocTd- 

BHJIH BaHl> I^iHU 3a BT0p6fi 

S. He ;^yHaK), qT66bi a Korfi,k-jiA6o 
;^aJrb BaMT> n6Bo;^i ki Hey;^o- 



I regret to be obliged to ex- 
press my dissatisfaction at 
the manner in which this 
order has been executed. 

We were sorry to learn that 
you are dissatisfied with our 
consignment; you seem how- 
ever to have overlooked that 
we have charged for second 

I do not think ever to have 
given you cause for dissatis- 


AKn;ioH6pHoe TOB^pHn^ecTBO .... 
B-b $T0MT> ro^y He ujikTETb ;^H- 
BH;^6H;^a, BCjitACTBie qer6 ax- 

I^0H^pbI 0CT§,HyTCJI HH OpH 


The Joint-stock Company 

pays no dividends this year, 
so the share-holders get noth- 

Draft, to draw a bill. 

Mbi OKkxewb dTofi Tp^Ti xop6niig 
npieMT> H nocTiBHMit bnyio na 
BanTb ;^66e'^b. 

Mbi TpaccdpoBajiH na sacb cer6;^- 
HJi, ;^JiJi noKpi^Tiji H^mero jipjira, 

na Bacb c66cTBeHHHfi 6p- 


We shall duly honour this draft 
to the debit of your account 

We have drawn upon you this 

day to our own order to 

balance our credit with you. 


fl Ha;^'feIOCb, qro bh ne OTKdaceTe 

MHi Bl) H04fi np6cb6t ^aTb HHt 

0Tcp6qKy bt. qeriipe ne^^ijiH fl,jia 

ynJI&Tbl CpOKT) K0T6pbIMli 

6y;^erb 30 ro c. m. 

I shall not request in vain, I 
hope, if I ask you to grant 
me 4 weeks respite for the 

payment of due on the 

30th of this month. 


Endorsement, to endorse. 

npdcHiTL BacB cEa,6flfiTb npiuia- 

vkeuajk B^Ecejib B^meio, en^S 

He^ocTaibmeK), nepe^^dioqHOH) 

Ekjijmchio H BOSBpaT^Tb Ham* 

6Hutt cb n^pBOK) n6qTofi. 
Mu npHA^psKHsaeHca npdBHJia Be 

HHAopc^OBaTb ;i,ojirocp6qHiin['b 



Cer6;^H,a 66paa aaKpiijiacb npH To-day's exchange closed with 
c^LMUX'b hijoiTb Kypcaxi*; hho- the flattest rates; foreign 
CTp^Hua BajDbTH nuH Tyro. stocks were languid. 

We request you to provide the 
accompanying bill of exchange 
with you endorsement which 
is still wanting, and send it 
back by return of post 

To endorse bills at long date is 
contrary to our principles. 

Exportation, export, 

B^Bosi) i^Toro TOB^pa BecbH^ sna- 

H&mn rjaBsrlttmie npeAMeTu bi^- 
B03a EJl^YTb bt> AM^pHKy, kot6- 
pa, .Cb CBO^fi CTopomli, fljo- 
CTaBjuierb Hain> Tad^Kii h xji6- 

B^BOsi) OTCib^a neHbKd h jibey hs 
HesHaq^TejieH'b; ho P^a HiiteTb 
ptm^ejibHoe n^psencTBO no 

^THMli CTaTbJbrb. 

dKcnopTgpu c^jibHO BOS^^epacHBa- 
K)Tca, BCJit^^CTBie qer6 66jio uk- 
jio npe^JiosK^Hifi. 

FjI^BHUfi npe/^M^Tb BI^BOSa B31> 

CiBepHofl PoccfH ecTb h oct4- 
HCTC-a jrfecb. 

exporter, to export. 

The exportation of this article 
is very considerable. 

Our most important export- 
goods go to America, which 
sends us in return tobacco 
and cotton. 

The export of hemp and flax 
from this place is not in- 
considerable, but Riga holds 
tse first rank in these im- 
portant articles. 

The exporters show great re- 
luctance to bid, in consequence 
of which the bids were not 

The principal article which is 
exported from Northern Rus- 
sia, is and remains timber. 


r-Hi> .... HBM'hpewb noci^Ti&Tb 
6t;i,ymyio jipMapKy, h dy^^erb 
HirlTb qecTb noKas&Tb Bani nk- 
um HOB^fimie o6p^qHKH. 

At the next fair, our Mr , 

who thinks of visiting it, will 
do himself the honour of show- 
ing your our latest patterns. 


Mu u6sB.ewb T6jibK0 crb xop6meft 

CTOpOH^ peKOMeH^^OB^Tb yooMi- 

HyryK) 4)6pMy. 
Hey^^^bie bmnu, CA'^bjianHue 
mh6k), sacTaBjufiOTb HeHJt 6biTb 

0CT0p63KHbDrb H /^aB^Tb Kpeji^Tb 
T6j[bR0 X0p0m6 HSB'I^CTHUMli MHt 


We can but recommend the 
firm in question to your fa- 
vourable notice. 

Experience has taught me to be 
prudent and only to grant 
credit to those firms with 
which I am well acquainted. 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 



Bap^mHHEH BcerA^ n6pTHjiH fl,t- Forestallers have always spoiled 


Bi HacTOiiED^ee Bp^Mji hoscho 6hi 
HaHJtTb a^i.'fecB HtcKOJibKO pycc- 
KHxi> Kopa6ji^fi no h^skomy 

UjikTY 3a npoB63'i», B^ran H3;^6pac- 


Tpy^^Arecb B^qecTB Ha TOB§,pife. 

the trade. 

Freight, to freight. 

Russians ships might at the pre- 
sent moment be freighted here 
at a convenient rate. 

Be kind enough to charge for- 
ward on the goods the freight 
advanced with expenses and 
your commission. 

Funds, funded property. 

Bi ^ocJrl;^Hie rdfljoi Topr6BJia 6y- Business in public funds 
H§,raHH npHHflji^ CojiBinie paa- 
H^pbi Ha 3;^'linneft 66paci. 


06n^ecTBO HMterb KanHiajTb bt» 
.... noMtn^eHHLifi qdcTbio noAii' 

rHHOT^KH, q&CTbK) Bl) B'6pHUXl> 

rocy;^dpcTBeHHiiixi> 6yM4ran>. 

made of late years a 
start on the exchange of this 

The Company possesses a fun- 
ded property of .... which 
is invested partly in mort- 
gages, partly in safe consols^ 


H ptm^TejibHO He noHHHdio, KaKi> 
h6sho npo;^aB§,Tb dTort T0Bdpi> 
aa xop6mifi h no TaK^Mi* Bbicd- 

llofl,66Eu1k npeBOcxb^Hutt T0Bipi» 
p4;^K0 BCTptq^eTca TaKi jij^me- 

BO Ha piilHKt, H npH 0CM6Tpi 

er6 BU y6t;^6Tecb, qro a KaKi> 
HejibSJt if qme Bcn6jiHHjrb B^me 

Importation, import, 

Bi PocciH npHBdai npeBocxdAHTb 

BikBozit Ha snaq^TejibByK) Gpt- 

BasHtfimie BBOsniie TOB§,pbi ;^jih 

H&mett m^cthocth cyrb K64>e h 

HltsKHX'b copt6bi> aMepHKSfiCKaro 

TadaK^d^jio np^^ano HicKOJib- 

KO n^pTiS, HO T6jIbK0 BCJli^ACTBie 

3Haq6TejibHaro noHHS^mn i^tvb 
CO CTopoH^ BBOs^ejiei. 

Mu B^HHcajiH 66j[te 1000 66^evb 
(i)HBJiJ$H;^CKaro ;^erTfl. 

How any one can call such goods 
fine and can charge them at 
such high prices I cannot 

Such superior goods are seldom 
met with on the market at 
this cheap price; on seeing 
them you will be convinced 
that we have executed your 
order most carefully. 

importer, to import. 

In Russia the importation ex- 
ceeds the exportation by a 
considerable sum. 

The chief imports of our place 
are coffee and tea. 

Some sales were effected in in- 
ferior sorts of American to- 
bacco, but only in consequence 
of considerable reductions in 
price on tiie part of the im- 

We have imported above 1000 
tons of Finland Tar. 


Indemnity, to indemnify. 

Tp^dyeMoe b4mh BosHarpaac^^^eie 
npeB0cx6^HTB BCjiKyio M-fepy, h 
Hu He Bi cocTOjiHiH corjiac^bCA 
Ha Herd. 

£cjiH Bu He BosHarpa/^ifrre MeHJt 
sa noHec§HHLift y6^kT0Ki>, to h 
6tAy B^Hys/^eHi npepB^Tb (Tb 
b4hh CH6m6HiH. 

The indemnity you require is 
beyond all bounds; we cannot 
accede to it 

If you will not indemnify me for 
the loss I have susUdned, I 
must break off our connection. 

Insurance, to insure. 


jieHHLixi ETL BaHi cer6;^HJi TO- 


npom^ Bacb 3acTpaxoB&Tb otl 

BCJtRHXl Ond.CHOCTefi ^Ty CfMMy 
Cb H3;^6pSKaMH. 

The sum for the insurance of 

the goods sent to you to-day 

amounts to ... 
I request you to insure against 

all risks this sum, including 



IIpOI^^HTU 0T1> ^TISTb 6yHirb Bbl* 

nji&qHBaiOTCH nomecTHMi&oraHO 
no nocTOjtHHOMy Kfpcy .... 
By^bTe yB-lpeHH wb tomt», ^to ua 
CtAGiTb co6jiJOfl,kTh Bdray B^ro- 


The interest of these papers is 
payable half-yearly at the 
fixed rate of ... 

Rest assured that we shall keep 
your interests in view. 


Cy;^H6 npo;^aeTCJi co Bctirb hh- 
BeHTapeMi), Kairb oh6 bi* nacTO- 
;imee Bp^Ma bi 0;^6ccKoft r^Ba- 


B-f^y^E 3^HJiTi> eacerd^Hott HHBen- 
Typod, npomy Baci npHCji^Tb 
HH% wb cK6poirb Bp^HeHH Banrb 
TeKfn^ift cqen» no koh6i^> ;^e- 

The ship, with her full inven- 
tory, as she lies in the port 
of Odessa, is for sale. 

As I am occupied with my an- 
nual inventory, I request you 
to send me as soon as possible 
account-current up to the end 
of December. 

ToB^pu nocTdBjieHHue Ha npHJia- 
r^BMofi (JaKTtpt, OTnp^BjieHuirb 
eaMT} cer6AHfl cl napoxdAOHi*; 


Kpe^HTOB^Tb Mofi c^erb. 
Ha B&mefi ({)aKTypib BU B^cTaBHjiH 

1000 (fyHTOB-b, U^XflJ TtlTb 

Kaicb a nojiyq^jTb T6jibK0 500, 
noqeiff H npomy Bacb nonp4- 
BHTb §Ty oiiiii6Ky. 

Invoice, to invoice. 

The goods noted in the accom- 

panying invoice have been 
forwarded to you this day by 
steamer and you will please 
pass the amount to my credit 
in conformity. 
You invoice me 1000 pounds, 
whereas I have only received 
500, and must therefore beg 
you to rectify the error. 

Commercial phhaseolooy and correspondence. 289 


Ccujikach Ha H^me sqep^niHee Referring to our letter of yester- 

nHCbMd, yBt;^OMJuieM^. BacT> mi- day, we inform you herewith 

H'femHHM'L, qio that ... 

HMtio n6Bo;^i> npe^^nojiar&Tb, ^to I presume that my letter of the 

HHCbMb Mo6 OTT> 27 TO np. M. 27th of last month has come 

npiiCwjio Hcnp^BHO. duly to hand. 

Y^fi^oujiAewb BacB, iro mli jiJkjLE We inform you that we have 
r-Hy .... Bi 3;^imHeMT> r6po;^'fe provided Mr. ... of our place 
Kpe;i^6THoe oHCbMb na sacb Ha with a letter of credit on you 
py6ji6ft. of roubles. 


ficjiH Bbi He corJiac^Tecb c^'^JiaTb If you do not grant me a pro- 
UE^ cooTB'I^TCTBeHHott CK^^^KH, A portiouato abatement, I should 
fl,6jixewb 6yp^ npo^^^Tb er6 ct> have to sell it with loss. 



Mm BBJtiiM'b npe^'bjiBfiTb bt. cpoirb We shall have the bill presented 
njiaTeacd, h bI) cji^^ai bricasa for payment at maturity, and 
y^EE^wb npoT^CTb. in case of refusal shall raise 



H urn^f npHJieacHaro, xoponi6 peKO- I am on the look-out for an 
MeH;^6BaHHaro ptccKaro npn- industrious well-recommended 

Kkm^EKa., HMiion^aro 6nBiTH0CTb Russian clerk possessing a 

no TOB^pHofi qdcTH. good knowledge of merchan- 



Kp^finaa nyx^k wb ;^6HbraxT» na- The scarcity of money begins 

qHH^eTb ^^tjiaTbca ^BCTBriTejib- to make itself perceptible; 

HOK), H BBCbM^ aeji^TejibHO 6h it is to be hoped that it will 

6iijio, qT66bi OEk npeKpaT^Jiacb. soon come to an end. 


3aji6rb ;^6ji3KeHT> 6biTb BiiKynjieHi. The mortgage must be redeem- 

;^o 20ro c. m., bti npoT^BHOMTb ed by the twentieth of this 

cjiyqat OH'b 6t;^eTb c^HT^TbCH month, or it will be declared 

npocp6qeHHbiM'b. forfeited. 

Order, to order. 

£cjiH Bd.mH aKcn6pTHue TOBdpu If your articles exported to this 

^^a^tTB 3;^tcb CapumA, to hm*- place pay, there is every pio- 

eTCH Ha;^^Aa c^^'I^Jiaib BeMi* spect of being able to give 

3Haq6TejibHbie saK^sbi. you considerable orders. 

Russian Cony.-Grammar. 19 



Mu MoaceiTb c;^'ljiaTB Bairb saic^iii 
TOJibKO Bi» TOMT> cjiyqat, 6CJIH 
Bu noH^SBTG Bkmn BikEU. 

Ha saK^aHHufl Hairb TOB§,pi> npe- 
npoBOHc;^deirb Ha o6op6THott 

CTopoH-fe (j)aKTf py wb py6- 


We can only give you orders 
in case you reduce your prices. 

We append invoice of the goods 
kindly ordered of us amount- 
ing to ... roubles. 


r-HT* HMiBmifi y»6 ;^6jik) bt, 

H^meit ToprdBji-fe, nocTyn&erb 
1 ro qncjid 6t;^yii^aro M-fecai^a 
TOB^pHmeMt Ha M-fecTO THa ... 

^ecTb nwhewb yB'fe;noMHTi> Baci, 
mo ^aII^b MHoroji'feTHifi coTpy;^- 

bllKT* a COyq^CTHHK'b BT* ;^'BJI'fe, 

r-HT> BCTynfijFb Bt H^my 

(l)6pMy ;^'fefiCTB6TeJIbHHM^> kom- 

Mr. ... who had a share in our 
business already, enters as 
partner on the 1st of the 
coming month in the place 
of Mr. ... 

We have the honour of announc- 
ing to you that our assistant 
for many years and sleeping 
partner Mr. ... has become 
active partner in our house. 


IZpn c^Mi) noci^jiaeirb BaMi^ pas- 
ji^qHue Kpac^Bue o6p^qHK0 
JltTHHXT, MaT6pifi, HS-b kot6- 
puxt HiKOTopue no CBoeMy^ 
HiacHOMy pHcyHKy, BtpoiTHO, 
oc66eHHO noHp^BHTCJi. 

Dia npHCiijiKa Biimjia bo Bctxt 
OTHOffldHiax'b Hey;i,dqH0K), h to- 
Bapi B-B OTHom^HiH ;^o6poTii 
rop43;^o Hiiace oCpasni^, no koto- 
p6My Mbi 3aKd,3b[Baj[H. 

Annexed we forward you several 
pretty patterns of Summer- 
stuffs, some of which will 
particularly please you in the 
delicacy of theirs designs. 

This consignment proves un- 
satisfactory in every respect 
and is in quality far inferior 
to the patterns upon which 
we gave our order. 

Payable, payment, to pay. 

Mu AOCTaBjijiM'b Jiyqinifi copTt 
^Toro TOB^pa no He;^opor6a i^*- 

Ht BT> , CT» ynjidiOK) (njia- 

T^MLifi) qpe3T> 3 M'6cfln;a. 

Bojibmie njiaieacii, Koibpue a ;^6JI- 
aceHi) coBspmiiTb bi 6jiHas4tt- 
uieM'b Bp^MSHH, ^pHHyac;^^K)Tb 
uenA o6paT^TbCJi ki> Bairb cb 
np6cbdoH), ^0 .... 

We can deliver you this article, 
best quality, at the cheap 
price of .... payable in three 

Large payments, which I shall 
have to make shortly, force 
me to express you the wish 
that .... 

Post, post-office, post-office order. 

H OTRUfl^klO HSBiCTijI Cb H^pBOK) 

Ci cerdAHJifflHeK) n6qTofi mh ot- 

npaBHjiH Ki> BaHi> Kordpuji 

^OTpy;^HTecb |ipo;^dTb KaKi m63k- 
Ho Bi;iro;^Hte. 

I expect news by return of post. 

We have sent you by to-day's 

post which please nego- 

ciate as advantageously as 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 291 

BamH niScbMa 6y;^bTe TaKi. ^^oCpiS Please direct your letters to me 

a;i;pecoBaTb MHt noKa ;^o bo- for the present to be called 

CTp66oBaHia Bt Bepji6HT>. for at the post-office Berlin. 

Bami) ociajiLHbH ^ojirb Ha UE'h a I shall soon send the residue 

Biimjiio BaMT> wb 6jiHac4flnieMT> of what I owe you by post- 

BpeMCHH no n6q'rfe. office order. 

Price, price-current. 

IIp^CJiaHHHe HaM-b no HaKjia;^H6fi We can only take definitely the 

TOBapbi Mu Morjii^ 6u B3ATb Ha goods invoiced to us if you 

c66cTBeHHbifi c^erb ibjibKO bt» lower the price considerably. 
TaKOMt cjiyqa'fe, ^cjie6u bm co- 
rjiaci^jiHCb c^tjiaTb anaqdrejib- 

HyK) CK^^^Ky Wb JlfkE^, 

EpnjiaraK) npa ceMT> npeficKy- I recommend the annexed price- 

paHTb ji^jia Bimero paacMOip'!- current to your kind perusal. 

Receipt, on receipt. 

IIpH ceM-b BH HOJiyqHTe MejideMyio You will receive inclosed the 

pocniScKy Ha desired receipt for 

nojiyqi^B'b CT6HM0CTb nepeB6;iia, On receipt of the amount we 

MH pacn6meMCfl na 6E0Wb h shall forward you the cheque 

;i;ocTdBHM'b BaMTi er6. receipted. 


OiHOCiiTejibHO cnp^BOiTb, K0T6pHa With regard to references re- 

Moryrb noHd^o6HTb'&H o H^nieMT> specting our firm, we are so 

ToprdBOM-b j[,6u% Hu qecTb HM'fe- fortunate as to be able to men- 

eM-b yKaa^Tb na ;^0Ma tion the following houses 


HaanaqbTe ckau BpcMa B03Bpan;e- Determine for yourself the time 

Hia KanHT^a, Bt kot6pomt, mu for the reimbursement of the 

HH BTi KaK6MT» cjiy^at He 6y- capital which we shall have 

^^CM-b ;Hyac;^dTbCH ;^o KOHi^a ^Toro no need of at all before the 

r6;i;a. end of this year. 

Responsible, responsibility. 

Mu ;^oji3KHiJ[ B03Ji03K6Tb Ha Bacb We must hold you responsible 

OTBtTCTBeHHOCTb sa Bcfe uocjvhfl,- toT all the consequences that 

CTBia, Morymia npoH3oflT6 orb may arise from this over- 

6to& nocntniHOCTH. haste. 


Taicb KaKT* BCfl nipiin TonjieHHaro As ' the whole lot of lard was 

cajia np6;i,aHa wh p63HH^y, to sold by retail, it was im- 

Mu HHKaK'b He Morjifi Hcn6jiHHTb possible for us to execute your 

Bamero nopyqenia Kynfiib ;^jih order to buy 1000 kilogr. 

Bacb 1000 KHJio. 




Return, to return. 

MhIj 6iijio 6qeHb npijiTHO yan^Tb, I was glad to learn that you 

qro BH HaM'fepeHH noctT^Tb Me- 

eA Ha BOSBpS.THOM'b nyi^. 
£cjiH Bbi He M6mcTe Halir^ yno- 

Tpe6ji6HiH ;^Jifl Ea.xofi^nifi^ca y 

Bacb 66qKH c^ro, to npom^ 

Bacb npHCji^Tb MHife 6HyK) o5- 


intend to pay me a visit on 
your return (-journey). 
If you can make no use at all 
of the barrel of Sago stored 
up at your place, I must beg 
you to return it. 

Sale, to sell, seller. 

B-L HacTOjiii;ee Bip^ua ne npe^- 
ciaBjijieTCJi 6jiaronpijiTHaro 

cjit^a^ fl^JLH npoA^acH simero 

Pa3C^](iTbiBaMTe na to, ^to hu ne 
ynycTHin. hh o^nord y;^66Haro 
cjiyqaa, ^T66u BiiroAHO npo;^&Tb 
BaniH TOBipbi. 

^po;^aB^Ii Tp66yioTT> 6qeHb bhc6- 
Kux-b uffiwby BCJi'^CTBie nerd na- 
CTpo^Hie piJHKa ue 6qeHb o»ch- 

At present there is no prospect 
for . an advantageous sale of 
your tobacco. 

Rely upon our neglecting noth- 
ing that will tend to sell your 
goods to advantage. 

Sellers ask very high prices, in 
consequence of which the mar- 
ket is little animated. 


Mbi M6»ceH'b Baci> yB'&pHTb, qTO 
Bce 6y;^erb c^'fejiano ct> nimefi 
CTopoHii, m!66hi y;^OBjieTBop6Tb 
Bacb, 660 HaiTb ^i^ijio 6u 6qeHb 
jiecTHO BCTyn^Tb bt, Topr6Bbui 
CHom^HlH cb TSLK^wb non'eTEuwb 

Cuijo Ha;^'fejiTbCfl, ^to bh oct^hc- 
Tecb ;^0B6jibHU h dTofl npHCiij- 

KOfi H BCK6pt BOSO^HOB^Te hk- 

mil 3aK^3bi (npuKaa^Hiji). 


We beg to assure you that we 
shall do our utmost to give 
satisfaction in the hope of 
entering into connection with 
so respectable a house as 
yours. ' 

I hope that you will be perfectly 
satisfied with this consignment 
also and will soon renew your 

Security, to secure sure. 

Bbi AOjiacHili npe;^CTaBHTb Ea,wb 
^^ocT^Toqnoe pyq^TejibCTBO (aa- 
ji6rb) BT. odeaneq^Hie H&merc 
^6jira Ha Bacb. 

^06p0c6B'feCTHMM'b HCHOJIHeHiein, 

nopyq^HiftMbi ynp6qHM'b aa co- 
66k) ^OBipie H&niHX'b APys^fi. 
Bbi M63KeTe bhojib'^ nojiosc^TbCA 
Ha TO, qTO o5tmaHHoe Ban-b no- 
KpiiTie a flficikEjiio flp oojiobA- 
Hbi 6y;^ymaro M-fecana. 

You must give us sufficient se- 
curity for the amount of our 

We shall secure the confidence 
of our friend by serving them 

You may be quite sure that I 
shall make you the promised 
remittance by the middle of 
next month. 

Commercial phraseology and correspondence. 


Ship, to ship, shipment. 


nji^BameMt, oinp^BHTCfl bt> m6- 
pe wb TG^^Hie 10 ;^Heft. 
nojiOB^Ha c56pa kop^hkh wb Fp^- 
^iH yme OTnpiBjieHa Mbpeni., 
lijiH npHroT6BJieHa k-b oinpaB- 
ji^HiK); APyr^fl Hax6;^HTCfl b-l 
TBep;i,uxT> pyK&rb. 


06paii;ieMca kt> BaMT> ct. np6cb- 
6010 nopyqATbca 3a nimy n6;ii- 
HHCb B-b cjiyqat, 6cjih6h njia- 
T^jibmnKT* OTKaadJicfl, npHHjiTb 
Hann> s^Kcejib. 

^ecTb HM^eMTj yB'fe;i;oMHTb BacT>, 
mo Mu np^HHJiu cer6;^Hji bI) 
TOBapHmH no Topr6Bjrfe r-na ... 
KOTbpufl /"^6 CHX-L nopi. ^o;^^6- 
cbiBajicii aa nacb no ^^OBtpen- 



B6jibmaH qacTb dioro TOB^pa koh- 

YnoMjiHyTbift rocno;i;fiHT. npio- 
dp'feji'L 66jibniyK) qacTb CBoer6 
HMfmecTBa K0HTpa5iH;^0K). 

The ship «Finlandia» known for 
her prompt and quick voyage, 
will put to sea within 10 days. 

The half of the currant yield 
of Greece has been shipped 
already or is ready for ship- 
ment; the other half is in firm 

, to sign. 

Have the goodness to protect 
our signature in case of need, 
should the drawee refuse ac- 

We have the honour of inform- 
ing you that we have this day 
taken into partnership Mr. ... 
who till now has signed for us 
by procuration. 

to smuggle. 

The most of these goods are 

The gentleman named has gain- 
ed the greater part of his for- 
tune by smuggling. 

.Weight, to weigh. 

Mh Hax6;^HMT,, qio B-fect TOB^pa We find that the gross weight 

6pyTT0 He corjidcem. cb b^hih- does not correspond to your 

MH HOKaadHiAMH. Statement. 

J[o OTHpaBJi^HlH 66qKa HMtjia 50 The cask weighed before send- 

kAjio qficTaro B-feca, TaKJiMi. 66- ing 50 kilogr. net weight, 61/2 

paaoMTi He;i;ocTaerb 61/2 k^Jio. kilogr. are therefore wanting. 


Ila-b BdmeS nocjvkflfielk npnciijiKH Of both your last consignments 
q^K) 66jibniaH qacib em,e ne in tea I have still the greater 

^p6;^aHa h Hax6;^HTCH B-b Mara- part unsold in my warehouse, 



Mm aaHHMdeHCH BCKjuoq^ejbHO 
oniOBbK) Topr6BjieK) h noTOMy, 

Kl) C03KajI'!&HiK) He H63KeMl> HC- 

u6jiHHTb B^mero aaic^aa na ... 

£cj1h bh Haanaqirre mh* oniOByio 

u^tny, TO a Cy^y BbiniicbiDaTb 


We only do wholesale business 
and regret therefore to be un- 
able to execute your order 

If you charge me the wholesale 
price I shall take the ar- 

294 Appendix. 

1. Circular. 

IIemep6ypl^, 23ro Imji 1898 ro;id. 
MiijiocTHBHfi rocy;i,apBl 
Hm^io ^ecTB yB4;i;0MHTi> Bacx, ^to a OTKpiijnb 

3Jl^±Ch TOprOBJIIO MaHy(j()aKTypHHMH TOBapaMH. 

no ;i,ojirojiiTHefl onuTHOCTH, xopom6 3Haa Stot-l 
po;i,Tb ToproBJiH, n6jiB3yflCi> 6e3ynpe^Hofl penyTan;iefl 
H BJia/^ifl KanHTajiOMt, cooTBiTCTByK)in;HM'L MoeMy 
npe;i,npijiTiK), a Ha;i;iioci> y;i;ocT6HTBCfl Bamero jipBi- 
pia H 03KH;i;dio t6jibko cjiy^aa onpaB;i;aTB ero na ;i,iji*. 

npomy Bact saMiTHT-B moi6 no^nHCB h npHHiiTB 
yB-ifepeHie bb MoeMi> 6cKpeHHeMB no^iTeHiH h npe;i,aH- 

2. To begin a mercantile connection. 

MocKed, Iro CeHTa6pa 1906 r. 
rocno;i;aMB N. N. bi> BapnidB*. 
M6jiocTHBBie rocy;i;dpHl 
ysHaBB o Bamefi no^TeHHofl (|)6pM* otb nkmnx'h 
66m,HXB ;i,py3efl, rr. N. N., mbi HMieMi> ^ecTB npe;i,Jio- 
3R±Th BaMB HaniH ycjiyrii ;i;jifl noKynKH h npo;i;§!acH 


HaMB 6iijio 6hi o^ieHB npijixHO, 6cjih6b naMB y;i;a- 


Hifl, Bi5iro;i;HBifl KaK^b ji^jin BacB, xaK-B h ;i;jih nacB, npn 

^eMTb MBI MOmeMB BaCB ysipHTB, ^TO MBI, HO M^p* 

B03M63KHOCTH, 6y;i,eMi> CTapaTBCfl npH bc^komb cji^^a'fe 
HM^TB BB BH;i,y HHTGpecBi HaniHXTb nopyq^Tejiefl. 
yKa3BiBaa BaM-B, HaK0H6ii;i> na HH3KenpHBe;i,eHHBifl 

(|)iipMBI, y KOTOpHX-B BH M6meTe CnpdBHTBCfl O HaCTb, 

MBI roTOBBi npHCJiaTB BaMB, 6cjiH BaMTb yr6;i;H0, ycjio- 
Bia Hamefi (|)iipMBi, K0T6pBifl bbi Hafi;i;eTe Kpafine yMi- 
peHHHMH. B^b 03KH;i;aHiH Bamero no^xeHHaro OTsixa, 
MBI HMicM-B TiecTB npe6HBaTB CB 6cKpeHHHMi> nonxe- 
HicMTb H npe;i;aHH0CTiK). 

N. N. 
CnpaBHTBCfl y: 
Pr. N. N. B-B Baprndsi. 
r. N. N. BB neTep6ypri. 

Models of commercial letters. 295 

3. Answer to the preceding letter. 

Bapmdeaj 5ro CeHTa6pa 1906 r. 
rocno;i;aMi» N. N. bi> MocKsi. 
MiiJiocTHBHe rocy;i;apHl 
Bt OTBiTi> Ha Bdme yBamdeMoe hhcbmo ot-b Iro 
c. M., MH HMieMB ^ecTB 6jiaro;i;ap6TB Baci> sa c;i,'fijiaH- 
Hoe HaMB npe;i;jioaKeHie, h bb cji^^a* Hd;i;o6HOCTH mh 
He npeM^HeMB BOcn6jnE»30BaTBca B^niHMH ycjiyraMH. 

ILOKk MBI npOCHMTb BacB coofim^TB HaMB BaniH 
Kpafinifl DjiHBi, ;i,a6^ bb cjiy^ia* noTpe6ji6Hia Bamnxi* 


npH rocn6;i;cTByioni;eMB Ten6pB saTiimBH bb Top- 
roBOMTb Mip*, MBI HB M6meMB npe;i;cKa84TB BaMB ;i;jifl 
6jiH3Kaftmaro Bp^Menn sHa^^TejiBHBixB ji^l^JVhy t^mb He 
M^H-fee MBI o;i,h4ko Ha;i;ieMCH, ^to bb He;i;ajieKOMB 6f- 
;i;ym,eMB CHomeHia ndniH pasoBBibTca kb H^mefi o6o- 
l5;i;Hofi n6jiB3*. 

Bb oacH;i,aHiH Baniero no^xeHHaro OTB^Ta, mbi npe- 


N. N. 
4. Orders given. 

Bfi^ua, 9ro 0KTa6pa 1899 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. bb 0;i,ecc*. 
M^jiocTHBBifl rocy;i;apBl 
06pain;aa sHnManie Bame na HiiH^mHift niipKy- 
juipB Mofi, H csL^ji^Ysi coBixy rr. N. N., K0T6pBre peKO- 
MeH/i,OBdjiH uwh a^pecTb BanrB, npomy BacB npncjidTB 

MH-fe KaKB MOatHO CKopie 

50 ^I^^TOB'b Ji^Hmaro hAso^ 

ecjiH B03M63KHO CB 6jiHmdflinHMB n6i3;i;0MB atejii3H0fi 
;i;op6rH, npn ^icmb a na^^iiocB, ^to Bh 3a^TeTe mh* 
;i;enieByio ^iny. 

EcjiH 6totb duHT'h y;i,&CTca, to M6ateTe Cbitb yBi- 



IIpHM^Te yB-fepenie bte> rjiy66KOMi> mogmb no^TeniH. 

N. N. 

296 Appendix. 

6. Ordres executed. 

Odiccay 20ro 0KTa6pa 1899 r. 
rociio;i,iiHy N. N. wh Bin*. 
M6jiocTHBHfi rocy;ii4pBl 
noK6pHMnie 6jiaro;i,api5 Bacb sa saKasaHHHe y 
Men^ 60 $yHTOBi> ^4io, OTnpasjieHie kot6phxi> cosep- 
ineHO mh6io HitotniHaro ^HCJid. 

IIpHJiardio -EJh ceMf (J)aKT^py na 6to ;i;ijio ci> no- 
K6pHMnieio np6cB6oio sanncdTB mh* bi> iipiix6ATE> ;ii6ji- 
aKHBie BaMH mh* sa ^afi 100 py6ji6fi cepefipdM-B. 

Si y6*fflt;i;eHi>, ^to Bh 6y;i;eTe ;i;0B6jiBHBr He tojib- 
KO sa^TeHHofi MHOH) BaM'B Di^Hdio, HO H ;i,o6poT6io ^4a, 
fl jiBmycB noiSTOMy Ha;i;em;i;oio, ^to Bh y;iiOCT6HTe Me- 
H^ H BnpeAB saKdsaMH, npocic npa tom-b BacB 6bitb 
BHOJiHi ysipeHHBiMTb, ^TO bc* saKdsBi BaniH 6y;i,yTTE> 


noK6pHMmifl BaniB cjiyr4 

N. N. 

6. Sending money. 

B^nay 12ro Hoa6pa 1899 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N, N. bi> 0;iiecc*. 
M^jiocTHBLifi rocy;i;dpBl 
OTocjiaHHBie Ko mh4 OTTb 20ro OKxafip^ 50 cJ)yH- 
TOBB HaH), a nojiy^i^JMb bb CBoe BpeMa h sanHcdjiB bi> 

IIpH ceMTb hm4io ^ecTB npHCji^TB BaMB 6HJieTi> 
rocy;i,apcTBeHHaro BaHKa bi> 100 py6ji6ft cepe6p6Mi>, 
H noK6pHMnie nponiy BacB iStok) cyMMOio noK6H- 

^HTB CneT-B MOft. 

IIpHMiiTe yB4p6Hie bi> rJiy66K0Mi> MoeMi> no^TemH. 

N. N. 

7. Beceiving money. 

Odeccay 18ro Hoa6pa 1888 r. 
rocnoA^Hy N. N. bi> Bindfe. 
MiijiocTHBBifl rocy;i,4pBl 
BMicT-fe CB HHCBMOMX BamHMB 0TB 12ro Hoa6pa 
j!iojiy^±jLi> CTO pyfijieft cepe6p6Mi>, sa tito npHHom^ 

Models of commercial letters. 297 

BaMt MOib qyBCTBiiTejiBHyio fijiaroA^pnocTB h npns- 
Haio meTiy na.m'h 0K6H^eHHMMi>. 

IlpH ceMTb nocHjidio BaMt Mofi H6BHfi npeflcKy- 
paHT^b H npom^ Bacx He oct^bhtb ^enA Bnpe;i;B b4- 
niHMH nopy^eniflMH. 

Bamt noK6pHHfl cjiyri 
N. N. 

8. Asking for information. 

rSAtcum0opch, Iro ^eKa6pa 1888 r. 
rocno;ii6Hy N. N. bi> Afio. 
M^jiocTHBBifi rocy;j,apBl 
BnojiHi Bipa Bdinefi fipY^6% mh np6cHMB Bac^ 
coo6ih;6tb naMB h*ck6jibko CBi;i,*Hifi o j5,6u% ynoMji- 
HyTOMB BHH3y i^Toro nHCBMd. Ohi> ;^ijiaeTi> HaMi> 3a- 
K^SB Ha cyMMy 6kojio 2000 MapoKB, ho, ne HMisB 
em,e js^^jtb cb hhmb, mbi mejiksm 6h snaTB Bdrae mh4- 
nie o HpaBCTBeHHHXB er6 K4qecTBaxi> h o CTenenn 
Tor6 AOBipifl, KaKoro ohi> sacjiyacHBaeTTb. 

Bjiaro;i,ap^ sapdnd^e 3a Bce, ^ito BaMB yr6;iiH0 6y- 
;i,eTB noBipHTB HaMTb BB iStomi> OTHomeHiH, MBI npo- 

CHMB BaCB 6bITB BHOJIHi yfiifflt/lieHHBIMTb, TITO Bce ck4- 

saHHoe B4mh, no ;§TOMy npe;^M6Ty, ocT^HOTca HHKOMy 


C-B 6cTHHHBiMi> HO^TenioMB HMieMTb ^ecTB 6htb 
B4mH noKdpHBie cjiyrH 

N. N. 

9. Favourable information. 

A6o, 3ro ;i;eKa5pi 1888 r. 
rocno;i;dMi> N. N. bi> reJiBCHHr(J)opci. 
M^JiocTHBHe rocy;i;4pHl 
HMiio ^ecTB yBi;i;oMHTB Baci> bi> otb^tb na hhcb- 
m6 Bdnie orB Iro c. m., ^to a canaro jryiiniaro mh^- 
Hifl o ji^owh, o KOT6poMi> BBi Tp66yeTe cnp4B0Ki>. Ohb 
Be/i.eT'B CBOi^ A*Ji^ ci> 6jiaropa3tMieMB h ycnixoMi> 
H HHKor;j;4 ne noTp66yeTi> Kpe;i,6Ta, npeBBini4iom;aro 
ero cpe;i;cTBa. 

298 Appendix. 

JKejiaK), ^t66h 6to M0rji6 pyK0B0/i;6TL BaniHMH 
;i;McTBiHMH; ho 6e3i> BCiiKOfi rapaHTm, Bnp6^eMi> Ch 

MOeft CTOpOH]^. 

Hm4io ^ecTB 6bitb, cb nocTOjiHHBiMi> yBamenieMi. 
BamHM'B noK6pHHMi> cjiyr6io 

N. N. 

10. Unfavourable information. 

A6o, 3ro ;i,eKa6pfl 1888 r. 

rociio;i;aM'B N. N. bi> PejiBCHHr^opc*. 

MiijiocTHBBie rocy;i;apHl 

SL ji^Y^SiiOy ^TO }5,6jiSBieKi> BaMi> nocoBiTOBaTB, bi> 
BamHXB cHonieHiaxTb cb ;i;6momi>, o KOTbpoMB bbi 
cnpaBjijieTecB, 6htb 0CT0p6mHBiMH, noTOMy ^to yate 
H^CKOjiLKO MicflneBB OHB saMiTHO 3aTpy;i;H)ieTca bbi- 
nojiHeHieMTb cbo6xi> ;^eHemHBixi> o6a3dTejiBCTBi>. 

9tO CJiyatHTTb OTBiTOM'B Ha HHCBMO Bame 0T1> 

Iro c. M. H 6e3B Moero npe;i,ynpem;i;eHifl. 

BaniTb noK6pHBifi cjiyra 

N. N. 

11. Asking for a letter of credit. 

Mudom, 5ro JIeKa6pa 1906 r. 
rocno;i;dM'B N. N. bb napiim*. 
M6jiocTHBBie rocy;i,apHl 
n6jiB3yflCB B^mefi jiio6e3HOCTBio, mbi npocHMB Bacob 

Kpe^ilTHOe HHCBMO Bl> JS.B't T^Cfl^H HHTBCOTB py6jl6ft 

ji^jiK T-Ha N. N., H3B H^mero r6po;i;a, na BamnxB ;i;py- 
3efi BX neTep6ypr4, Mockb4, P^*, 0;i;ecc* h Bap- 


Mbi py^aaeMCfl Bamb 3a 6Ty cyMMy, h H0CH'feni6MTE> 
ynjiaTiiTB hxi> BaMi> cb H3;i;6pmKaMH no Hpe;i,BEBJieHiio 
KBHTaHn;iS i^Toro rocno;^6Ha. 

Crb coBepmeHHBiMTb H0TiT6HieMi> ocTacMca. 


N. N. 

» N. N. 


» N. N. 


rocno;i;6Hy N. N. 


» N. N. 


Models of commercial letters. 299 

12. Letter of introduction and credit. 

ITapuaicb, 6ro ^eKa6pa 1906 r. 
rociio;iiaMTE> N. N. bi> IleTepSyprt. 





MiijiocTHBLie rocy;i;apH! 

HacTOjim;ee nHCBM6 ndme mh Bpy^ideM'B T-y. N. N., 
KOTopHfi npn nyTemecTBin, npe;i;np6HaT0Mi> hm'b bi> 
HaMipeniH yseJiiigHTB Kpyri> CBOfe'L CBaseft, npe;i;no- 
jiaraeT-B ocTanoB^TBca Ha h4ckojibko ;i,Hefl Bt ropo- 
/il'fe BanieMTb. 

Ho 6T0My MH yc6pAHMnie np6cHM'L Baci>, CTapaxB- 
ca no Mip* chji-b BainHXi> noM6^B eny coBiTaMH Ba- 
niHMH, TaKt KaKi> eny ToproBBia o6iiraaH Bdmeft CTpa- 
hA ein;e HeHSBicTHu. 

EcjiH eMy iLOKkji,o6&TCSi ;i;6HBrH, to npocHM^b b^- 
;i;aTL eMy ;i;o deya^ m'^tcnm nnmucofm py6jieu na Hami> 
c^eTt, H Tpacc6poBaTB na nacB BeKceJi^ na cyMMBi 
Bili;i;aHHBia bAmh BMicT'fe ci> npon;eHTaMH h t. ]5,, 

Yb^^AsL BaCTb BI> T0MI>, ^TO BeKCOJUi 3a npoH3Be- 

;i;eHHHfl BaMH Bikji^dmn, b'b k6hxi> pocniiCKH T-na N. N. 
BH 6jiaroBOji6Te B^cjiaTB ki> HaMi>, npiiHaTBi 6y;i,yTi> 
CO Bcer;i,amHeio roT6BHOCTiio kx ynjiax*, mm 6cKpeHH0 
ejiaro/iiapiiM'B 3a BHHMdnie, KOT6poe bbi OK^^eTe h4mh 


HaMTb dy/iieT'B BecBMa npijiTHO OKasaTB h BaM'B 
ycjiyrH BCjiKoro p6;i;a, h updcHM-B pacnojiardTB HamnM-B 

C-B rjiy6o^afimHMi> noT4T6HieMi>. 

npe;i;4HHHe BaMi> 
N. N. 

13. Asking for money. 

EpeecAdeAhy lOro flnBapa 1889 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. bi> Mht^b*. 
M^jiocTHBHft rocy;i;apBl 
B-fepojiTHO Bh KaKB HH6y;i;B no3a6iijiH o mocm-b 
c^eT-fe Ha 150 py6jiefi, BpyTOHHOM-B BaMi yme ;i,Ba pasa, 
y MGHji no/i,omejii> cpoK'B ynjidTBi no BCKcejiiO, h a ne 

300 Appendix. 

HMilO BI> HaJl6^H0CTH n6jIH0fi CyMMLI, HH^^e a H He 

CTajii>-6Li BacB 6e3noK6HTB HanoMHH4HieMi>. Ilponi^ 
Bact He saM^^JiHTB HcnojiHeHieMi> MoeS Hp6ci>6Li h ne 
jiHm^TB Men^ Bnpe;^i> Banmx'B nopy^6Hifi. 

Cb 6cthhhhmi> no^T6HieMi> HM-fiio ^ecTB 6litb 
Banii> noK6pHHfi cjryT^ 
N. N. 

14. To an ill-intentioned debtor. 

H6elopo^^, 3ro ^eepdja 1889 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. bi> BopdneaK*. 
M^JiocTHBBift rocy;i,4pBl 
BAji^si, viTO BBi 3aMe;i;ji)ieTe CBOib pacnjidTy ci> naMH 
H xpanixe ;i;BycM]6cjieHHoe MOJi^dnie, mbi n^eji^BsupAewh 
BacB, ^TO, atejiaa nojiyn^TB ;i;ojiri>, mh p'feni^JiHCB noc- 
jiaTB KB BaMB H3BJie^6Hie hs-b cnexa, no KOT6poMy Bh 
HaMB cocTO^Te ;^6ji3khbimb. Ha iSxy cyMMy mbi B^ajiH 
Ha BacB BeKcejiB, no nameMy npHKasy, bx 8 ;i,Heft 
a dato. 

Mbi npoc^MB Baci npHH^TB H^my Tpaxy : bb npo- 
T^BHOMB cjiy^a*, MH yBii/^HMTb ce6A B^Hyac;i;eHHBiMH 
npHfiirnyTB kte> saKonaMB, h Bh caMH na ce6A ji^ojim,- 
uik neHflTB, ecjiH cjiy^iiiTCfl c^b bsimh TiT0-HH6y;^> ne- 

IlM^eM-B ^ecTB 6bitb 

npe;i;aHHBie BaMB 
N. N. 

15. Asking for a delay. 

Boponeoich, lOro ^espdoiH 1889 r. 
rocno;i;aMB N. N. b-b HoBropo;!,^. 
MiijiocTHBBie rocy;i,apHl 
HecMOTpji Ha Bce Moe mejidnie ^aecTHO pacnJiaT^TB- 
Cfl CB BaMH, a HHKaKB He BB cocTOfeia i^Toro Hcn6ji- 
HHTB B-B HacTOjimyio MHHyxy, TaKB KaKB MHorin cyM- 
MH, Ha KOTopBifl fl pasc^iTHBajiB, eme mh6io ne no- 
.ly^eHBi, a hs-b najn^^HHXX cbo6xi> ;i;6HerB ne CMiio 
npoH3Bo;i,feB ynjidxH, onacaaCB sanyxaTB T'feMTb cboiI 

Models of commercial letters. 301 

noiSTOMy, noKopHMme nponiy Baci>, MiijiocTHBHe 
rocy;i,apH, 0Tcp6^HTB y^jiaTy moi6 na Micauj-B, TaKB 


;i,4aTBCfl Ha nojiy^enie osRuji.AeiiSMX'h MH6iO cyMMi>. IIpH 

;§TOMB C^HTaiO HymHHMB ofiBflCH^TB BaMB, ^TO CJl4- 

;i;yK)in;ie sa npoMe;i,ji6Hie nponeHTBi a ch y;i;0B6jiBCTBieMB 

HcnojiHeHieMB ;§Tofi Moefi BcenoKdpHMmefi np6cB- 

6hl BBI TiyBCTB^TeJIBHO od^ateTG ^eJIOBiKa, KOTOpBlft 

^CKpeHHO ;i,opom]4TB b&hihmb /jjOBipieMB h ropii^o me- 
jiajiB-6B[ coxpaH^TB B^me xop6niee pacnojioateHie na 
6y;i;yin;ee Bp6Ma. 

Bb HaA^acA* nojiy^^TB Bkme corjidcie na moi5 
np6cB6y, HMiio qecTB Sbitb, MfijiocTHBHe rocy;^apH, 
Bkomwh noKdpHBiMB cjiyrdio 
N. N. 

16. Granting a delay. 

H6e^opo^^, 12ro ^espiuA 1889 r. 
TocjLO^^iLY N. N. BB BopoHeatt. 
M6jiocTHBHfi rocy;i,4pBl 
Cn-femj^MB yBi;i,OMHTB BacB, bb otb4tb na Banie 
HHCBMo 0TB IOto ^HCJia cero Micauja, tito mbi corjiacHBi 
uojj,03R]s,kTh ji,o lOro M4pTa yna^TBi ndmero B^Kcejia; 
HO 6epeMB ce64 cm^jioctb Ha/^iaxBca, ^to na 6totb 
pasB Bh He 3aM6;i;aHTe npoH3BecT6 ynaaxy bb cpoKB. 
C^b ^yBCTBaMH no^Tenia h npe;^aHHOCTH HMieMB 
^ecTB Sbitb 

BdniH noK6pHBie cayrn 
N. N. 

17. Complaints respecting goods received. 

BuAtma, 14ro Anpijiji 1889 r. 
rocno;i;]4Hy N. N. bb Jl^pes/neH*. 
M6jiocTHBHft rocy/napBl 
Si noay^ij^jiB otb Baci> 20 khhb nfoTiefi 6yMarH, 
HO wh coaEtajiiHiio ;i;6afflteHi> aaMixHTB BaMB, ^to Bca 
napTia H^me nojiy^enHLixB mh6io npo6B, TaKB ^to a 
He hm4h) BOSMomHOCTH BsaxB 3a ce6^ ^xy 6yM4ry, ecjiH 
TOJiBKO BaMB He yr6;i;H0 6y;i,eTB ycxyn^TB MH'fe ee co 
ck6;i;koio 5 pyfijieft sa K^ny np6THBB HasHd^oHHOfi Ba- 

MH D,*Hli. 

302 Appendix. 

HcKpeHHO orop^diocB, ^to nepsBifi 6iihti> He on- 
paB/iiaji'L MOiix-B omH;i,aHifi h noTony ne ocMijuocB 603- 
iiok6htb Baci mo6mh nopy^eniaMH na 6y;i;yin;ee BpeMa. 

BaniTb noKopHHfi cjoryr^ 

N. N. 

18. Answer to the preceding letter. 

^peadem, 17ro Anpijra 1889 r. 
rocno;j;6Hy N. N. b-b B6jibh*. 
M6jiocTHBBifl rocy;i,apBl 

Hs'B nHCBMa Bamero otx 14ro ^hcji^ a ki> orop- 
^emio MoeMy y3Hajii>, ^to Bh hb/^obojibhbi Ka^ecTBOMi* 
n6cjiaHH0fi Bemb 6yM^rH, h ;i,yineBHO acajiiio, ^to n6p- 
Boe A*Jio, KOToptiM'B SL KdLjs.iiiJicsi npio6p:feCT6 Bame 
;i,0B4pie, ok6ht4hjiocb TaKB Hey;i,4^H0. 

9to npoH3oniJi6 no HeB6jiBHoft omiidK'fe npHKam,H- 
Ka, OTnycT^Bmaro bm^cto nasH^iieHHaro Bam tob&- 
pa, coBepmeHHO ;i,pyr6fi, yate pdHBnie 3anp6AaHHBrft 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. 

Cniniy HcnpaBHTB Sxy oni]46Ky h Bi^cjiaTB Ban's 
;i;pyriff 20 khh-b 6yMarH no Moeiiy ji^iiHOMy B]^6opy. 
^TO KacaeTca fl;o TOBdpa, nojiyneHHaro BaMH npem^ije, 
TO 6jiaroBOJi6Te ero c;i,aTB rocno;i;6Hy N. N. KaKi> euf 
npHHa;i,jiemain;ifi, o ^bm-b mh6io c;i;'fijiaHO yme h pac- 

npomy BacB h3bhh]4tb mbh^ b-b cjiy^^BineMca h 
o6'JfeiD;aio na 6y;i,yin;ee spena o6pam,aTB oc66eHHoe Moe 
BKHManie Ha HcnojiHeHie Bamnx'b 3aKa30B'B, TaKi> KaKi> 
MH-fe BecBMa npi^THO coxpan^TB ;i;oB4pie ^ejoEOB^Ka, 
KOToparo rjiy66KO yBatas). 

C-B ^CTHHHBiMX noHTeHieMi> HMiio ^ecTB 6bitb 
Bani-B noKdpHBift cjiyr4 
N. N. 

19. Requesting a lawyer's assistance. 

XdpbKoe^, 19ro Mdn 1889 r. 
rocno;i;6Hy N. N. bi> neTepSypr-fe. 
Mi^jiocTHBBifl rocy;i,apBl 
HacToini;HMTb nncBMdM'B npomy Bamero co;i,iftcT- 
Bia Bi> cjii;i,yK)ni,eM'B oficTO^TejiBCTB'fe. 

Models of commercial letters. 305 

Kynen;i> N. N. cocto^t^ mh^^ js.ojlsrrum'b 150 py- 
6jiefi 3a np^HHTHfi hmte> TOBapi>. HecMOxp^ Ha Heo;i;HO- 
KpaxHua no6ym;iieHia ki> jujiirh, a ao chx'b nopx ne 
nojiyTii^jix OTi> Her6 hh kohMkh; na nepBHfl nanoMH- 
Hania oh-b npoc^Ji'B CHHCxom;i;6Hia, a noT6Mi> cosciMi^ 
nepecTaJii) OTBt^axL na n6cBMa. 

Tepninie Moe HCTOm,6jioci>, h a nponiy BacB no- 
iiHTdTLca, He sanji^THTB jih OHt no npHJi6meHH0My 
npH ceMB noAnHcaHHOiiy er6 c^aeTy cte> iipon^HTaMH sa 
18 Mican.eB'B. Ha nojiy^enie npoi^enxoBB a nacTaHBaTB 
He 6y;i,y ; TaKace He npoTHBi* Tor6, ec jih Bh fla^^Are eny 
;i;ByxM4caTiHHfi cpoKB ]s,Jia ynji^TH: mh^ npiaxHie no> 


EcjiH ace HoniiTKH BdniH 6y/i,yTB fieanojiesHH, to 
npomy Bacb Ho;i,aTB na Her6 ko BSHCKaniio ; ;i;oBipeH- 
HOCTB Ha HM^ Banie h no/i;jitaHBia n^CBMa N. N. npn 
ceMB npHJiaraio. 

Bb o^H;i;aHiH HSBicTifi BamnxB o6b ycniniHOMB. 
xojs.'h ;i,4jia, HMiio ^ecTB 6bitb cb ^cthhhbimb noTixe- 
HieMB IIpeAaHHBifi BaMB 

N. N. 

20. Answer to the preceding letter. 

^emep6^pl^, 23ro Mda 1889 r. 
rocno;i,6Hy N. N. bb XapBEOB*. 
M6jiocTHBHfi rocy;i;apB! 

Cep;i,eTiHo comajiiio, ^to a hhti4mb ne Mory ycjiy- 
SE±Th BaMB KacaTejiBHO Toro /i;ijia, o KOT6poMB Bh 
npoc^jiH MCH^ BB HHCBM* OTB 19ro \iHCJi& cer6 Mi- 

IIhcbmo Baffle npHniJi6 cjiJ^niKOMB n63;i;HO, hoto- 
My ^To rocno;i,6HB N. N. yace sapanie o6BaB]ijiB ce- 
6A necocTOiiTejiBHHMB, cjii/i;oBaTejiBHO o KaK6MB ji±6o 
pasc^eT-ife CB HHMB H ;i,yMaTB ne^ero. 51 mofb TdJiBKO 
npe;i;BaB6TB Bame Tpedonanie, ^to6b oh6 na cjiy^aft 
KaK6fl ji±6o nepeM^HH bb ^^ji^xb Bamero ji,ojim,iniKk, 
Morjio hm4tb nepBencTBO nepe;j;TE> np6^HMH nocTyn±B- 
niHMH na Her6 BStiCKiniaMH. 

Ecjih Bh meJiaeTe ynoTpe66TB ;i;ajiBHMniee Moe 
nocp6;j;HHqecTBO no i^TOMy A*^> to npomy BacB npn- 
cjiaTB MHt oc66eHHoe ynoJiHOM6me h 6bitb yBipeHHH- 

304 Appendix. 

MH, ^TO a co6jiio;i;y Bdnm HHTepecu, KaKOb 6bi c66- 



npe;i;aHHi>ift BaM'b 

N. N. 


1. Bills, notes of hand, etc. 

HwO'IopKh^ lOro Ii)jia 1899 r. 
B^KcejoLb Ha 346 pyfijieft cep. 
^pes'B naTH4;i,ii;aTB /uneft npomf Baci» sanjiaTiiTB 
no i^TOMy nepBOMy BeKcejno T-ny N. N. cyMMy bte> 
Tp6cTa c6poKi> mecTB py6ji6fi cepe6poMi», KOTdpue a 


N. N. 
MocKed, Iro ^espaju 1900 r. 
B^KceJHb Ha 100 py6ji6ft cepe6p6Mi>. 
nepe3i> o;i;6hi> Micau;i> noB6HeHTE> a no ceM^ Moe- 
My B^KcejiH) sanjiaT^TB T-ny N. N., j^jih KOMy ohte> 
npHKaateTB, cyMMy bi> cto py6jiefi cepeepdMB, kot6- 
pHe a nojiynijMb oti> Her6 TOBapaMH cnojiHa. 

N. N. 
IIe1nep6ypl^y 3ro 0KTa6pa 1904 r. 
S, H6ateno;i;nHc4Binifica, nojiyH6jii> oti> rocno;i;iiHa 
N. N. cjii/^yiomiee mh* b^b ynjidxy aa naeM-B bi> ;i;6m* 
MoeMB KBapTfipH, Bcero cto naTBAecflTb py6j[6fl cepe6p6M^, 
BB qeMi> H ;i;ajiB cii& pocn6cKy. N. N. 

EdacAhy 4ro AerycTa 1905 r. 
fl[, H6aKeno;j;nHcdBniifica, nojiy^i^jiB otb Tr. N.N. 
bb 3;i;4mHeMB r6po;i;4 no Kpe;i,6TH0My nncMy Tr. N. N. 
BB ]Iap63K* cyMMy bi> ^OTi^ecTa py6ji6fi cepe6p6Mi>, 
Bi> ^eMi> H CBH;i;iTejiBCTByio B;i,BoflHi, ho cb oSasd- 
TejiBCTBOM-B Ha OTi.'kwh pasTb. N. N. 

2. Invoices, account sales, etc. 

Mocxed, 26ro AsrycTa 1906 r. 
r-Hi> N. N. Bi> B4h4 ;ii6jiaKeHB. 
N. N. 
OTnpdBHJiH KB BaM-B corji4cHO BdmoMy nopy^e- 
niio, Ha BaniTb cxpaxB h c^gtb, no atejiisnofi Aop6r4, 
cp6K0Mi> Ha MicanjB no;nB pacn6cKy: 

Models of commercial letters. 


jN2 448/30. 

3 in^HKa h4k) i^B^TdHHaro II^rro 

J^ 428 6p. 32 K^o. T&pa 5 kiiji6. 
„ 429 „ 35 „ „ 5,5 „ 

^ 430 « 37 « « 6 , 

5p^TTo 104 kAjo» T&pa 16,5 khj6. 

HiicTHfi Btcfc 87,5 kAjlo. no py6. 1,85 

4<^/o criIabh. 

QMkojKi, 30'''<> Hoa6pi[, PyccK. js/ku. 





BpiMcm, Iro GeHTA5p^ 1906 r. 
C^eT'B Ha npo;i,4aty 350 M*niK6Bi> KaMniftnacTb k6- 
(|)e, nojiy^eHHaro ci> napox6;i;oMi> «I0n6Tepi>» Kaira- 
TaHi> N. N., OT^b Tr. N. N. bi> JI6h;i;oh* h np6;i,aHHaro 
3A*CB 3a Hx:i> c^eTi>. 

350 MimKdB'B KaMDinHaci K6<i)e 

5p^TT0 21843 kAjio, T&pa 487 khjo 

213551/1 RHi6 

109 ^ CKA jtKa no V»®/o 

H^CTHii B.212461/S kAjlo no 85 (|> 3a ^/s ki^jio 
Ahcr6hti VJA^Io. 

$paxTi OTb MnjsflBB, . . . . . 3f .498,45 

Maraai^HHafl n6injniHa 78,65 

IIpHBdsHafl ndniJiHHa 180,60 

lO^/o Ao54BOHHoii n6mj[nHH . . . 18,05 

KypTdai 301,00 

Hs^i^pxRH npn noiy^^mn . . . 135,70 

KoMMHCci6HHHfl 2o/o 713,35 

HAcTaa Bri[pyHRa M, 33741,75. 










J^Ma, Iro CeHTji5p^ 1906 r. 
Ha KynjieHHua ot'b BacB h nojiy^eHHBia 3;i;*cb OTt 
r-na N. N. 100 Pocy/iidpcTBeH. ffl:eJi*3Ho;iiop6atH. 
AK^ifi 621/720. Py6ji6ft cep. 100.— 

B-B ndniy n6jiB3y N. N. 

T-Hy N. N. BB 3;i;4niHeMB r6poA*. 

Russian Ck>ny.-Grammar. *^ 

306 Appendix. 

3. Letters of Attorney, etc. 

Mndom, 8ro M4a 1906 r. 

Mh, H6meno;i,imc4Bmieca, chmi> ynojiHOM6^HBaeMi> 
BJia;i,4Tejia dTOfi ;i,OBipeHHOCTH, H^mero noBipeHHara 
r-Ha N. N., npHHHM^TB 3aK43H, nojiy^aTB ;^eHB^H h 
pacn^CHBaTLca oti> ndniero Amchh bi> nojiyq^HiH Ta« 
KOBJ^xTb, npHHHM^TB TOBipBT, npe;i;ocT4BjieHHBie Bi> pac- 
nopameHie h pacnopaatiTBca na cqeTi> 6hbixi>, no;i;a- 
BaTB Tpe6oBaHifl kg BSBiCK^mH) bi> Ha;^Jiem4m;ifl npn- 
cyTCTBeHHBia m^ct^, BBi;i;aB4TB na to ;i,0B4peHH0CTB^ 
BOo6iu;e npHK^SBiBaTB h hchojih^tb Bce, Morym;ee no;i;- 
;i,epmaTB Hamn B]too;i,Bi. 

Bee, ^TO npe;i;npiiMeTi> Haini> ynojiHOM6^eHHBift 
T'Wh N. N. MBT npH3HaeMi> KaKi> 6bi coBepmeHHoe iiaMH 
caM^MH Bi> c6jiy namefi c66cTBeHHofi n6;iinHCH. 


BepAum, lOro Mdpia 1906 r. 
rocno;i,6Hy N. N. bi> MocKBi. 
M6jiocTHBHfi rocy/ii4pB! 
P:feiniiBniHCB pacm6pHTB Topr6BHa cbo6 ^a^^jik bi> 
npe^ijijiaxTb PoccifiCKoft HMn^pin, a chmtb ynojiHOMO^H- 
BaH) Baci>: 

1. IIoKynaTB h npo;i;aBaTB oti> M0er6 6MeHH /i^bA- 
acHMoe H He;i,BiiaKHMoe HMymecTBO h BC^Karo p6;i,a to- 
BipH; OTnpaBji^TB 3a rpan^ny h nojiyqiTB xaKOB^e 
0TTy7i,a 630 BC'fexi> pyccKHXx TaMomeni*; npoH3Bo;i,6TB 

no BC:feMl> MOliMI> JJ^^JlkWh BI> PoCCIH OKOH^^TeJIBHBie 

H BC^Karo p6;i,a APyrie paBC^CTH ; nojiyqaTB h ynjii- 

^HBaTB no HHMI> ^IjeHBrH. 

2. CoBepm^TB oti> Moer6 Amohh Topr6BHa h ;i,py- 
ria 3aK6HOMi> ;i;onyin;eHHBia c;^'£jikh; ;i;ijD[aTB ji^rs. mbh^ 
34ftMBr, "snAdiBkih OTi> Moer6 AMenn BC^Karo p6;i;a ;i;o- 
KyMOHTBr H o6a3&TejiBCTBa ; 0T;i,aB4TB 3a npoii;eHTBrnpH- 
Ha;i,jieat^iu;ie uw^ KannT^JiBi bi> 3aeMi>, KaKTb to o6- 


pem;i,eHiaMi>, TaKi» h q4cTHBiMi> jiiiii;aMi>. 

3. nojiyq^TB ci> n6^TH h h3i> ;i,pyr6xi> npaB^TejiB- 
CTBeHHBixt H o6mecTBeHHBixi> q^CTHBixi> y^pem^^enifi: 
aApec6BaHHHa na Moe Amh CTpaxoBi^a ii6cBMa h /i^e- 
He^HBia noc^jiKH h pacnAcHBaTBca wh hxi> nojiy^eniH. 

Models of commercial letters. 


4. HaHHM^TB H onpe;i,'feji^TB na pasHHa ;i,6jimH0CTH 
cjiyacamHXi> no mo6mi> ;i,'fejiaMi», BH;i,aBaTB hmi> oti> 
Moer6 ±MeHH saKdnHHa ;i;oBipeHHOCTH h TpefiosaTL 

OTI> HHXI> no TaKOB^Ml> BO BCeMI> OT^eTa. 

5. Bb cjiy^a-fe Ha;i,o6HOCTH na^HH^TB npoii;eccBr 
KaKi> ci> o6m;ecTBeHHBrMH, qacTHHMH h npaBAxejiB- 

CTBeHHHMH y^peat/^eHiflMH, TaKl> H C1> ^aCTHBIMH Jl6- 

i];aMH; ynojiHOMd^HBaTB a;i;BOKaTOBB, BBi;i;aB^ hmb ^o- 
B^peHHOCTH Ha Be;i,eHie ]5,'hjii>; nepenociiTB TaK0B:6a 
H3i> HBLcniHX'b HHCTaHDjifi BB Bj^cmifl ; no;i;aB4TB no hhmb 
npomenia h BC^Karo p6;i,a APyrin SyM^rn; BBicjiyniH- 
BaTB cy^^fiHBra pimenia; H3BaBJi^TB no hhmi> y^o- 
B6jiBCTBie Ajik Hey;i;0B6jiBCTBie no BanieMy ycMOTpiniio. 

Bo BcfexB BiinieH3Ji6meHHBrxi> cjiynaaxB Bii hm^- 
exe n6jiHoe h neorpaH^^eHHoe np^BO nocxynaxB, KaKB 
BaMB 3a6jiaropa3cyAHTca h bo BceMi>, ^to Bh bi> ciijiy 
;5to3 ^i.oBipeHHOCTH 3aK6HHO c;i,ijiaeTe, h cnopnTB n 
npeKocjDEOBHTB He 6yAy- 

Ci> 6cTHHHBrMi> noqT6HieMi> H coBepmeHHOH) npe- 
/i,aHHOCTiK) HMiio ^ecTB Sbitb 

BamHMB noK6pHHMi> cjiyroio 

N. N. 

Hemepdypti, 10 Anpija 1899 r. 

a, H^meno^nHcaBmifica, ;i,ajii> cie CBH^iTejiBCTBO 
T-ny N. N. bi> tomb, ^to oh-b 6Brjii> moAmb rjiasHBiMB 
npHKim;HKOMB bb Te^enie naT6 jocfeTB, a ^mghho ci> 
Iro Anpijia .... roAa. 

9to BpeMa bcjib oh'b ce6a npHMipno h Bci BOSJioaten- 
hhh na Hero nopy^enia HcnojiHflji'B cb HcnpaBHOCTBK), ctb 
otjih^hhmi. ycep^ieMB h to^hoctbk). N. N. 

4. Customs Declaration. 

UviJEieuoji,mickBmmcii OTnpaBJiAeTi T^Y N. N. b-b neTepCypri. 


^uc.%6 Mihcnvh. 


u utbud. 



A. R. 
J^ 75 

1 kmjLVb, 

20 KHJi6. 


TOBd.pi. It'feHd, 

py6j. 100. 

13 khj6. 


808 Appendix. 

5. Telegrams. 

90 ^HKOBTb nkio, cjievKk nospem/iieHHaro, r6;i;Ha- 
ro ji^Jisi npliM'feCH, HMiexe ynoTpe6ji6Hie ? 

Bepy 40 ^hkobi> qepnaro; d;*h4? 

30 th)k6bi> xji6iiKa coBepm^HHO noBpem;iieH]^; sa- 

M^HliTL 6jIH BSHTB o6p4THO. 

SaMina 0TnjiHB4eTi> cer6;i;HH; nncBMd cjii/i.yeT'b. 

N. N. npe;i;cT^BHJD[i> Kpe^pirnoe nHCBM6 10000 py- 
6jiefi. Bkme Ama, cyMMa np^BHJiBHH? 

N. N. HeH3BicTeHi», ssip^e^SKkTh no/i;;^ijiBm;HKa. 

N. N. Haini> APyr^^ B^afixe TpefiyeMyio cyMMy. 


Fji^bhoji KBapT^pa. 
BoeHHbifi mra^'b. 

n6jiHufi renep^JTB. 
nojieB6fi renep^jn.. 
BpHr6,AHuft renep^jn*. 















An Army. 

The head-quarters. 

The staff. 

A marshal. 

A general in chief. 

A general (Conunander of a 

A. lieutenant-general. [corps). 

A major-general. 

An adjutantgeneral. 

A brigadier-general. 

An aid-de-camp. 

A colonel. 

A lieutenant-colonel. 

A conmiissary of stores, 

A major. 

A captain. 

A staff-captain. 

A lieutenant. 

A sub-lieutenant. 

A quarter-master. 

A sergeant-major. 

A non-commissioned officer. 

A sergeant (brigadier). 

A corporal. 

An ofiicer. 

The colours. 

An ensign. 

A standard. 

A standard bearer. 

The infantry. 

For army and navy officers. 




HHateH^pHMfi K6piiycT>. 




















nojiKOB6fi mTa6i> JiiEapb. 

IIox6;^Hufi rdcnHTajib. 


Hhx^TEaa p6Ta. 






Pes^pBHuft Kdpnyct. 


KoHB6fi rocy;i,apfl. 


Jleiyqift OTpif^^Tb. 











The cavalry. 

The artillery. 

The engineers. 

A soldier. 

A foot-soldier. 

A fusilier. 

A grenadier. 

A chasseur. 

A sapper. 

A drummer. 

A drum. 

A horseman. 

A dragoon. 

A lancer. 

A hussar. 

A cuirassier. 

An artillery-man. 

A cannoneer. 

A trumpeter. 

A trumpet. 

A kettle-drummer. 

A kettle-drum. 

A miner. 

A pioneer. 

A spy. 

A surgeon-major. 

A field-hospital. 

A platoon. 

A company of foot. 

A battalion. 

A squadron. 

A regiment. 

A brigade. 

The vanguard. 

The main body. 

The rear. 

A body of reserve. 

A detachment. 

The life-guards. 

The imperial guards. 

A camp. 

A flying column. 

A post. 

A guard-house. 

A sentinel. 

A sentry box. 

The watch-word. 

The order. 

A scout. 

A patrol. 

A round. 

A recruit. 



06yqdiomiii p^Kpyrb. 


PyscdfiHbie npieiibi. 



0(t)Hi^6pcKifi KJiy^-b. 




Bapa6AHHufi Cofi. 





nepe;^OBi^e nocTi^. 


















Ilapd;^!), pasBo.^'b. 









An instructor. 

The drill. 

The manual exercise. 

The depot. 

The barracks. 

The mess. 

The call. 

The alarm. 

The tattoo. 

A general roll. 

A roU. 

An annament. 


A campaign. 

The advanced posts. 

The bivouac. 

The evolutions. 

A counter-march. 

A halt. 

The charge. 

The attack. 

The battle. 

The victory. 

The retreat. 

The rout. 

A transport. 

A convoy. 

An ambuscade. 

A skirmish. 

The pillage. 


The ransom. 

The review. 

The parade. 

The ranks. 

A truce. 

The disbanding. 

A disarmament. 

A discharge. 

A deserter. 

The baggage. 

The provisions. 

The forage. 


MexBtkui manca. 


The armour. 
The equipment 
The umf orm. 
A grenadier's cap. 
A cockade. 
A feather. 

For army and navy officers. 




K6saHHaA aMyH6^iiI. 






















CnycKOBd^i CK66a. 

CnycKOB&A co64qKa. 



3aTp4BoqHBifi n6poxi>. 




IlyjieB^e n^HT^. 









Ox6THHmfi H03K1>. 


ApTHjiJiepificKifi o663i>. 

The epaulets. 

A shoulder-belt. 

The belts. 

The cartridge-box. 

A knapsack. 

A helmet 

A shield. 

A cuirass. 

A coat of mail. 

A bow. 

A cross-bow. 

A quiver. 

An arrow. 

The sling, 

A gun. 

A musket. 

A pistol. 

A rifle. 

The stock. 

The buttend. 

The barrel. 

The breech. 

The mouth. 

The caliber. 

The sight. 

The lock. 

The cock. 

The guard. 

The trigger. 

The pan. 

The touch-hole. 

The priming. 

The cartridge. 

The ball, the bullet 

The ramrod. 

The worm-screw. 

The charge. 

The firing. 

The bayonet. 

A battle-axe, 

A lance. 

A pike. 

A sword. 

A sabre. 

A poniard. 

A cutlass. 

A hanger. 

The hilt 

The blade. 

The scabbard. 

The handle. 

A train of ordnance. 



IIojieBi^H opy^^iA. 

^Y^fEEaJ^ nymKa. 
Ta»ejioe opt^ie. 
nfme^HLift CTaH6Ki>. 






I('!I^HHoe HAp6. 


niT^KOBufi yA^pi>. 

yAS-pi) mn^H. 

y^^pTb Konbjf. 

y^4pT> CTptjiii. 

ntme^Hufi B6cTp4jn>. 

A piece of ordnance. 

A field-piece. 

A cannon. 

A brass cannon. 

A heavy cannon. 

The carriage. 

The match. 

A cannon ball. 

A mortar. 

A howitzer. 

A bomb. 

A cross bar shot. 


A thrust with a bayonet. 

A strocke of a sword. 

A stab with a lance. 

A strocke of an arrow. 

A cannon-shot. 

A musket-shot. 


YKpi^njieHHbitt r6po;^'b, 





EacTi6Hi>. . . 












YKp-fenji^Hie npe;i,t KypT^noio. 






OnycKHda ptmeTica. 

Ho;^l»eMHLlfi HOCTb. 
nOHT6HHUtt MOCrb. 
UjlOWfm^ MOCTT*. 

A fortified town. 

A citadel. 

A castle. 

A fortress, a fort. 

The commander. 

The garrison. 

The arsenal. 

A bastion. 

A battery. 

A redoubt. 

The walls. 

The rampart. 

The battlements. 

A tower, a donjon. 

A platform. 

A parapet. 

A casemate. 

A horn-work. 

A crown-work. 

A curtain. 

A half-moon. 

An embrasure. 

A loop-hole. 

A raveline. 

A gate. 

A postern. 

A portcullis. 

A draw-bridge. 

A ponton. 

A bridge of boats. 

For army and navy officers. 




BH'femHifl yicptnjieHifl. 

napd^Hoe MtcTO. 








JIi^HiH CHomeHia. 

I^HpKyMBajiJiaii^dHUH .hIhIh. 



HpHKpiiTHfi nyxb. 













CyAH6, Kop46ja. 

AAMHpdjiBCKifi Kopa5jib. 

BoeHHufi Kop46jik. 

JlHH^iiHblfi Kop^6jib. 




BoMdapAiipcKoe cy^HO. 

KaHOH^pcKafl ji6;^Ka. 


KyneqecKifi K0ipk6jih. 




Tp^HcnopiHoe cy^Ho. 



Pbi6oji6BHoe cy;^n6. 


A ditch. 
The glacis. 
The outworks. 
The esplanade. 
The parade. 
A cheval de frise. 
An intrenchment. 
The fraises. 
A gabion. 
A fascine. 
A palisade. 
The lines. 

The lines of communication. 
The lines of circumvallation. 
A scarp. 
A counterscarp. 
The covered wav. 
A trench. 
A false trench. 
A mine. 
A siege. 
A blockade. 
A sally, sortie. 
A storm, assault. 
' A breach. 
The besiegers. 
The besieged. 

The Navy. 
A fleet. 
A squadron. 
A cruise. 
A ship. 

The admiral's ship. 
A man of war. 
A ship of the line. 
A frigate. 
A cutter. 
A caper. 
A bomb-ketch. 
A gun-boat. 
A fire-ship. 
A merchant-man. 
A sloop. 
A boat. 
A galley. 
A transport-ship. 
A packet-boat. 
A bark. 

A fishing boat 
A ferry. 









$OKi> M^qTa. 
BHS^Hb Mkvra,. 
FpoTB CT^Hra. 
BpaiTb CT^Hra. 



nyme^Hbitt noprb. 




IlapycS. rpoTb. 
HocoB6fl ndpycb. 








Pyjib, pyiinejib. 




BoKOB^ K^qsa. 

KHJIb B^Tepi). 









A raft. 

An express-boat. 

An oar. 

A rudder. 

An anchor. 

A sheet-anchor. 

A mast. 

The fore-mast. 

The mizzen-mast. 

The bowsprit-mast. 

The top-mast. 

The main'top-raast. 

The top' gall ant-mast 

The il^^ck. 

The gun-deck. 

The stern, the poop. 

The prow. 

The keel. 

A port-hole. 

A shroud. 

The starboard. 

The larboard. 

The hold. 

The sails. 

The main sail. 

The fore sail. 

The mizzen sail. 

The top-gallant sail. 

The main yard. 

The top. 

The rigging. 

A cable. 

The armament. 

The helm. 

The pump. 

A sounding-lead. 

A sounding-line. 

The compass. 

A grapling. 

The flag. 

The pennants. 

A hammock. 

The rolling. 

The wake. 


A cargo. 

The shipping. 

The landing. 

A descent. 

A shipwreck. 

A dock-yard. 

An admiral. 

For army and navy officers. 










npH6p^HBifi ji6i^HairB, 






A vice-admiral. 

A rear-admiral. 

A commodore. 

A commissioner. 

A captain. 

A lieutenant. 

A mate. 

A midshipman. 

A boatswain; a master. 

A surgeon. 

A surgeon's mate. 

A pilot. 

A coasting pilot. 

A sailor. 

A waterman. 

A shipboy. 

The crew. 

An armateur. 

A cockswain. 

A passenger. 


OTBtq^ii Ha ho^ Bonp6cii! 
0TBi?4ft, xa ixE utTi! 
Cicaac^ t6j[i>ko ^ECJl6wb[ 
OTBtqdft ^eneiTb MicTa! 
Beper^cb, He epH! 
roBop6mb-jiH Tbi no-^HiigcKH? no- 


He OTroB^pRBaftca I 

He 66ficH HHqer6l 

By;^b cnoK6eHi>! 

3Hdenib-jiH tu Kor6, kto roBop^TL 

CTyndtt sa eewl? 
IIpHBejid er6 ck)a^! 
Cjrfe^yfi 3a mh6k)! 
He Tp6raficfl cb MicTa! 
Mnt HysHO cb To66fi roBop^Tb. 

HOHEM^emb-JIH TbI MeHjl? 
H He nOHHM^K). 

HoBTop^ en^e pasi)! 

YKascfi ndjibi^eiTb! 

YEamd MHt Bi) KaK6irb Haapa- 

Eflfi sa mh6ioI 
r;^'fe aHBen» rocno;^tab ...? 
Befl,A HeHjt Kib HeMy! 

Answer my questions! 

Answer yes or no I 

Say only a number! 

Answer by a name of locality I 

Mind, don't lie I 

Do you speak English? French? 

Don't evade my question! 

Don't fear! 

Be quiet! 

Do you know any body that 

speaks English? 
Go and fetch him I 
Accompany him here! 
Follow me! 

Don't stir from this place! 
I must speak with you. 
Do you understand me? 
I don't imderstand. 
Repeat once more! 
Show me with your finger! 
Show me in what direction! 

Come with me! 

Where does Mr live ? 

Accompany me to him! 



BOttCKl ? 

r^t pyccKift Ji^repb? 

R TBott APyn>. 


npHxo;^^ q6pe3T> qacT>? 

npHXOAi^ B^qepoiTb? 

npHxo;],^ sdBTpa! 

a a;^y Te6A 3A4cb. 

H 6y;^y jK^^aib TeCji na fjiHi^t. 

H xo^t "feCTB! 

a xoqt dhtbI 

Aafi MH']^ xj[i6a! 

Aafi MH*]^ H^ca! 

][&& HHt ci^py! 

Aafi MHt CTaKiHi» Bo;^! 

Aafi HHt BHH^! 

Aob6jilho ! 

dro cji^mKOiTb MH6ro. 

J(afi MHt 66jibme! 


noq^CTk Moib ji6maAb! 

Han6tt hoi5 Ji6ma;^i>! 

HaKopH^ Hoib ji6maAi>! 

Be;^ Hoib ji6ma;^b wh sysHei^t! 

Oct;],ji&tt M0i5 Ji6ma;^>. 
Pasci^AJi&fi Moib jidmaAb. 
BsnysA^ft moi5 j6ma;^b. 
PasHys^^fi Moib jibma^b. 

Where are the lodgings of the 
commander of the Russian 

Where is the Russian camp? 

I am an Englishman. 

I am your friend. 

Go away I 

Come again within an hour! 

Come towards evening I 

Come to-morrow! 

I am waiting for you here. 

I shall wait for you in the street. 

I will have something to eat I 

I wish to drink I 

Give me some bread! 

Give me some meat! 

Give me some cheese! 

Give me a glass of water! 

Give me some wine! 

Enough ! 

It is too much. 

Give me more! 

I thank you. 

Clean my horse! 

Let my horse drink! 

Feed my horse! 

Accompany my horse to the 
blacksmith I 

Saddle my horse! 

Unsaddle my horse! 

Bridle my horse! 

Unbridle my horse! 

To ascertain information. 

KaKii BejiHs6 qECJi6 acirejieft dToro 

Bi> ^eiTL cocTO^Tb er6 npoHi^im- 


CK6jibK0 Bu H6aceTe ^^oct&betl 

HaiTb jioma^^fi? 
CK6jibK0 nafiK6Bi> xjr&6a? 
CK6jibK0 n6pi4tt ii^ca? 

CK6jbK0 BHH^? 

CK6jibK0 n^Ba? 
3Aop6Ba-jiH dra CTpaH&? 
npijtTHa-jiH 3;^cb BecHd? 
H&CTO-jffl SAicb {6aBknrb) xozah? 
Oqenb-jiH acapKO ji^TOirb? 
MH6ro-jiH 6ojibH^xi>? 



How many inhabitants has this 

What are its resources? 

How many horses can you 

supply ? 
How many rations of bread? 
How many portions of meat? 
How much wine? 
How much beer? 
Is this country healthy? 
Is spring agreeable here? 
Does it often rain? 
Is the heat in summer great? 
Are there many sick? 
Are the fevers caused by the 

marshes ? 

For army and navy officers. 


He Bp^^HO JIH HO^eB&Tb Ha b63- 

X6jio;^hu JIH H6qH? 
Kor ji,k Bjjfich Ha^HH^eTCfl 3Hm&? 
OqeHb-jiH x6jioaho 6ceHi>K)? 
Kor^^S.'rb s^'i^Cb ptsH? 
Bo cK6jibK0 ^p^;^ycoB^> cp6;^Hift 


KorA& HaqHH^eTCH cy;^ox6;^cTBO? 

KaKT. rjiy66Ki» cntn, 3hm6k)? 
MH6ro JIH BA'fecb jrfecy? 

ECTb-JIH BA'feCb K^MeHHblfi frojib? 

M63KeTe-jiH HaMi> OTsecTd Kaa&p- 

Bojibni6e-JiH !§to 3;^&Hie? 
H-ferb-jiH r^t SA'fecb a^S-Hia, kot6- 

poe 6bi Morji6 cJiyac^Tb Hairb na- 


CK6jIbK0 M6aCH0 nOMtCT^b Wb 

newh jiK)jifi& (jiomaA^tt)? 

BejIHK^-JIH TaiTb K6MHaTbI? 

EcTb-jiH TaMT. KOJI6;^e3b? 
Xopom^-jiH dTa bo;^4? 
He c6po-jiH dTO SA^Hie? 
CK6jibK0 Bib HeiTb aTasKeft? 


EcTb-jiH TaMib capdH ;^jifl j^yp&sKa? 

Is it dsingerous to sleep in the 

open air? 
Are the nights cold? 
When does winter begin here? 
Is it very cold in autumn? 
When do rivers freeze here? 
How many degrees does the 

thermometer sink? 
When does navigation begin 

How high is the snow in winter? 
Is there much fuel (wood) here? 
Is there any coal here? 
Is there any turf? 
Can you procure us barracks? 

Is this a spacious building? 
Is there not here some building 

that might anyhow serve as 

barracks ? 
How many men (horses) can be 

in it? 
Are its rooms spacious? 
Is there a kitchen too? 
Is there a well? 
Is its water good? 
Is this building not damp? 
How mainy storeys has it? 
Is there a stable? 
Is there a room for placing 


Arriving at a town. 

r;^* SA'fecb ropo;i,H6qifi? 

OdliflBJUiK) BaiTb, qiO BCK6p4 CK)^4 

T6cflqa nHTbcdTb coji;^4tt» irfex6- 


TlaThcdTb KaBaji^piH. 

EcTb-jiH y Bacb h^cto ;^jih hxIi 

Coji;^4Tbi 6y;^y'rb KopiiATbca na 

cqerb »6Tejieft. 
Coji^^Tb nojiyqHTL xjrfe6'b, mjIco h 

n^BO ;^Ba p43a bi> cyTKH. 
^^TejiH ace 6t;^y'rb ;i;aB4Tb h 

KopM-b jiomn^iwb. 
Mu 3anjidTHirb 3a H3;^^pacKH. 

EcTb-jiH y Bacb B6eHHbifl neR^p- 


Where is the mayor of this town? 

I announce to you that two thou- 
sand men are going to arrive 

One thousand five hundred of 
the infantry. 

Five hundred of the cavalry. 

Have you convenient lodgmgs 
for them all? 

The inhabitants will lodge (and 
feed) the soldiers. 

Each soldier shall receive bread, 
and meat and beer twice a day. 

They shall give also forage to 
the horses. 

We shall then defray the ex- 

Is there a military baking house 
in this town? 



Bo QKdjihKO neq^fi? 
Kor^S, neK^TTb bt, hhxt>? 

CK6jIbK0 pa3T> B1> CfTKH nGKyTb 

EcTb-jin 3anacHi;ie Haras^Hu? 

6ojibm6fi-JiH Bt EHxi) san^CB? 
CK6jibK0 y Bact wkmKdwb nmend- 
^H[? P3KH? MyK6? p6cy? 

AocTdTO^HO-jin Hxi Ha H^cfli^'b na 
;^Bd;^n,aTb T^cawb qejiOBtKi? 

M6acH0-JiH synHTb b% OKpyxHOCTH 

KaK^ Bflfkch H^pa? 

no qeMt M^pa? 

r;^* SAtcL M^jiioTB Myxy? 

Xop6mifl-JH 3AtCL M^JILHHI^U? 

AajieK6-jiH 3;i^tcb M^jibHHi^bi? 
r;^* a^tcb (j[)ypS,aHue cap&H? 
Mebro-JiH Tairb bi> sanact coji6mu, 

dna, OBca, snaeEA? 
Xopom^-jiH B^mH nHT^fiHbie no- 


How many ovens are in it? 
When do they bake there? 
How many times a day do they 

bake in it? 
Is there any magazine of pro- 
visions ? 
Are there many provisions in it? 
How many sacks have you, of 

wheat? of rye? of flour? of 

Are there enough for twenty 

thousand men during a month ? 
Is it possible to buy any com 

in the environs? 
What is the measure used here? 
How much does a measure cost ? 
Where do they grind com? 
Are there good mills here? 
Are they far from here? 
Where is the forage magazine? 
Are there in good quantity straw, 

hay, oats and barley? 
Are your wine-cellars good? 

On reconnoitring. 

KaKi> HasbiB^BTCH dTa ;^op6ra? 

Ky;^^ OHd Be;^erb? 

^pest KaKifl ;^ep6BHH onk npojie- 

EcTb-jiH B^ojib eA ^ep^BbH? sa- 

BcibAy-JiH oh4 o^^HHdKOBoft mnpH- 

PoBHaJI JH OH^ Bcib^^y? 

rop6cTa-jiH oh6,? 

M6ry'rb-jiH cbo66;i,ho ;^B6raTbca no 

Hefi 4>ypr6Hbi? 
nepecticaeTca-jiH oh^ r^'i^ p'j^k6k)? 
Kyfl^k Befi^erb dxa acejr&sHaH flfiV^ 

KaKT, BejiHK6 e^ npoTfl»6Hie? 
ABofiH6&-jiH na nefi nyib? 

KaKii nasbiBaiOTCfl fji^bhuh ct&h- 


EcTb-jin na neS Bar6HU ji^jisi nepe- 
B63a jioma^^^fi h apTHJiJi^piH? 

CE6jibE0 not3;^6Bi> M6acH0 c^tjiaTB 
no nefi Bib cyTKH? 

KaKT* Ha3HBdeTca 6to yn^^jiie? 

What is the name of this road? 

Where does it lead to? 

Through what villages does it 

Are there trees along it? are 
there hedges? 

Does it continue as broad as 
here all the way? 

Is it level all the way? 

Is it mountainous ? 

Can carriages go on it without 

Is it cut by any river? 

Where does this railway-line 
lead to? 

How long is it? 

Is there a double line of rails 
on it? 

What is the name of the prin- 
cipal stations? 

Are there waggons for the trans- 
port of horse and artillery? 

How many trains a day run 
on it? 

What is the name of this pass? 

For army and navy officers. 


Moacerb-jiH Tain> npo'fexaTb ap- 
THjiJi^piH H KaBaji^piA? 

KyA^ oh6 Be^^en.? 

YKp-fenjieHd-JiH oh6? 

3aii:^nii^eH6-jiH oh6 Ka.K^wh-Ji^6o 

KaKt fl^JlEEBk ^Ta flfi^j^HJl^R? 

M6acH0-jiH ee npofiifi 6e3T> Tpy^^? 

He HYHHO-jiH onac^TbCH naiTL sa- 

KaKt HaauBdeTCfl 5to ceji^nie? 
KaKi> HasuBdercH dra ;^ep^BHA? 

CK6jIbK0 h6sH0 nOH'J^CT^Tb BT} Hefi 

jHo^efi H jionia;^6fi? 
BoKpyrL ;^ep6BHH HtrB-jiH or^^ijiB- 

HuxTb aom6bt»? 
CK6jibK0 Bt tomtj ^6po;^t atHTe- 

EcTb-jiH B-b HeiTb 6ojibiiiia CTpo6- 

Hifl ;^jifl noMtm^Hifl coJi;i,&Tb? 

Ompiirb-JiH offb? 

EcTb-jiH BT) HeiTb jiaaap^Tb? 

He OKpyagHTi-jiH oht> pbomt>? 

niHpOK^-JIH 'y'JIHIViI? 

EcTb-jin Bi HeiTb i^HTaA^jib? 
KasT} Beji^Ki Bi> HeMi> rapHH- 


MH6ro-jiH TaM-b opy^ifi? 

r^t pacnojio»eHi> nopoxoB6ft Ha- 

r^^t pacnojio»eHi> apcea^jTb? 
KaKi) BbicoKd oKpyaK^ioii^aA cr&- 


He Han6jiHeHbi-JiH pBbi Bojifijo? 
RtTh-jiii r^t TaiTb no;^36MHbixT> 


KaK'b HaawBaeTCfl ^Torb jiicb? 


M^o^OB6;^HU-JIH oh6? 
EcTb-jiH 6oji6Ta? 
06m6pHbi-jiH oHi^i? 
Bi) KaKbiTb OHi^i HanpaBji^HiH? 
KaK'b aoByrb iJiy r6py? 

Kpyia-jiH OHa? 

KaKi aoByrb dTy ptKy? 

rjiy6oK4-JiH OH^? 

Can one pass it with artillery 

and horse? 
Where does it lead to? 
Is it not fortified? 
It is defended by some fortlets? 

How long is this defile? 

Can it be passed without great 

Is there no danger of an am- 
buscade ? 

What is the name of that village ? 

What is the name of that 

How many soldiers and horses 
can be lodged there? 

Around the village are there 
any isolated houses? 

How many inhabitants are there 
in that town? 

Are there in it large edifices 
for the accommodation of sol- 
diers ? 

Is it an open city? 

Is there a lazaret? 

Is it not surrounded by a ditch? 

Are its streets broad? 

Is there a citadel? 

What is the strength of its 
garrison ? 

Are there many guns? 

Where is the powder-magazine 
situated ? 

Where does the arsenal lie? 

How high is the wall that sur- 
rounds it? 

Are the ditches dry? 

Are the ditches full of water? 

Are there no underground 
mines ? 

What is the name of that forest? 

Are there any springs in that 
forest ? 

Do they abound in water? 

Are there any marshes? 

Are they extensive? 

In which direction are they? 

What is the name of this moun- 

Is it steep? 

What is lie name of this river? 

Is it deep? 



npAM6e-jiH ejf Te^^Hie? 
B6cTpo-JiH eA Teq^Hie? 
Bc!b;^y-jiH oh& cyA0x6;^Ha? 
Bt, KaKfio n6py Boji,k Mejnci? 
M63KHO-JIH nepefir^ ee Bib 6poAi>? 
Tfifli 6jiHac4fiiiiift 6po;^T»? 


Ji;6jiro-JiH npo;^ojiat&eTca paajifirie? 
KaKi> niHpoK6 npocTHp^eTca na- 

][o KaK6ro iitcTa? 
^•fec6cTH-jra eA (Jeper&? 

Bojiot6cth-jih eA 6eper5.? 

MH6ro-jiH Ha Hett M0CT6B'b? 
Tjiffi 6jiHKS,flniift MOCTb? 

JepeBJiHHHfi-JIH ^TO MOCTb? - 

M63CH0-JIH HafiT^ HaMib 64pKn ji,Jia 

r^t? CK6jn,K0? 
B-b KaKtK) i^^Hy? 
EcTb-jin MH6ro ocTipoBdB'b Ha ^Toft 


r^^t. OHfi pacnojioaceHii? 

r^'Ii jieK^Tb c^Mufi 6ojibm6fi 


M6:kho-jih na HeMi> nocT^BHTb 

H-fecKOJibKO 6aTap6fl? 
Coe;i,HBeH'b-jiH oht> r^'fe-HHtJy^b 

MOCTbMT, ch d^peroM-b? 

06pa66TaH'b-jiH oht»? 
£cTb-jiH y HenpijiTeJiA 6aTap^H Ha 
(Jeper}- dxofi p-feKii? 

Kyji,k Bna;i,deTb ^Ta p-feicd? 

EcTb-jiH SA'fecb b6jih36 nap6Brb? 

CK6jibK0 jiioA^ft M63KeTb offb nepe- 

bgctA aapS^-b? 
CK6jibK0 Jioma^6ft? 
CK6jibK0 no;i,B6;^'b? 

With a guide, a prisoner, a spy, etc. 

M63KeTe-jiH Bu cjiyaci^Tb HaMT» Can you serve us as a guide? 


SHdexe-JiH Bu caMufi 6jifi3Kifi nyib Do you know the shortest way 

BT, ...? to...? 

Bejitue Hacb! Accompany us I 

Is its course straight? 

Is its current rapid? 

Is it navigable throughout? 

In which place is the water low ? 

Is it then to be forded? 

Where is the nearest ford? 

Does it swell in spring? 

Does the inundation last long? 

How far does the inundation 

extend ? 
As far as to which place? 
Are its shores covered with 

Are its shores covered with 

morasses ? 
Are there many bridges over it? 
Where is the nearest bridge? 
Is it a stone-bridge? 
Is it a wooden bridge? 
Can we procure some barks for 

the passage? 
Where? How many? 
At what price? 
Are there many islands in this 

river ? 
Where are they situated? 
Where is the largest islsind 

situated ? 
Is it possible to establish some 

batteries on it? 
Does it perhaps communicate 

with the shore by means of 

a bridge? 
Is it cultivated? 
Has the enemy any batteries 

placed on the shores of Ihis 

river ? 
Where does this river discharge 

Is there a ferry in this neigh- 
bourhood ? 
How many men can be ferried 

over at once? 
How many horses? 
How many carriages? 

For army and navy oFFicEks. 


Be^^Te Hacb npocejiKOHi} ! 
Boper^TGCb omH^^Ttca flop6roio! 
Bu nojiyqHTe xop6iiiyK) nji^Ty. 

iScjiH He M63KeTe httA ct. h4mh, 
TO ;^afiTe nain* ;^pyr6ro B-fepna- 
ro npoBOAHHKd. 

KaKi> BejiikKb Kopnyct, K0T6pufi 
Bqep4 6bijn> a^tcb? 

MH6ro-jiH y Bact ^^eaepTApoBt? 

MH6ro-jiH y Baci 6ojibHiixi»? 

KaK6ro HH^HiH coji;^iTi>i o BoiiH'j^? 

He KcejidiOTb-JiH oh6 eA kohi^4? 
Mhofo-jih y sacb BOCHHonji'feH- 


Ky^a HXTi OTCuji^iOTb? 
^^CTO-jiH nepeSifer^ioTT. Kb Bain> 
n&mn ;i,e3epT]&pM? 

^ItO CL HdMH flijl&lOTh? 

Tji;h BaraiK rji^Huft mTaCi.? 
3HaeTe-jiH Bh aA^mmfi Rpafi? 

Th B'fe;^'b H^enib ct aBanndcTOBt? 

Kar6ro K6pnyca? 

KaK6ro nojiKa? 

OiKyfla npHmejiTi tboS 6aTa- 


Tflfli lenepb tboA hojikt*? 
CKasc^ UE% KaKi) BesAisn* s6p- 

ny cb? 
CK6jibK0 nifexoTU? 
CK6jibK0 KaBaji^piH? 
CK6jibK0 opy^^ift? 

Accompany us through country 

roads I 
Pay attention that you do not 

mistake the way I 
You shall then receive splen- 
did pay. 
If you cannot accompany us, 

then give us another faithful 

How strong was the corps that 

was here yesterday? 
Have you many deserters? 
Have you many sick? 
What is the opinion of your 

troops concerning the war? 
Do they not wish tiiat it will be 

finished soon? 
Have you got many prisoners? 

Where do they send them to? 
Do you often see any deserters 

of ours? 
What do they do with them? 
Where are your head-quarters? 
Do you know this country? 
You are a deserter, are you not? 
You come from the advanced 

posts, do you not? 
To which corps do you belong? 
To which regiment? 
Where did your battalion come 

Where is your regiment now? 
Tell me, what is the strength 

of your corps? 
How many on foot? 
How many horses? 
How many gims? 

With a surgeon, a doctor, etc. 

a paHeHT>. 

r^t ^^^Jibflmepii? 

r^t. jitKapb (spaTb)? 

Tflfb CH^tjiKa? 

npnHeciiTe nepeBH3Ka! 

npuHectire ceiacefi eo^^ii! 

Cxofl^Te Cb ^THMT> pen.enroM'b bt* 

anr^Ky ! 
rio30B^Te HcnoB^;^HHKa 1 
a cjiaCt. 
a ycT^jTb. 
H qyBCTByio ceCji ropaa^^o Jiyqine. 

Russian Cony.-Grammar. 

I am wounded. 

Where is the surgeon? 

Where is the physician? 

Where is the nurse? 

Bring some binding (bands)! 

Bring some fresh water I 

Go with this prescription to the 

apothecary's I 
Call the confessor 1 
I am weak. 
I am tired. 
I feel much better. 




H He xopom6 cnajii. 

y ubeA Kpyac^Tca rojiOB^. 

y ubeA jiHxop^;^Ka. 

y MeHji acejiy;^OK'b He bt> nopji^^Kife. 

Si qvBCTByio rojiOBHyio 6oJib. 

Mnt K^acGTca 6y;^T0 npe^^T* rjia- 

3^HH y MeHii saBica. 
3y6KL sacTaBjiiiioTL Menji yacacHO 

fl ce6ii nepejiOM^ji'L pyKy. 
y MeHii Bce rfejio pacnyxjio. 

IIp6THB'B HO6& 60Jli3HH H^Tl n6- 

AeHB 6to aha h CTaHOBJiK)Cb cji46ie. 
A yiiap^K) OTL qax6TKH. 
fl yMHpaio. 

I did not sleep well. 

I am growing giddy. 

I have the fever. 

My stomach is not well. 

I have a head-ache. 

It seems to me as if I had a 
mist before my eyes. 

My teeth make me suffer dread- 

I have broken my arm. 

My whole body is swollen. 

In my illness there is no help. 

From day to day I get weaker. 
I am dying of consumption. 
I am dying. 

Expressions for the nse of the navy. 

EcTB-jH y Baci cyj^i ji,jui HaHiid? 

nOSHaSOMBie HeBA Cb KailHTdHOMl ! 

Chefl,^'re jaqeA kt> xoa^HHy! 
H'feTTi-jiH 3^*01. M0pJiK6B'b cnoc<56- 

HUXt Kb QXf3&6'k? 

He pu6aKii-jiH oh6? 

He MaTp6cbi-JiH oe^l cl Topr6Buxi> 

MHoioq^cjieHHbi-jiH ohi^? 
SEkiOTb-jiE oh6 xopomo cBoe a*^- 


3HaK6M0 JiE EWb ^epHoe (Bajnltt- 

CKoe) M6pe? 
JlfiSEd jiE OHi^ Ha cjiyac6i? 

KaK6fi rjiy^HHi^ Tp^6ye'rb Bann> 

JlerKoe-jiH dio cyAHO? 
H6Boe-jiH dio cy^HO? 
Ky;^4 xojj^jio oh6 o6ukhob6hho? 
JlfasiJLo-jLH. oh6 6ojihmie nepeisAH? 
T6jibK0 nedojibmle nepeisAU? 
CK6jibK0 ntnieKi> M6seTB BSflTb 

BauFb Eop&6jib Cb co66k)? 
CK6jIbK0 ^A^pi? 
Htrb-JiH y Baci> uopuKd^rb, Ha kg- 

T6pHXl BH H6seTe nOJIOS^TbCI!? 

OTBi^q^ere-jiH Bbi sa hhxi>? 
TA'fe-MU Ten^pb? 
J(ajieKd-Jin orb Haci> seHJiji? 
EesondcHbi-jiH 6eper4? 
H'j^Tb jiH b6jih36 rdBaHH? 
Bi KaK6irb HanpaBji^niH? 


Have you any boats to 

Introduce me to the captain 1 
Lead me to the owner! 
Are there no sailors fit for ser- 

Are they not fishermen? 
Are they not mercantile sailors? 

Are they numerous? 

Do they know how to manage 

it well? 
Are they acquainted with the 

Black (Baltic) sea? 
Have they been serving a long 

What displacement does your 

ship require? 
Is this boat light? 
Is this boat new? 
What journey did it usually make ? 
Did it undertake long voyages? 
Or only short journeys? 
How many guns can your boat 

How many round balls? 
Have you not any sailors on 

whom you can surely rely? 
Do you answer for them? 
Where are we now? 
Are we distant from the shore? 
Are the shores not dangerous? 
Is there no harbour in proximity ? 
In which direction? 

For army and navy officers. 


M63Ke]n>-jiH mh wb nefi yKpj^bcii? 
He toATbcn-Jiii Hani, 6ypH? 
Omy^^a B-feTepi.? 

EcTB-jiH y B&cb hopck6h E6Mnac%? 
He BCTpiTHJiH-JiH BU rfl^k uapk- 


noAi> KaK^Mi* ^jikrowb? 

BCTpiTHJIH-Jin Bbl pfCCKift (fjIOTL? 

Bi KaK6Mi> HanpaBji^Hin bli er6 


H^jiaM-jiii TO ;^HB^3iii? 

K&KkH TO dbijia ;^HBd3iH? 

M6jKeHi-j[H noAo&T^ 6e3ondcHo 

Kb 6eper&Hi? 
M62CH0-JIH npH6ji^3HTBCJi 6e3ondc- 

HO jeb Oa^cc*? 
Hafi^^gHi-jiH Mb! B^pHaro mrypHa- 

Ha, KOTdpilg BB^Xh-6u. B&Cb Vb 

H xoqt inxypMaHa Typica ($Rn- 

jiARflfljai,, uiB^Aa). 
fl He xoTy ptccicaro mrf pMana. 

ficjiH BU npHHeceTe HaMi> sipHoe 
H noAp66Hoe HSBicTie, to nojif* 
qHTC xop6myK) ludTy. 

£CJIH Bbl HaMl> EShX^EWre, TO MU 

Bacb pascip^kueiTb. 

Can we take refuge in it? 
Is there no storm to be feared? 
Whence blows the wind? 
Have you a sea-compass? 
Did you not meet any pirates? 

Under which flag? 

Did you meet the Russian fleet? 

In which direction did you meet 

with it? 
Was it a whole division? 
Which division was it? 
Can we safely approach to the 

shore ? 
Can we safely approach to 

Odessa ? 
Shall we find a trustworthy pilot 

to lead us into the harbour? 

I want a Turkish (Finnish, Swe- 
dish) pilot. 

I will not trust to any Russian 

If you procure us stire and de- 
tailed information, you shall 
receive splendid pay. 

If you betray us, we shall have 
you shot. 

CeBacxdnojiB b'l fisrycTi; 1855 ro^a. 

n^pe^H'b cdifHicb KOHicoifB o6ijifiL CTapn^eK'b, 6aTa- 
p^fiHHfi nficapt, Bom^jTb wh KOMHaTy cii TpeMa sane^a- 
laHHHMH KOHB^pTaMH H nojiM'h HX'B 6aTap6SHOMy KOMan- 
;i;fipy. «BoTTb stotl BecBMa Hyaraifi, cefi^act KasaKt 
npHBeat orb Ha^iiBHHKa apTHjiji6piH.» Bci o4)Hii;6pH ct 
nexepn'kii^BHH'B omHA^Hieifb nocMOTpijiH Ha onHTHHe b'b 
dTOM'B ji^bji'b najo>ii,ti 6aTap6fiHaro E0MaH;i;6pa, ciiaioiBaBniie 
ne^aTB KOHB^pTa h xocTaBdBmie eechMd n^otcuyio 6yMary. 

«^T0 3T0 MOrjTO 6hTB?» JtibjL2Ull> Ce64 BOnpOCB KaJK^Hfi. 

Morjio 6htb cobc^m'b BHcrynj^nie na 6t;i;hx'b h3'b Cesa- 
CTonojLs, Morjio 6ktb HasHa^^Hie Bcefi 6aTap^fi na 6acTi6HU. 

— OhAtb! CKasaji'B 6aTap6fiHHft KOMaH;i;fipB, cep;i;fiTo 
niBHpHyBi Ha CTOJTB 6yMdry. 

— ^QWhy AiLOJLKOWb Ceprin^'B? cnpocfij'B CTapniift 

Tp66yK)T^ o4)HB,6pa cb npncjiyroft na KaKyro-ro xairB 
MopTHpnyH) 6aTap6K). Y ueni h xaK'B Bcero ^eriipe ^ejo- 

BtKa 04)HI^6p0B'B H HpHCJI^rH HOJHOfi B'B CTpofi HC BiiXO- 


324 Appendix. 

AHTb, Bop^djit 6aTap6SHHft KOMaH;i;fip^: — a Tyl^ Tp6- 
6710x1 eme. 

— Ojifi&KO, Haw K0My-HH6y;i;b htt6, rocnoAa, CKa- 
saji'B owh, noMOJi^aB'b neMHoro: npftRasaHO b'b ceMB ^acoKb 
6htb Ha poraTK']^ .... nocjiaTB ^ejibji,^€6ejiK\ KoMy se 
htt6, rocno^na? pimafiTe, hobtophji'b oht*. 

— Ji;a BOTTB OHfi eme mirji.'b h6-6hjih, CKaaajTB Hep- 
H6ii;Rifi, yKasuBaa na Boaojijo (npanopiii;HRa, tojtbeo hto 
npitxaBBiaro hsx IIeTep6ypra, no BHnycKi hs'b apTHJue- 
pQIcKOft hikojih). 

— JifiL, H. aejiaji^ 6h, CKasajTB Bojo^h, ^yBCTBya, KaK'b 
xojiOAHHH noTTB BHCTynaji^ y Hero na cnHnt h ni6i. 

— HiT^, sa^M'Bl nepe66jrB KanHTaH^. — Pasy- 
M'faeTca, HHETO He OTRaaeieTCA, no h HanpaniHBaTBCA ne 
CJi-fe^^; a KOJ16 AnojTjioHB CeprinTB npeAOCTaBJirfeT'B ^0 
Ham, TO KHHyTB ap66ifi, KaK'B h topb paa-B ^^ijiajTH. 

Bc^ corjiac^jmcB. KpayT'B napisaji'B 6yMa2KeEi, csa- 
Taji-B Hx-B H HacHHaJi'B KB ^j^&mKy. KanHTanrB uiyTfiji'b 
H A^^6 pinidjECH npH sTOWb CJLj^Ski npocdTB BHHa y hoji- 


mflikjiT* Mpa^HHH, Boji6;i;a yjiH6ajica ^eMy-TO, ^epnoBHUKift 
yB'fepaji'B, ^To HenpeM^HHO ej£f wcTaneTca, Kpayr^ 6uaj> 
coBepni^HHO cnoKoeH'B. 

BojLojijk n6pB0My ;i;ajiH BH6HpaTB. OffB bshji'b ojiflf 
fijTMajKKy, KOTopaa 6Hjia nowHHH4e, ho Tynb eny npninjio 
B'B rojroBy nepeM^n^TB, — Bsaj'B Apyryro, noM^HBme h 
TOHBHie, H, pasBepH^B'B, npoTOJi-B Ha nefl: «HTTfi». 

— Mh-I, cKaaajTB oh-b, b3;i;oxh3^b'b. 

— Hy, h cb BoroiCB. Botb bu h o6cTpijifleTecB 
cpasy, CKasajiTb 6aTapeftHHfi, cb ;^66poft yjiiifiKoft, rjraM na 
CMyn^^HHoe JiHn;6 npanopnijHKa: — tojtbko nocKopie co6h=- 
pafiTecB. A ^t66h BaiTB Becejrfee 6hjio, Bjianr'B nofi^^r* 
ci BaMH 3a opyAiinaro 4>6fiepB6pBepa. 

BjraHFB 6wrb ^pesBH^afiHO AOBOJieH'B cboAbtb Haana- 
^enieM'B h atfeo noGfeaaji'B co6HpaTBCfl,' h, OAiTBrft, npn- 
m^jub HOMoraTB Bojioa* h see yroBapHsaji^ ero bsatb 
CB co66fi H KofiKy H niy6y, h CTaptia ^OTenecTBenHHa 

3an6CBH», H K04)^dHHK'B CHHpTOBUfi, H APyrifl HeHyaHEEfl 

B^H^H. KanHTaffB nocoBfooBaji'B Bojio^'fe npo^^CTB cna^aja 
no PyK0B6;i;cTBy^ CTp'fejiB64 hs'b MopTfip-B h BHnncaTB 

^ PyE0B6ACTB0 AJiH apTHJuepificKHX'B o^isn^T^oB'h, H3AaHHoe Besa 


For army and navy officers. 325 

TOTi-^acb ae OTTy;i;a Ta6jifiii,H. BojioAa tot^-w'b ae 
npHHfljTca 3a js.'kjio h, k^ y;i;HBjieHiK) h pa;i.ocTH CBoefi, sa- 
MiTHJii, ^TO xoTfl HyBCTBa CTpaxa onacHOCTH h eme 66jrte 
Toro, ^TO OHi dyAGTi Tp^coMi, 6e3noK6Hj![H ero neMHoro, 
HO A^JieEO He B'L TaEoS CT^neHH, naKi sto 6uj[0 HaKanyH^. 
OT^acTH nprnAHofl tom^ 6hjio BjiijiHie jifis. h ^i.'tflTejiLHOCTH, 
OTHacTH H, oaBHoe, TO, ^To CTpax-B, KaK-L H Kafflt;^oe cfijii>- 
Hoe ^yBCTBO, He MoateT'B b^ o;i,H6fi CTenenH npo;i.ojiataTca 
;^6JI^o. Oji.HHM'B cjiobomi, offt yate ycnijii. nepe6oaTBGa. 


3a HHKOJiaeBCKOH EasapMoS, ^ejihji,^e6ejih Bomej'b k% neny 
H o6TbflB6jrT», ^TO mjifl totobh h ;^oatH;^aK)Tca. 

^ejiOB^E^ ;^BaA^aTb apTHjrjrepiflcEHX'L coj^aTT*, b^ 
xecaKaxt 6e3^ npHHaw^acHOCTH, ctojjjih 3a yrjiOM'L ;^6Ma. 

3aTL JIH HM^ MajieHLEyK) pi^IB, fijTH npocTO CEa3aTL: 3;i.o- 

poBO, pe6aTaI hjh HH^ero ne CEa3aTB?» no^nyMaji^ oht».. 
— Jta-H-OT^ero-at^ He CEa3aTL: «3Aop6BO, pe6jiTa! bto 
jiS>jiss,EO Aaate!» H oh-l cm4jio EpHEnyji'B CBofiM-B SBy^HHM^ 
rojiocEOM^: «3;i;op6BO, pe6aTa». CojAaTBi Becejio 0T03Ba- 
jficL: MOjiOAOH CBtatifi rojocb npiHTHO nposBy^ajLT* Bt 
ymax'L Kaat;i,aro. Boji6;i;a 66;^po meji'B Bnepe;i,T» co^axi, 
H xoTfl cepOT^ y Hero CTyqajio TaK'L, EaE-L 6y;i;T0 ont 
npo6iaKaji'b BO-BecB-^yx^ h^ceojileo b^pct-b, noxo^Ka y 
Hero 6HJia JierEaa h jHUio Becejioe. noAxo;i;a yat^ ei 
caMOMy MajiaxoBy Eyprany, noAHHMaacL na-ropy, oh-b 3a- 
MixHJi'B, ^To BjiaHr-B, HH-Ha-niar'B ne OTCTaBaBinift ott» 
Hero H AOMa Ea3aBfflifica TaEHMT» xpa6pHMT», fiesnpecTaHHO 
CTopoHiiJica H HarH6aji'B rojiOBy, East fiy^TO Bci 66m6h h 
fl;, yac6 o^eHB nacTO CBHCTiBmia TyT-B, jieTajiH npflMO 
Ha Hero. HiEOTopHe h31 cojiAaTHEOBT» js^ijismn Toate h 
BOo6ni,e na fiojiBmefi ^acTH hxi jihd.'b BiipaatajiocB ^cjlr ne 

60li3HB, TO 6e3nOE6SCTBO. ^TH 06CT0riTejrBCTBa OEOH^aTeJTB- 

Ha MaJiaxoBOM'B Eyprani, EOTopaft a. Boofipaataji-B b-b 
THcany pa3^ cTpamnie! H a Mory httS ne EJianaacB 
iinpaMTb, H Tpj^my ^aate ropa3AO MeHBme ApyrAxi! TaE-B 
a He Tpyc'B?> noAyMaji-B oh-b c^ Hacjiaat^^HieM^ h ^aate 


O^HaEO 3T0 ^^BCTBO 6hJI0 CEOpO n0E0JT66jieH0 3p4- 

jTmii;eM^ na EOTopoe ob% naTEnyjica bi cyMepEaxi. na 
KopnfijiOBCEOH 6aTap6i, OTucEHBaa na^djBHHEa 6acTi6Ha. 

326 Appendix. 

^eTHpe nejiOB^Ka MaTpocoBt, okojio 6pycTBepa, 3a-HorH 
H sa-pyKH ;^ep3KaJIH OKpoBaBjieHHHft Tpynt KaKoro to ^ejio- 
B^Ea 6e3'b canoroB'L h niHH^jin h pacEa^HBajiH, mejiaa nepe- 
KfinyTB nepest 6p]^CTBep^. (Ha BTopoft ac^hl 6oM6ap;i;Hpo- 
Banm ne 863^4 ycniBajiH yfinp^Tb rkm na fiacTioHaxt h 
BLiEHAHBajiH HX'b B'b poB'L, nr66u oh6 He M'l^inajiH Ha fiaTa- 
p6axT».) BojiOfl^a ct> MHHyTy 0CT0JT6eH4jii, yBH;i,aB'B, KaK'B 
Tpyn-B y;i;apHjrcH o BepmAny fip^cTBepa h hotom-l CKaTHJica 
OTTy^a Bt KanaBy; ho na ero CHacrie, t^tl me na^ajibHHKB 
dacTiona BCxpiTHJica en^, OT^aji'b npHKasania h ^aji^ npo- 
BOAHHKa Ha 6aTap^K) h vb 6jamji,kasi>, HasHa^ennKfi ]i^ 
npHCJiyra. He 6i?,ewh pa3CKd3HBaTL ckojibko onacHOCTeS, 
pa30^apoBaHiS HcniiTdjrb namt repoS bi tott^ Be^ep'B: 

KaK'B BM'&CTO TaROfi CTpij[B6u, EOTOpyK) OH^B BfiA^JI'L Ha 

BojiKOBOMt nojii, npH Bcixt ycjEOBiaxi TO^naocTH h no- 
pfl;i,Ka, KOTopHa OHt HaAiflJica nafiTfi 3;i,'fecL, ont HamejiTb 

XBi pa36HTHa MOpTflpKH, H3'b KOTOpHX-B O^Ha 6lJJia CMflTa 

a^poM-B B-B ?,^Ji% H Apyraa croajia na n^^nKax-B pa36HT08[ 
nJiaT(|)6pMu, KaK'B hh o;i;hh'b 3apHA'B H6-6E[jrB Toro B'&ca, 

KOTOpHfi OSHa^eH'B 6UJI'B B'B «PyK0B6;i;CTB'£», KaK^ paHHJIH 

;i;Byx'B cojifl^ivh ero KonaHAH h KaK'B ;^BaOTaTB pa3'B owh 
6ujrb Ha BOJiocKi ovh cm^pth. Ho CHacTiro bi homoh^b 
eny HaanaqeH'B 6HjrB orpoMHaro pocTa K0MeH;i;6p'B, MopaK'B, 
CHa^ajia oca^H 6HBniifi npn MopTfipax'B h y6iAHBmifi ero 

B'B B03m63KH0CTH ^^-feftCTBOBaTB H3'B HHX'B, CB 4>0HapeJPB 

BOAHBmifi ero H(3qbK) no BceMy 6acTi6Hy, to^ho KaK'B no 
CBoeMy oropoAy, n o6tn;dBnrifi k'b 3aBTpeMy Bce ycTpoHTB. 
BJrHH;^a3K^, K'B KOTopoMy npoBo;i;6ji^ ero npoBo;i;H6K'B, 6HJ!ia 
BwpHTaa B'B KaneHHOM'B rpyHTi, B'B ABi Ky6fi^ecKm cameHH, 
npo;i.OjiroBaTaa ana, naRpuTaa apm^HHHMH jiydoBHMH 6pe- 


cojiAaTaMH. Bjranr'B n^pBHfi, KaK'B tojibko yBH;i;aji'B kb 
apmcrH'B H^seHBKyK) ;i;BepB 6jiHH;i.ajKa, onpoMeTbD, npe2K;i;e 
BC'fex'B, B6'feacajr'B B'B nee h, qyTB ne pa36fiBfflHCB o Ka- 
MeHHHfi noj-B, 3a6fijrca wh yrojPB, h3'b KOToparo yace ne 
bhxoa6jT'b 66jiBnie. BojoAa ate, Kor;i;a Bcfe cojimtu no- 
MtcTB[jiHCB b;i;ojib ct^h'b, na nojiy, h H-iKOTopne 3aKypHjTH 
Tp^fio^KH, pa36fijii CBOH) KpoBaTB Bi yrji^, 3aaerB CB^HKy 
H, saKypfiB-B nannpocKy, jier'B na KofiKy. — Ha Apyroft 
;neHB, 27ro qncjia, nocji'fe AecflTH^acoBoro cna, Bojio^h, 
CB'taifi, 66;i;pHfi, pdno "fTpowh BHmeji'B na nopori 6jihh- 
Aama. BjianrB Tose 6ujiO'BUAisT> bmIct^ cb hhmi, ho 

For army and navy officers. 327 

npH nepBoiTb 3ByK4 nyjiL, crpeMrjiaBt, npo6HBaa ce64 
rojEOBOfi Aopory, 6p6cHJ[ca Has&^^'b fb OTB^pcTie 6jrHHAasa, 
npH 66iii;eM'B xoxot^ Tose 66jihmejo ^dcTii) noBiiineAninx'b 
Ha BOSA}^^ coji^naTHROB'b. TojiBEO BjLB.iin>, CTapHR'b 4>efiep- 
B^pnepi H H^CROJiLRO jipyvixT, BuxoA^jin pi^KO B'b Tpan- 
meio; ocTaJiLHHxi nejibsa 6hjio yAepaKaTB; Bct onfi noBU- 
cunajiH Ha CB^mifi ^^Tpennifi B63;i;yxi hs^b CMpa;i;Haro 6jihh- 
M»a H, HecMOTpa na ctojeb se cdjBHoe, RaRT* n naRaHyni^, 
6oM6apAHpoBaHie, pacnojos^jiHCB orojio nopora, rto hoa'b 


jHBajrca no 6aTapdflM'B, paBHO^yiifflo norjwAHBaa BBepx'B. 
6rojto nopora caAijnn ^sa CTapHX'B h o;i.6h'b MOJiOAoft, 
Ryp^aBiifi cojiAaT'B, nsi acEAOB^, npHROMaHAHpoBaHHufi hs'b 
nixoTH. Cojiji.aT'B ^toti, no^HiB'B ojiflj hs'b BajflBfflHxca 
nyjiB H qepenROMi pacnjirocHyB-B e6 o jiaiieHB, noacoMTb 
BHpfeaji'B HS'B Hea RpecTTb Ha nan^p-B reoprieBCRaro; 
;i;pyrie pasroBapHBaa, CMOTpijra na ero padoxy. KpecT'B 

^J^'btCTB^TeJlBHO BUXO;i;fijI'B OHeHB RpaciB'B. 

— A qro, RaRi emj^ hoctohm'b 3;i,icB, roBopnji'B oa6h'b 
HS'B Hnxi: — TaRi no saMBp^nm BC'hM'B b'b OTCiaBRy 
cpoR-B BUifl^eVh. 

— KaRfflte! mh* h to Bcero ^ertipe r6;i;a fls> OTcraBRH 
ocTaB&jiocB, a xen^pB naxB wkcAUfiWh npocxoHJi'B b'b CeBa- 

— Kt> oxcx^BR-fe He CTHxdexca, cjiiniB, CRasaji'B ;^py^6ft. 
B'B 3X0 Bp^Ma a^po npocBHCX'tjio na^'B rojiOBdiiH 


no;i;xoA6Bniaro Kb hhm'b no xpanm^'fe. 

— ^yxB He y6fijio M^jiBHHROBa, CRasaji'B o^^h-b. 

— He y6BexTb, oxntqajTB M6jibhhrob^. 

— Boxi na me xe64 Rpecxt sa xpa6pocxB, cRasdjTB 
MOJiojtofi cojiAaxi, ji,iji2LBmi& RpecxTb h ox^aBda ero M^jib- 


— Hixt, 6paxi, xyxTb, sna^Hx^, M'hcani'B sa toa'b 
HO BCOMy c^Hxaexca — na xo npHHas^ 6hji'b. 

— KaR'B HH cy;^fi, 6esnpeM'feHH0, no saMnp^nin, cji^'b- 
jiBJOTh cMoxp-B mapcRift B'B OpmaB*, H R0jr6 ne oxcxaBRa, 
xaR'B B'B 6escp6qHHe Bunycxax^. 

£i STO Bp^Ma, BHsrjidBaa, san;']tn6Bniaaca nyjiBRa 
npojiex'kia na^'B caMBiiiH rojEOBaiiH pasroBapnBaK)np[x^ h 
y;i.apHJiacB o RaMenB. 

328 Appendix. 

— CM0Tp6, em;6 ;i;o B^^epa b% uucmyfo Biifi;i;einL, 
cKaaajT'B oji,fLWb hs^b coj^aTTb. 

Bc^t secmMjihcb. 

n He TOjiLKO AO Be^epa, ho ^^pesi ;i;Ba naca ys6 
^i^Boe H3^ HHX'b noj[yH6<2iH qficTyK), a hatb 6hj[h panenu; 
HO ocTajiLHiie myrdJiH to^iho t&b'b se. ^Mctb^tojibho, e'b 
^Tpy ^liB'fe MopTfipKH 6hjh npHBe;i;eH6 bi TaKoe nojioat^- 
Hie, HTO MoaKHO 6iijio CTp&raTt H3t hhx'b. ^ac^ bi ;i,ecfl- 
TOMx, no noji^^eHHOMy npHKasdniK) otb na^ajiLHHEa 6a- 


nonieji'L na 6aTap^H). 

B-B Jii)ji,ax% HesaM^THO 6ujio h KanjH Toro HyBCTsa 
6ofl3HH, KOTopoe BHpaadjiocB B^epa, KaKi CKopo onfi npHHa- 
ji6cB 3a jijbjio. TojBKO Bjianri ne Mort npeo;i;ojiiTB ce6a: 
np^Tajica, H rnyjica Bce TaKae, h BacHHi noTepajri h4- 
CKOJiBKO CBo6 cnoKoSTBie, cyeTfijica h npnc'feMJi'B 6e3npe- 
CTaHHO. BojiOAa ate 6hji'b b'b qpe3BHqaflH0M'B BOCTopri; 
eMy He npRxo^fiJia h mhcjtb o6'h onacHOCTH. Pa;i;ocTB, 


He TpycT», HO Aaae xpafip'B, TfBCTBO KOMaHAOBanm h npn- 
c^^TCTBie ABawaTfi ^ejOBiKt, KOTopne, oh-b 3Haji^, ctb 
joofionHTCTBOM-B cMOTpijiH Ha Horo, c;i;4jTajiH h3i Hero 
coBepui^HHaro MOjiomL Orb Mate THuecjidBHjrGa CBo6fi 
xpa6pocTBK), ^paHTfijTB nepe;!.!. cowaTaMH, BHJi'fe3ajPB na 
6aHKe'irB h napo^HO pa3CTerH^Ji'B hihh^jil, ht66h ero 3a- 
M^THie 6ujiO. HaqajLHHK'B 6acTi6Ha, o6xoAfiBmifi bt» ^to 
Bp^Mfl CBoe xosMcTBO, KaE'B OH^ BHpascaji&ff, kslkt> He 
npHBHK^ BT» BoceMB M'tcaii.eBi KO BcfeMi po^aifB xpa6pocTH, 
He MOFB He nojiH)6oBaTBeji na axoro xopomeHBKaro Majn»- 

HHKa, B'B pa3CTerHyT0ft niHH^JIH, H3'B-nOA'B KOTopofi BHwa 

6HJia KpacHaa py6amKa, ofixBaTHBaion^aa 64jiyio, niacHyio 
meso, CT> pasropiBHiHMca jiissfiwb h rjra3aMH, noxjionuBaH)- 
H^aro pyKawH h 3b6hkhicb tojiockom^ KOMaHAyH)ni,aro: 
«n6pBoe, BTop6e!», h b^cojio B6'ferdK)niiaro na 6pycTBepi, 
^t66h HOCMOxptTB, KyM na;iae'PB ero 66M6a. Bt» hojio- 
bAh* ;i,BiHaOTaTaro CTp4jiB6a ci o64hx'b CTopoH'B saT^xjia, 
H poBHO B'b ;i.B'feHdOTaTB ^acoBi na^ajici niTypMi Majid- 
xoBa Kyprana, 2ro, 3ro h 5ro 6acTi6Ha. 

BojEo^a cji^maji^ cKasKy, KOTopyio pa3CKa3B[Baji'B eMy 
BacHH-B, Kor^a 3aKpHqajiH: «4>paH^y3H H;^yT'B!» KpoBi> 
npHji6jia MrnoB^HHO ki c^pwy Boji6;i,h, h oh-b ho^ybctbo- 
Ba^^, K&K% HOXOJTO^i.'kiH H tlo6jAa^^^^ gfo ni,eKH. C^ 

For army and navy officers. 329 

ceKjEwy OH-B ocTaBOJica He^BHatfiM-L; ho, BSTJiauywh Kpy- 
Towb, owh jBtjs.'hjvh, TTO coji;i;aTH ;i;oB6jn»HO cnoKofiHO sa- 
CTerHBajiH hihh^jih h BHjrfeaajiH o;^6H•B 3a ApyrnMi, — 
OAfiHt fl,&3&e — KaateTca M^jibhhkobi, niyTjifiBO CKa- 
3aji^ : 

— «BHxo;^6 CL xjiifioMx-cojibK), pe6HTa!» 
Boji6;i;a BMicTi cl BjianroM^, KOTopHfi hh na inari> 
He OTCxaBajit ot^ nero, BUJifoTb h3t» 6JIHH;^aaKa h no6'fe3Kaji'L 
Ha 6aTap6K). ApTHjurepffiCKoft ctp'£jil6h hh ct to5, hh 
CI. Apyrofi CTopoHu coBepm^HHO ne 6hjio. He ctojtlko btsjh, 
CHOKoScTBm cojr^^aT^, crojileo bh^^'l majiRofi, ne CRpHBaeMofi 
TpycocTH iOHRepa BOsCy^^Ji^ ero. «Heyat6jTH a Mory 6htb 
HOxoat'B Ha Her6?» noAyMajL-B owb h B^cejio noA6iatajnb Ki 
6p3^CTBepy, orojio Koxoparo ctojjjih ero MopTfipH. Eny 
ACHO 611J10 b6;i;ho, RaR'B 4>P^HH;y3H 6i»&aj[H np^MO na nero 
HO qficTOMy M^cTy H RaKi TOJinik Hx-B, ch 6jiecTiini;HMH na 
cojTHD.'fe HiTHRaMH, ffleBejifijiHCB B^ 6jiHa£aftniHX'B Tpanni^axi. 
O^fiHT., MajieHBKiH, mnpoROHJ^qiS, b-b 3yaBCR0MTb MyHAHpi 
H CO mnarofi, 6taKajiT» Bnepe;i,H h nepenptirHBaji'B ^^pes-B 
flMH «CTp'£jriiTB KapT6^BH)!» RpfiEHyji'B BojioA^, c6iraa 
CB 6aHR6Ta; ho yat^ coji^aTH pacnopa^fiJiHCB dest nero, 
H MeTajijiH^ecRifi SByR'B Biinyn^eHHoS EapT^^n npocBHCTajii> 
Ha;!;!, ero rojiOBofl, cna^ajia hs'b oji;H6fi, hotom-b hs'b Apyrofi 
MopxfipH. «n6pBaa, BTopaa!» EOMan^i.OBaji'B BoJI6;^a, nepe- 
6iraa b-b ;i;jiHHHy ot'b o^hoS MopxApH rt» Apyrofi h coBep- 
ni6HH0 3a6iiB^ 06% onacHOCXH. C'b 66Ry cjiiimajiacB 6jiH3Eaa 
xpecEOXHfl pi^acefi namero npHRpiixBa h cyexjfiBHe RpfiEH. 
BApyrB nopa3fixej[BHHfi rphr^ oxqaania, noBXopeHHLifi 
nicROJiBEHMH TOJiocaMH HOCJEHHiajicfl cji^Ba: «06x6;^i^x^! 
06x6^5x1 !> BojEO^a orjTflHyjica na rphrx.. ^ejiOfiiE'B flfik- 
OTaxB 4>paHniy30B^ noRa3ajTHCB c3a;i.H. OAiLWh h3t» hhxi, 
c^ ^epHOH dopoAofi, RpaciBHfi Myat^na, 6uji'h Bnepe,fl;4 
Bctxi, HO, ji.ofi'feataBi niaroBi na ,3,ecaxB oxx. 6axap6H, ocxa- 


no6iataji'B r'b neMy. Ob ceRyHAy Bojio^a cxoaji'b ORaMe- 
nijiHfi, H He B^pHJi-B TJi8ism% CBOiiM^. KorM oh'b ohom- 
HHJica H orjianyjica, Bnepe^fi ero na 6pycxBept 6hjih cfinie 
MynnHpH; ;i,aate ^sa ^pannipa b-b ;i;ecaxfi mardxi ox^ 
Hero 3aRjienHBajiH nyniRy. KpyroMx. ero, Rponi M^jibhh- 
ROBa, y6fixaro n^jrero p^aomi ch HHMTb, h Bjianra cxna- 
XHBHiaro BT. pyRH xaHAnmyri. h, ex. apocxHHM'B Bupaat^nieM^ 
jiHii,a, onyn^eHHHMH spa^RdnH, 6p6cHBniaroca Bnepe^'B, hh- 

380 Appendix. 

Koro n6'6uAO. cSa mhoh), Bjia^fimph CeM^HHTt! sa mhoSI* 
Epn^ajE'b OT^aflHHufi tojeocb Bjiaura, xan^qnnyroM'L Maxa- 
Binaro na ^^P^HniysoBi, sain^^qiiHX'b cs&jiji. JIpocTHaa 4^h- 
r^pa H)HKepa osa^a^Hjia Hxt. O^Horo, nepi;i;Hflro, oh'l 
y;i;apHji'L no rojEOfii, Apyrie HeBOjiBHO npiocraHOBfijiHCB, h 
BjianrB npoAOJimajii orjEfl^i^B'TBCJi h OT^aflnno KpH^axB: 
«3a MHofl, Bjia^fiMip^ CeMenn^'B! tto bh cTofiTe? 6irfiTe!» 
no6i2caji'B k'b Tpanm^i^, wb KOTopofi Jiemajia nama n'JtxoTa, 
CTp-fejiaa no 4>paHiii]^3aM^. Bcko^b'b b'b TpaHm^ro, oh'b 
CHOBa BHcynyjicfl h31» nea, ht66h nocMOTp^TB, qTO ^ijaeTi 
ero o6oataeMufi npanopiuiHKi. ^t6-to b^ mHH^jiH hh^komi 
jieatajro Ha tom^ nicTi, r^i.'fe ctoaji'b BojiOAa, h Bce dxo 
Micro 611J10 HanojiseHO 4>P^^!^3^^K) ctp^hbuiiimh b'b 

Bjiasri HamejTB cbok) 6aTap6K) na BTopofi o6opoHfi- 
TejiBHofi jtbhIh. Est* qncjra ABawB-Td coA^kTb, 6iiBmHX'B 
na MopTfipHofi daTap^-fe, cnacjiocB tojtbko boccmb. 

B'B AOBHTOifB Hacy Be^epa BjanrB cb fiaxap^efi, na 
napoxoA']^ HanojiHeHHOMi coji^ndTaMn, n n^niRaMH, jiomaABM^, 
paHeHHMH, nepenpaBJiajca na CiBepHyro. BiicTpijiOB'B 
HH^;^t h6-6hjio. SBis^HH TaK»e, KaK'B h b% nponiJiyH) hohb, 
lipKO 6jiecT:ijm Ei-Ee6i; ho cAaleuA Bixepi* KOJinxaji'B 
Mope. Ha nepBOM-B h btopom'b fiacTionax-B BcnuxHBajra uo 

SeMJii MOJIhIh; B3piIBH nOTpflCaJTH BOSAJ^'B H ocBin^ajiH 

BOKpyr-B ce6a KaKie-TO ^epmie CTpaHraie npe^M^TH h KaMHH, 
BSJieraBmie na B63;i.yx'B. ^t6-to ropijio okojto aokobt,, h 
EpacHoe HJiaMA OTpasduiocB B'B BOA't. MocTii, HanojiHeHHijfi 
HapoAOMi, ocBim;djTca oraeMTb c^ HnKOJiaeBCKofi 6aTap6H. 
EojiBmoe njiaMA ctojijio^ EasajrocB, na^^ bo;i.6& na AaJieEOifB 
MHCEy AjieEcaH;i;poBCEoS 6aTap6H h ocB-fen^ajio hh3^, 06 jasa 
AUMa, CTOflBmaro na^'B hhi^b, h T'tme, saE'B n B^epa, 
cnoRoSHHe, A^pssie, ^aJieEie ornfi fijiecT^jiH B'B Mop-fe na 
Henpi^iTejiBCKOM'B 4>Ji6Ti. CBiatifi BiTepi EOJiaxaji-B 6yxTy. 
npH CB-fexi sapeBa noatapoB'B Bfiji,Eii 6ujm Ma^TH HaraHXTb 
yxonaroniiHX'B Ropa6jr^S, EOTopae M^^JieHHO rjiy63Ke h rjydate 
yxo^AjH B% BOAy. FoBopa ne cjrtimHO 6mjto na najiy6'fe; 


H napa, cjiumHO 6hLjio, Eas'B jiomaAH ({)£ipEajiH h TonajiH 
Ha mnjikEjifk, cjiumHH ^kljth EOMaHAHUfl cjiOBa sanHTana n 
CTOHH paneHHX'B. Bjianri, ne 'hBmift n,4jiHfi aghb, ;i;ocTaji'B 
BycoK'B xjiida ES'b RapMana h H&qaji'B atOBaTB, ho BApyr'B 

For army and navy officers. 831 

BcnoMHHB'b 'BojLOjs,^, 3aiL!iaEaji'& xaE'b rpoMEO, ^rro coji- 
;^dTH, 6HBinie okojo Hero, ycjTHxajra. 

— BHfflL, GEM'S xjii6'B 'kcTh, a caM^ njaqeTt, Bjian- 
ra-TO HanKb, CKaaajrb BacHHt. 

— ^yAHO, CKaaajit Apyroft. 

— Bhihl, h HamH KasapMH no3a»rjifi, iipoAOJiatajit 
offB B3;i.HX8La: — h ckojlko TaMt naniero 6paTa nponajio, 
a HH 3a ^TO 4>paHn;y3y ^ocTajiacL! 

— Ho KpafiHOCTH cdMH aHBHe: h to cjraBa Te, To- 
cnoAH, cKa3aji'B Bkam%. 

— A BC6 oSfi^Ho! 

— ^a HTO o66aho-to? P43B'fe OB'S TyTi pa3ryjTfleTCii? 
KdK»eI rjTHAfi, HamH onaTB oxSepyrB. Yati* CKOJiBKO-fit 
Hamero 6paTa hh nponajro, a, KaKt Bort cbhti, Bejifivb 
HMnepaTop'L — h 0T6epy'Pb. PasBi nanm TaKt ocTaBairB 
eny? KdKxe! na bote Tefii rojiwa ct^hh; a maHii;H to 
Bci noB30pBajiH .... He66cL, CBOfi sna^eK-B na Kyprani 
nocTaBHJTB, a b% ropo^t ne cyoTca. 

— noro^A, eniie pasCTCT^ 6y;i;eTx ct to66B HacToamifi 
— ^aft cpoKt, 3aKJiK)^6ji'B OH-B, o6pani,aacB k-b 4)paHii,y3aM^. 

— HsBicTHO 6y;i;eTi I cKasajrB ^pyroS cb yfitat^eHieMx. 

Ho Bcefi jifiniH coBacTonojiBCKHXi fiacTioHOB-B, ctojibko 
MicflUieB'B KHH'tBmHX'B HeofiHKHOBeHHofi aneprH^ecKofi mfis- 


ootAx'b 3a ApyriiMH yMHparomHX'B repoes-B, h ctojibko 

uic&UfiB'h B036y3KAaBniHX'B CTpaX'B, H^naBHCTB H HaKOH^DI'B 

BOCXHm^Hie BparoB-B, na ceBacTonojiBCKHx-B dacTionax's yme 
HH^;^'t HHKoro He-6HJio. Bee diijio MepTBO, ^Ako, yatacHO, 
— HO He THxo: Bce eni,e pa3pymajiocB. IIo HspuToft, cbA- 
SHHH BspuBaMH o6ciinaBmefica 3eMJiib Bes^i BajEHjrncB 
HCKOB^pKaHHHe jia(|)eTH, npH;i;aBnBmie ^ejoniqecKie pyccKie 
H BpaatecKie Tp]^nH, THmejiua, saMOjiKHyBmia HaBcer;i;a ny- 
ryHHHa nyniKH, CTpamnoft cfijroft c6p6nieHHL[a bi amh h 
AO hojiob^hu sacKLnaHHUA seMjiefi, 66m6h, ^Apa, ohatb 
Tp^HH, flMH, OCKOJTKH 6peBeH'B, 6jrHHAaa£eft H OnilTB MOJr- 
Haji6BHe TpynH b-b cipHX'B h cfinnxT. nraH^jraxT*. Bee 
9T0 ^acTO coAporaiocB eme h ocB-bmajiocB 6arp6BL[icB njra- 
MeneM'B bspmbobt*, npo;i;ojrmaBmHX'B noTpacaxB BOSAyx'B. 

Bpari B&jiikjiK, hto ht6-to nenonaTHoe tbophjiocb bt. 
rp63HOMi CeBacTonoji'fe. Bsphbh 3th h nepTBoe MOjnaHie 



Ha 6acTidHaxi, sacraEifljiH nx^ coAporaTBca; ho oh6 oe 
CM^H BipHTB ejsfi noA'h ^Jimsiewb ci&jTLHaro cnoEofiHar^) 
OTHopa jifla, ^To6ii hch^3i hxi nenoEOjre66MuS sparB, h, 
MOjiHa, He meBejTflCB, c^ Tp^neTOM'B oacHAajiH Eoni^a ufij- 

H03 HO^H. 

CeBacTonojiBKoe boScko, KaKi Mope b'b 3H6jiHByH) 
Mpa^Hys) HO^B, cjinBisLCh, pasBHBaacB h xpeBOSHO Tpeneisg^ 
Bcefi cBO^fi MaccoS, BOJinxaacB y 6yxTH no MOCTy, |i 
Ha CisepHofi, M^^jeHHO ^HB^rajcocB, b% HenpoHHii;aeMoS[ 
TCMHOTi; npo% ot'b nicTa, na KOTopoM^ ctojtbko 099 
ocTaBHjTO xpa6pHX^ fipaTBCB'B — 01% MicTa, Bcero o6jr6- 
Taro ero KpoBBio — oti» ntcTa, 11th M4caii,eB^ otct^h- 
Baenaro ot^ b^iiboc CHjiBHifimaro Bpara h KOTopoe Ten6pB 
B^jiino 6hjio ocTaBHTB 6e3^ 66a., 

BHxo;i.a na Ty CTopony Mocxa, hottA msijiji& coji^aasb 
CHHMaji'B manKy h Bpecrdjicff. Ho sa dTHM'B ^yBCTBOin^ 
6hjio Apyroe, Taatejioe, cocyni;ee h 66jiie rjiy66Koe ^yBCTBo; 
6to 6^jio HyBCTBO K3iRT> 6yAT0 noxoxee na pacKannie, ctua^ 
H 3Ji66y. HottA KaatAHfi coji^aT-B, BsrjraHyBi c% C^Bepnofi 


rope^K) B^ cepwfe B3AHxdjii h rpo36jicfl BparaM^. 

^pa0^ J, ToAcmdu, 

Russian measures, 

weights and coins. 



BepcTd =1166 yards 2 feet 
caa^Hb = 2 » 1 » 
apiii6Hi»= 2 feet 4 inches 

B6pK0Be^'b = 361 pounds 
nyAi = 36 pounds 10 ounce 
<i)yHTi = WI2 » 

Bepni6Ki = — 1^Z4 » 
$yrb = 1 foot — 
jijofLWh = — 1 inch 
jLecHTiLEB. = 2 acres 2 roods 
Ky6Hq6cKaa caa^Hb = 2'Zio cords 
66qRa =109 gallons 1 quart 
dHKCpOKl = 8 » *Z5 » 
BeAp6 = 2 » 2^6 » 
Kp]faKa = 10 HdpKH = 1 ». 

JOTl = 'Z16 » 

AOja = Vse 30J[6thhki. 


HiinepidJii = ^^Ze 
HepB6He^'b = ^Z^ 
py6jb = «Zi , 


HeiBepTdK-E = Vio 
rpABeeHHKt = V4 
KoniHKa = I'Zs farthings. 


I. eKglish-russian. 

The following vocabulary to all the English- Rusdan exercises contained 
in the grammar is complete in so far as the nouns, adjectives and verbs are 
concerned. The other words occurring in the exercises, if not given here, 
will easily be found under the headings of numerals, pronouns, prepositions, 
adverbs, conjunctions and intfeijections. A semicolon separates the various 
meanings of the same word. Ex. decent npHjra^HHfi ; cspdHHHH. — Words 
as: well (suitably) xopomd^ and weU (pit) KDJdAeSB; trunk (coflfer) cyHX^Kl 
and trunk (of a tree) CTBOJII have got separate articles. 

Abandon (to) ocTaBJiiiTb 

able cnoc66Hkiit 

able (to be) Cmtl bt> cocTOjJHin 

about 6K0JI0, BOKpfrb 

above HaAi*, Ha Bepxy 

abroad sa rpani^i^eH) 

absence OTcyTCTBle 

absent oTC^TCTeyjamift 

abundance Hso^ijue 

academy of arts xy^^oacecTseHHaa 

academy of sciences aKa;^§MiH 

accept (to) npHHRM^Tb 
accident Hecq§,CTie 
accidentally cjiyq^ftHO 
accomodation CHadw^Hie 
accompany (to) conpoBoacA^Tb 
accomplice coyqdcTHHK'B 
accomplish (to) HcnojiHJtTb [huS 
accomplished (polite) o6pa36BaH- 
accomplishment HcnojHeHie . 
accord corji^cie 
accord (to) corjiacos^Tbca 
according to corjiacno Cb 
accordingly CJrfe;^0BaTeJIbH0 
accost (to) saroBop^Tb 
account c^erb 

account (on — of) no npmAsfb 
account (to) c^HTdib 
account (to — for) OTBiqdTb sa 
accusation o6BHHeHie 
accuse (to) oCsHHitTb 
accustom (to — one's self) npn- 


ache 6ojib 

achievement coBepmenie 

acknowledge (to) npHsnaBdib 

acorn JKejuy^b 

acquaintance snaKOMCTBO 

acquainted 3HaK6MbiM 

acquire (to) iipio6p4T4TB 

acquisition npio6p'BTeHie 

across ckbosb, nonepeK'b * 

act fl,'kjiQ; ,nificTBie 

act (to) ;i,ifeficTB6BaTb 

action ;^ificTBie 

active fl.'ksvTejibEulk 

actor aKTep-b 

actual A'JbMcTB^TejibHbig 

actually bi c^moitb flikjrh 

acute 6cTpbift 

add (to) npnCaBjiiiTb 

address (direction) ^^^peci, Ekflc 


address (skill) ji6BK0CTb 
address (to) a^^pecoB^ib ; o6pa- 

adieu npon^dfi; npom^^ftTe 
adjoin (to) npHcoeAHHilTb 
administration ynpaBJi^Hie 
admirable y;](HB^TejibHbifi 
admiralty aAMnpajiT^McTBO 
admire (to) yjj,WBJiAThca 
admit (to) ;^onycKaTb 
adoption npRH^Tie 
adorn (to) yKpamaTb 
advance npR6jiH3K6Hle 
advantage Bi;iro;i,a; n6j!b8a 
advantageous Biiro/i^Hbilt 



advantageously cb B^ro^^Hofi cto- 

adventure npHOioq^Hie 
adversary npoTABHHKi 
advertiser yKaadiejib 
advice cob4ti» 
advise (to) coBtTOBaTb 
affair a'^jio 
affected npHTB6pHBifi 
affection npnBitsaHHOCTb 
affectionate juoC^SHufi, JiJo6im^ 
affirm (to) yTBepac^iib 
affirmation noTBeps^^^Hie 
affliction oropq^nie, neq&jn> 
afford (to) fl<ocTa3JiATb 
affront (to) o6H»4Tb, ocKop6julTb 
afraid ComjABuS. 
afraid (to be — of) 6oATbGSi 
Africa A^pnica 
after n6cjrt, cnycT^ 
afternoon no noji^^^HH 
afterwards noT6Mi», Bnocjrt^^CTBiH 
again ouAtb, cn6Ba 
against np6THB7> 
age B63pacTi> 
agitate (to) BOjraoB^Tb 
agitation BOJiH^Hie 
ago (since) TOHf nas^;^ 
ago (long) yac6 ^aBHb 
agree (to) corjiaindTbca 
agreeable npiilTHbifi 
ague jiHXop^AKa, ropiiqica 
aid n6M0ii^b 
aid (to) noM6raTb 
aid-de-camp a^^-biOT^HTb 
air B63;^yxi> 
alarm TpeB6ra 
alas! yB^! 
ale n^BO 

alight (to) cjrfea&Tb 
alike oahh4kobo 
alive siiB6fi 
all Becb, BOA, Bc6 
alley ajiJidfl 
alliance coibsii 
allow (tO; nosBOjiiiTb 
ally coibsHfncb 
ally (to) coe;^HHJiTb 
almost noqT^ 
alone 0AHH6Kift 
along B^^ojib 
aloud rp6MK0 

alphabet ^6yKa 

already ya6 

also T^Kse, T63Ke 

altar npecTdjn; ajiT^pb 

alternately nonepcMtHHO 

although xoTji 

altitude blicot^, BbimHH^ 

sEltogether coBclirb 

always Bcer;^4 

ambassador noc6ji'i», nocji^HHHVb 

ambition qecT0jn5(5ie 

ambitious qecTOJOO^^Bbift 

ambuscade saci^^ 

America Aii^pHKa 

amiable jiio^^sHLifi, H^jiLifi 

amid, amidst cpe^^, M^3K;^y 

amiss (to take) npHHHMdTb vh 

xy^yK) CT6poHy 
among, amongst u^xji^y 
amount cyMMa 
amount (to) cocTaBJutrb 
ample o^mi^pHbifi, n6j[Hbifi 
amuse (to) 3a6aBjijfTb 
anchor jiKopb 
ancient ^P^BHlg 
anciently BCTapnHy 
anecdote aHeK;^6'rb 
angel ^nrejrb 
anger rH-feBi. 
angle (corner) yrojit 
angle (hook) ^flfl^Ka. 
angry rniBEbift, cep^^Tbifi 
animal aKHB6THbifi 
animosity 3Ji66a, sjiocTb 
annals jnH&TonHCb 
annoy (to) na^^oi^^^Tb 
annoyance nenpi^THOCTb 
annual roAOB6fi, eser6AHLift 
answer OTB-ferb 
answer (to) OTBtq^Tb 
ant MypaB^fi 

anticipate (to) npe^^Bti^^iTb 
anticipation ^pe;^qfBCTBie 
anvil HaKOB&jibHH 
anybody KT0-HH6t;^b 
anything qro-HHCtAt 
anywhere ^;^t■HH6f;^b 
apartment K6HHaTa; KBapTdpa 
apologize (to) o^p4B;^JBa,Tb 
apparent oqeB^^^Hufi, jIbliuM 
apparently noBi^^HMOiiy 
appear (to) aBJWfTbca, K^krhCM 



appearance napyaHOCTb 

apple A6J10K0 

apply {^^ — for) jifluorkTbCK 

appoint (to) HaanaqaTb 

appreciate (to) i^tn^Tb 

apprehend (to) onac&Tbca 

apprehension onac^nie 

apprentice yqenfiKT. 

approach (to) npa^jiHaciTbca 

approbation o;^o6p6Hie 

approve (to) o;^o6p^Tb 

April anpijib 

apron nep6;iHHKi» 

Arabia Ap^siji 

Arabian apaBHTASHHi 

archbishop apxien^cKOirb 

ardour yc6p^e 

arise (to) BCTaB^Tb 

arm pyicd 

arms opyaie, pyaba 

army 4pMiA, B6ficK0 

around BOKpyrb 

arrival npnCiiTie, npitaAt 

arrive (to) npn^HBdib, npifeacATb 

art HCKyccTBO 

artist xy;^6aHHR'b 

as KaKi, TaKTb, Tairb Ram* 

as if KaKi> 6'^fljo 

as much CT6jibKo; CK6jibK0 

as to qio Kac4eTca ;^o 

Asia AsIa 

ashamed (to be) GThLflfirbCH 

ashes n^neji'b 

ashore na 6eperf, na ubjlA 

aside bi» CT6poHy 

ask (to) cnp4mnBaTb 

asleep cn^ift 

ass oc^jTb 

assault npticxyirb 

assent (to) corjiam&TbCfl 

assistance n6M0ii^b 

association TOB&pHn^ecTBO 

assumption npHCBoenie 

assure (to) yB'bpHTb 

asto rushing yj^HBrirejibHijft 

astonishment mjtijii'.me j^M^ 

Astrakhan AcTpaxaab "^ 

astray (to go) c^HsiTbOJi Cfc nyTt 

astrologer 3ijt3^oi§n» 

atrocity wvuT6K0CTb 

attach (to) upuB^sUBati 

attack tianii^^Hli 

attack (to) Ha^a;^aTb 

attempt (to) mjT^TbCH 

attention BHHM^Hie 

attest (to) sacBH^'feTejibCTBOBaTb 

attitude nojioa^Hic 

attract (to) npaBjieicdTb 

augment (to) ysejifiqHBaTb 

August ^BrycTb 

aunt TCTKa 

Austria AscTpia 

author aBTopi., coqHHAxejib 

autocratic caHO^^epac^BHuii 

autumn 6ceHb 

auxiliary BcnoMor^TejibHuft 

avail (to — one's self) B0cn6jib- 


avaricious CKyn6ft 

avow (to) npHSHaB^Tb 

await (to) at;^aTb 

awake (to) pa36y;^6Tb 

awake (to be) ne cnaib 

aware (to be — of) snaTb 

away! npoqb! boht.! 

axe Ton6pi» 

azure c^nifi, jiasypeBufi 

Back (backwards) nas^Ai* 

bad xy;^6ft, AYPH^fl 

badly ^ypno, nji6xo 

bag KomejieK'b, Mi^m6irb 

baggage ^ar^ai, noo^aca 

bake (to) neqb 

baker 6yjioqHHK'b 

balance B'j^ci^; paBHOB'ibcie 

ball (dance) 6ajrb 

ball (globe) Maqt 

balloon (BOs^^ymHufi) mapi* 

barber i^HpibjibHHE'b 

bard ntB^n,!., 6apfl> 

bargain noRynsa 

bargain (into the) Bfl,o6kBoirh 

barge 6kpxa. 

bark 6&pKa 

bark (to) Ji^Tb ^ 

barley Jiqu^nb 

bam sfftfrTHrina^ T7Mfl6 

barrack KaaapMa 

barren GeanjtOAHiJft 

barrister a^^BOK^TB 

base n6;^jii4tl 

Basil Island BacftjiittOcTpoBT. 

baiiket Bopaiaa, Kop^^nica, 

bath B&flHa, G^j?, KynlubHji 



bathe (to) Kyn^ibca 

battle cpaaceHie, 6ott, 66TBa 

bay (gulf) 6yxTa, ry6d 

bean 6o6'b 

bear (to) HOcfiTb 

beard 6opoflJk 

bearer (of a letter, etc.) uofljk- 


beast sstpb, ^KnedTHoe 

beat (to) 6hti>, y^apjixb 

beautiful Kpac^Bufi, npeKp^CHuM 

beauty KpacoT^ 

because noTOMy qxc 

become (to) c;i,'fejiaTi>cfl, .CTaTb 

bed (bedstead) nocT^Jit, KpoB&Tb 

bed (flowDr) x^DliTnflKii 

bed- clo ties npocTiJini 

bediinen nocTe.ibUoe dliJiBe 

bedroom cukjihna 

bee nqeji^ 

beech CyK-b 

beef BOJiii 

beefsteak 6H(j[)CTeKC'b 

beer n^BO 

beer-shop UEBuka jidBO^Ka 

before npe;i,i, np63K;^e 

beg (to) npocdTb, MOJi^Tt 

beggar n^^ifi 

begin (to) naqsHaTk 

beginning naq^jio 

begone! boht.! y6Hp4ftcfll 

behave (to) bcct^ ce6A 

behaviour noBe^^enie 

behind sa, noaa;^^ 

behold CMOTp^Tb, yB^;^tTb 

belief Bipa 

believe (to) Bipnib; ;^yMaTb 

bell KOJiOKOJii; KOJiOKdxbmiK'b 

belong (to) npHHa;^jie3K4Tb 

beloved jiioCiiMbift 

below ^o;^'b, H^Ke 

belt adacb 

bench CKaMb^ 

bend (to) rayTb, tra6krh 

benefactor Gjiaro;^'feTejib 

beside n6,njrfe, dobjiIj 

besides cnepXT., Kpoirfe 

besiege (to) ocait^taTb 

best jryqiDili, Eiau^iy^mii 

betray (to) H3^f'feHJfTL 

better jyqmifi 

between uesufl^j 

bid (to) BeJiiib, npHKdsuBaTb 

big dojibinofi, ndjiiibifi, T6jicTbii 

bill (of a bird) Hocb 

bill "(account) cqen. 

bind (to) Bfls^Tb, coe^HH^ib 

bird DT^ii^a 

birth po)K;^6Hie, p6;^bi 

bishop en^CKonii 

bit Kyc6Ki, Kyc6qeKT> 

bite (to) KycdTb, KycaTbca 

bitter ropbKift; »cecT6Rifi 

black qepHbiM 

blacksmith KyaH^i^-b 

blame (to) xyjifsTt, nopHi^axb 

bless (to) djiarocJioBjiifTb 

blessing 6j(tajoc.iOB^Hie 

blind c-i'feii6fi 

blindness ocji'fcnji^Hie 

blood Kpoob 

blossom i^Btrb 

blossom (to) i^BtcTii 

blow y;^ap'b 

blow (to) ^yrbj Binrij 

blue cfiHifi, rojiyfi^H 

blunder omifiCKa, updMixii 

blush (to) KpacHtTb 

board (on) na Kopa6jrfe 

boarding school nancidHi* 

boast (to) XB^cxaxb, XBacxaTbCii 

boat Ji6;^Ka 

body li JO ; TyjiOBHme 

boiler KOTejn 

bold CM-fejblfi, ^6p3Kift 

bolster no^yniKa 

bolt CTptjia 

bomb 66M6a; rayirb 

bombardment 6oM6ap;(^pOBaHie 

bondsman padi) 

bone KOCTb 

bonnet (aceHCKaji) mjwina 

book KHura 

bookbinder nepenjieTqHKT» 

bookseller OyxiLKTep'h 

bookseller kitbc Dnpo^cVBet;!! 

boot canoi-b, (ioTSflita 

booi-jack xjionei^t 

bootmaker canoiKBnK'b 

booty j^o6iiiqa 

born poa£;^eHHbIft 

born (to be) po;^6TbCH 

both 66a, 66*, 66a 

both . . . and h . . . h 



bottle dyn^iJiKa 

bottom ;^H0 

box (in a theater) Ji6sa 

box (coffer) cyn^^t*^ 

boy H^jibqHKi . 

bracelet 6pacjij&n> 

branch cyst, BtTBb 

brandy B6;^i£a 

brave xp4(5piiifi 

brazen Md^^^Hufi 

bread xxh&b 

breadth mnpHEd 

breakfast a^BTpairb 

breakfasC (to) s^BTpaKaTb 

breast rpy^^b, c^p^i^e 

breath flfixkine, -^yn 

breathy (to) ;M>iQi^Tb 

bred (well) ^(H^iiATaHHiiii ; 

breed (to) Bocn^TBBaTB 

bride HesicTa . 

bridegroom seeirb 

bridge MOCTb < 

bright CBiTJibitt, ipKii 

brilliant CjiecrAmjA 

brim Kpad i 

bring {io) npHBOC^Tb 

broad mapdidfi 

brook pyq^M, pyqe^Kt 

broom ueTJik 

brother 6paTb 

brow 6poBb, jio6% 

bruise (to) jmE6kTh 

brush n^eTKa 

brush (to) Bi^qHCTHTb (n^erKOK)) 

buck KOsejTb 

build (to) CTp6iiTb 

building CTpo^eie 

bull ^HKli 

bullet nyjifl, A;y)6 

bundle CB^ssa 

burden dp^Mii 

burdock pen^tt, Ji^Hra 

burial noxopdHU 

bum (to) se«n> 

bush KycTb 

business fl^kjio 

busy sdHATLifiy ^irreibBufi 

but a, HO, OAH&BO 

butcher MflCHds'b 
butter m4c;io (Rop6Bbe) 
button nyroBHi^a 
button (to) sacierHBaTb 

buy (to) noKyn^Tb, Byn^Tb- . 

Cab AP<^3KKH 

cabbage KanfcTa . 

cabman h3b6ii^hki> 

calf TejiSHOKi 

calif xaj^j)*!* 

call (to) SBaTb; HasuB&Tb 

calm T^xifi, cn6KoftHufi 

calm (to) yrbm&Tb, ycnoK6HBaTb 

camel Bepdjnb^'b 

camp Ji&repb, CTavb > 

can (I) a uorf 

candlestick no^^CBiqHurb - 

cane TpocTb; nlxsa 

cannon ntniEa 

capable cnoc66Hbifi 

cape Mbicb 

captain KanHraHi*; pomAcTp^ 

capture Baifrie 

care sadbra; noneq^Hie 

care (to take -^) .6ep6iib 

carpenter luidTHHK'b 

carpet KOBgpi 

carriage Kap^ra, Tejrira 

carry (to) hoc^, secT^ ;. 

cart-shed cap&ft 

cascade BOflfiukji,'b, K3u6Kkfi;b : 

case (event) &ntqafi 

case (in the grammar) na^^^vb 

cask 66qEa 

cast (to) 6poc4Tb 

castle 34mok% 

cat Kdnuca 

catalogue KaTaj[6rb 

cattle CKOTb 

cause npHq^Ha 

cavalry icaBaji^piA 

celebrate (to) npocJiaBj^Tb 

celebrated suaMeH^bifi 

cell K^jibii 

cellar ndrpedi) 

censure i^enatpa; nbpHi^&Hie 

censure (to) nopHi^&Tb 

centre i^enrpT., cpeA0T6«iie 

century CTOJiiTie 

ceremony i^epeMdHlA 

certain Bipeufi; HaB^CTHbifi 

certainly KOH^qno 

certainty BipeocTb 

chain i^tnb; i^n6qKa 

chair CTyjrb 

chamber KdMHara 

Russian Con v. -Grammar. 



chance cxpiaA 

change (to) nepeiitH^Tb 

chapd qac6BHA 

chapter rjiasd 

chi^ty M^ocTb 

Charles Kapjn> 

charm (to) oqap6BaTb 

charming iipeji6cTHufi 

chat (to) 6oJcrk'Tb 

cheap ^^emeBui 

cheat (to) o6]f&HiiBaTi> 

check (to) 3a;^^pacHBaTb 

cheek n^es^ 

cheerful BecejOiitt, pkflfiCTHhA 

cheese cupi 

cherry BAmEH 

chicken ufiiuji^EOVb 

chiefly npeHMyn^ecTBeHHO 

child j[^A \ ! 

chimney saiftob 

chin no;^6op6;^OKi> 

China Kwrki 

choice Bi;i6op%, n36p&Hie 

choose (to) Bu6iip&Tb 

chop Jl6M0Tb, KOTJI^a 

church i^^pKOBb 

church-yard oaxdAn^e 

circumstance o6cToiTejn»CTBO 

citizen rpas^aH^Hii 

city rdpo^-b 

civilisation HpocB'bn^^Hie 

claim Tp^6oBaHie 

class KJiaccb, pasp^;^ 

classic Kjiacc^qecKift 

clean q^cTbift 

clean (to) q^cTHTb 

clear jIchbiM, ^AcTht& 

clergy ^^yxoB^ecTBO 

clergyman CBfln^^HHHirb 

clever tMHutt, HCKtcHuft 

climate KJi^Marb 

clock (what o' — is it ?) K0T6pui 

close (end) OKOHq^eie 
close (shut) 3aTB6peHH£itt 
close (to) saKpuB^Tb, saiBopjiTb 
closely 6j[A3KO 
cloth cyKH6, nojiOTH6 
clothe (to) o^^tB^Tb 
clothing ojf<ka^, luaTbg 
cloud 66jiaKO 
club (stick) fl,Y6tauik 

club (circle) KJiytfi* 
coachman Kyqepi* 
coal trojn» 
coarse rpf 6ui 
coast (MopcK6fi) d^peiTi 
coat Ka(t)TiHi>; cnpryrb 
cock nbrfTb 
coffee K6(t)efi 
coffee-house Ko4)^fiHA 
coffer cyHAtKi 
coffin rpodi} 
cold xoji6;^Hi>ift 
colonel nojiK6BHHKi> 
colony K0ji6Hi£, noceji^Hie 
colour ufifbrb, sp^cica 
comb rpedeHOKi, rp^6eHi> 
combat cpaac^Hie, 66TBa, 6oft 
come (to) npHxox^Tb, npitsxciiTb 
come (to — in) bxoa^tb 
come (to — up) bcxoa^ti. 
come (to — down) cxo;^6Tb 
come (to — to pass) cjiyq&Tbca 
comedy kou6j^ 
comfort yA66cTB0, K0M(|)6prL 
comfortable Yjifi6miit 
command (to) npHE^SBiBaTb 
commence (to) naqEH^Tb 
commerce Topr6BJiA 
commercial ToprdBuft 
commit (to) npenopy^dxb 
common 66mi&, Bce66ii^itt 
commonly o^ukhob^hho 
communicate (to) coodn^^Tb 
conmiunication coo6ii^^Hie 
community 66mecTBa ^ 
companion TOB&p^nfb 
company (society) 66mecTB(> 
company (of soldiers) p6Ta 
compassion coacajr&Hie 
compel (to) npHHya^^axb 
compensate (to) BOSHarpaaB^^&Ti*. 
complain (to) ^KdjiOBaibCH 
complete nbjiHufi 
compliment KOMnjiHM^HTb 
comply (to) corjiam^TbCH 
compose (to) cocTaBjuiTb 
composition cocTaBji6Hie 
concert Kom^^pn. 
conclusion saBJiioq^Hie 
concurrence CTeq6Hie 
condemn (to) oejMfikTb 



condition (term) ycJi6Bie 
confess (to) npESHaedTbCfl 
confession ^cnoBt;^i> 
confide (to) BB^pjiTb 
confidential OTKpoB^HHufi 
confinement 3aKjiK)q6Hie 
conflagration noac^p'b 
confusion CHyiii,6Hie 
congratulate (to) no3;y)aBJwiTL 
congratulation no3;i,paBji6Hie 
congregate (to) co^Hp^TLca 
congregation co6p4Hie 
connect (to) coe;^HHjiTb 
connexion CBASb 
connivance noTB6pCTBO 
conquer (to) aaBoeBUBaTb 
conquest saBoeB^Hie 
conscience cdBtcTb 
consentment corjiain6Hie 
consequence cjrfe;^CTBie 
consider (to) paacM^TpHBaTb 
consign (to) 0T;^aB4TL 
consist (to) cocTOJiTb 
console (to) yrfemiTb 
conspiracy 3aroB6pi 
constant nocxojiHHHfi 
Constantinople KoHCTaHTHH6- 

nojib, I][apBrp&A'b 
construct (to) CTp6HTb 
contain (to) co;i,ep«4Tb 
content (to — one self) ;^0B6jib- 


contentment yflOBJiCTBop^Hie 
contents co;iepac^Hie 
contest cnopT. 
continent MaTep^Ki* 
continual nocTOjiHHbift 
continually nocTOjiHHO 
continue (to) npo;^oji»c4Tb(ca) 
contradiction npoTHBopiqie 
contrary npoT^BHbifl 
convenience y^66cTB0; npnjiMe 
convent uoHacT^pb, o6^Tejib 
conversation 6ec'fe;^a, pa3roB6p'b 
converse (to) 6ec'fe;^0BaTb 
conviction y6'few;^6Hie 
convince (to) y6*ac;^4Tb 
cook-maid Kyx^pKa 
cook-man ndeapi 
cool npoxjid^^Huft, xoji6;^i>ift 
copeck Bon^fisa (Konittica) 
copper wbjif. 

copy (to) nepen^cbiBaTb 
cord BepeBKa 
cork np66Ka 
comer fvoji'b 
correct (to) HcnpaBjdTb 
correspondence nependcsa 
correspondent KoppecnoHA^HTb 
corresponding cooTB'^TCTBeHHbift 
corrupt (to) ndpxHTb 
corrupted Hcnopoq^HHbifi 

cost (to) CT6HTb 

cottage x6sHHa 

couch jidxe; Kym^Tsa 

cough Kkmejih 

counsel coBi^n^inie 

counsellor cob^theki* 

count (nobleman) npa.^'b 

count (account) cqerb 

count (to) cqHT^Tb 

countess rpa^^HA 

counterfeit (to) no;wijiUBaTb 

country CTpaH4 

country (native) oi^qecTBO 

country-house ;^iqa 

course (of) pa3yMieTCJi 

court (courtyard) ^^Bopi 

cousin ;^B0K)p6;^Huft Cpan. 

cover (to) KpuTb, nospuB^Tb 

coverlet o^tjijio 

cow Kop6Ba 

coward xpycb 

cream cji^bkh 

Creator TBop^i^-b 

crew QKEuksR'b, KOH^n^a 

crime npecTynj^nie 

cross KpecTT. 

crow Bop6Ha 

crown Kop6Ha; b*h6i;i 

crown (to) yB^Hq^Tb 

crucifix pacnjiTie 

cruel »ecT6Kifi, CBnpinufi 

cruelty CBHpinocTb 

cry KpHKi 

cry (to) Kpnq^Tb, nji^Kaib 

cidtivate (to) o6pa66TUBaTb 

cup q^msa 

cupboard aTaac^psa 

cure jrfeq^nie 

cure (to) Jitq^Tb 

curiosity jioConiiTCTBO 

curious jMoConiiTHHft 

currants CM0p6;^HHa 




curtain s&nto'&c'B 

curve corayiotTb 

cushion noAt^sa 

cuatom-house TaM6'ii;flfl 

customer aoKyuaTejib 

cut (to) piaaTb, paap'feaHBaTb 

Dagger ugH^^^^iii 

daily e^e^Hoanti^ 

danger onAcnoCTi 

dangerous onicaui 

Danube JlyH^ft 

Darius Adpift 

dark TeMHU^, Mp&qHBifi 

darknesa tcmhot^ 

date qiicjiOy cposib 

daughter jifi^ 

day ;^eHi> 

day-break paacB'ferB 

day-light ;^HeBH6ft cBtrb 

dead MepTBuft 

deaf rJ9[yx6fi 

dear ;^opor6ii; M^JiLifi 

death CMepTb, Koeq^Ha 

debt ^ojiT'h 

December AeKil>pt 

decency npHJifiqie 

decent npHji^qnufi; CKp6MHBitt 

decision pimdme 

declension cooH^eie 

deed fl^^Jio, nocTynoKii 

deep rjiy66Kifi 

defeat nopaac^nie 

defend (to) 3aLmjin\kTb 

deficiency ae;^ocT4TOK^» 

deficient He^^ocT^Tomnaft 

defy (to) Bbi3UB^Tb; npesHp&Tb 

degree CT^neHb 

deign (to) y;^ocT6HBaTb 

delay (to) aaMCAJwiTb, OTJiar&Tb 

delicate HisHbift 

delight p&;^ocTb 

delight (to) o6pi^OBaTb, bocxh- 


delightful npej^CTHHft 

deliver (to) H36aBjwiTb, ocBo6o;^6Tb 

demand Tp^Conanie 

Denmark Kknisi 

denounce (to) ;^oHoc(iTb 

dentist aydaM opaqi* 

deny (to) 0Tpn^aTb, oTKiabieaTb 

depart (to) oinpaBjii^TbCfi 

departure on»i3;(> 

depend (to) saB^ctib 
deposit (to) oacTb 
deprive (to) jmrnkth 
depth rj[y6HB& 
deputy BiiCopHHft, flfinyrkTb 
dervish ;^6pBHiin> 
descend (to) cxo^^Tb 
describe (to) onticuBaTb 
description onHC&Hie 
desert nyc-niHa 
deserter 6trji6i^'b 
deserve (to) aacjitacHBaTb 
design HairBpeme 
desire xejikuie 
desire (to) xeji^Tb 
despair ot^kiime 
despise (to) npesep^Tb 
destine (to) Haanaq^Tb 
destination nasHaq^Hie 
destiny cyj^tCi 
destruction paapym^me 
detest (to) neHaB^^^tb 
devil qoprb, fl^hAhOjrb 
devote (to) nocBJim^Tb 
dew poc4 

dialogue paaroBdpi. 
diamond ajm^si* 
dictionary cjiOB^pb 
die (to) yMHp&Tb 
difference p^sHHi^a, pasjc&qie 
different p43Hbifi, pasJid^Hbitt 
difficult Tpt^Hutt 
dignity ;i,oct6hhctbo 
diligent npHji§»Hbifi 
dine (to) oOfe^aTb 
dinner o6^fl,'b 
direct npaM6ft 
direction HanpaBji^nie 
directly mmkch, ceit^act 
dirt rpflsb 
dirty rpjisHbitt 
disagree (to) ccopiiTbCfl 
disagreeable necpi^Tfluft 
disappear (lo) HCHeaiTb 
disaster Heci5.CTie, 6^Ak 
discern (to) pasjiH^^Tb 
discontinue (to) nepecT^Tb 
discourse ptqb, pa3roB6pT. 
discover (to) OTKpbiB&Tb 
discovery oiKpiiTie 
discreet cRp6uHbift 
discussion o6cyw;^6Hie 



disease 6ojii3HL 

diseased 6oji&H6fi 

disgrace neM^jiocTL 

disgust OTspam^Hie 

dish 6jn5;^o; Kym&Hie 

disinterested 6e3Kop6cTHLift 

dislike oTBpaiu^Hic 

diamisB (to) OTnycKart. 

disobey (to) ocjiyniBBaTbCit 

disorder Cesnopjf^oicii 

displease (to) ne upiBnTtca 

disposition pacnopAHi^sie 

disregard irpeireGperaTii 

dissension Hecorjr^cie, pa3;^6p'i» 

dissuade (to) OTroB^puDari. 

distance paacToinie 

distant j^ajieiciS, oT^ajieHBEtfi 

distinction pasji^qie; OTJifi^ie 

distinguish (to) paaviHMarii 

distracted paactiiflHuil 

distraction paasjieq^Hie 

distribution pa3;^4qa 

district y^3;^^» 

disturb (to) CeanoKbHTb 

ditch pOBTjj Kanasa 

diversiiy paajifiqie, pisHOCTi* 

divide (to) paa;^^^!^!^. 

do (to) .^-tjiaTi* 

doctor Bpanii^ JiiKapt, ^6ktopt» 

dog codiita 

dog-days Kan^Kyjibi 

domestic ;^0M4mHifi 

dominion BJia;^'feHie 

door ;^Bept 

double ABofiH6fi 

doubt coMHinie 

doubtlessly ^est coMnimji 

down BHHS^ 

dozen ;^i&acHHa 

drama ;^p^Ma 

drama! ic xpa w aran ecKiS 

drawing pkc^^hoktj 

drawing-room rocxftnaji 

dreadful CTpS^mnbir! 

dxeara cohi., CHOBii;j,-feHie 

dream (to) CH^TBca 

dress njraTte 

dress (to) o;i,tBaTh(cfl) 

drink HaniiTOKi 

drink (to) nHTb 

drop Kkujia 

drop (to) ypoHjiib; ocTaBjtjiTb 

drum 6apa.6&m» 

drunk (to be) 6uti> ntjiHUMi . 

dry cyx6ft 

duck ^TKa 

duel fl^y^Jih, no^jffinoK'b 

duke r^pi^orb 

dull CK^^HUft 

dumb wkudS. 

dust uuxb 

Dutch rojuittjieu'&i ^0M4H;^CKit 

duty (custom) n6injiHHa 

duty (obligation) oSjIaaHHOCTb . 

dwell (to) o6wTkTh; schtb 

dwelling »CHJi6u;e 

dying yMHp^iomift 

Each KksKji^ufi, BCjfKifi 

each other ;^pyn. APt^a 

eagle opejn. 

ear yxo 

earl rpa(|)T, 

early p^HO 

earth seMjiji 

easily y;^66H0, cnoK6flHO 

East boct6kt. 

eastern flOCT6qiitiS ,' 

easy Jierjtifi, yfl66niiili 

eat (to) 'fecTb, K^mart 

editor pe^^fi-KTop-b 

education BOcnuTcLHie 

effort ycfijiie 

egg flft^6 

either xk6o totl ih6o ;tpyr6i 

either ... or 6jih . . . 6jih 

elbow ji6koti> 

elder, eldest CT^pmift 

electric 9JieKTp6qecKifi 

electricity ajrcKTpil^ecTBo 

elegance M3;iii;eCTB0 

elegant jiaiiuublit 

elegy 9Jieri)i 

element CTHxla 

elephant cjiOHt 

elevate (to) BOBSHm^Tb 

elevated Bbic6Kijl 

elevation BOSBum^Hie 

Elizabeth EjiHsaB^xa 

eloquence Kpacnopi^e 

else i^Haqe; RH6fi 

elsewhere bi ^^pyrbM-b M-fecrfe 

embellish (to) yKpamaTb 

emblem du6ji6ua, 

embroider (to) BumnhkTb 



emperor HMnep^Top'b; i^apb 

empire HMn^pifl, BjiacTb 

employ (to^^ ynoTpeCjuiTb 

employment saHjiTie m^cto 

empress HMnepaTp^i^a ; i^ap^i^a 

empty iiycT6ft 

emulator conepHHS'b 

enclose (to) BKjaonkTb 

encumbered (strewn) 3aBajieHHH& 

end KOH^i^ii; Konq^Ha 

end (to) K0Hq&Tb(cfl) 

endowed OAapeHHuM 

enemy Bparb, nenpulTejib 

energy 3Heprifl, c6jia 

engage (to) yroB^pHBaTB 

engine opy^ie, Mam^Ha 

England Anrjiiii 

English dHrjdficKifi 

Englishman aHTJiHH&HHH'B 

engraving rpaBibpa 

enjoy Hacjiaac;^^TbCA 

enlighten (to) ocBtn^^Tb 

enormous orp6MHufi 

enough ;^0B6jibH0 

enter (to) Bxo^^fiTb, BCxyn^Tb 

enterprise npe^^iipi^Tie 

entertain (to) co;i,epKdTb 

entertainment co^^epacanie 

enthusiasm B0CT6prb 

entire i^d^jibHuS; coBepm^HHBiS 

entrance exoat* 

envious saBidcTJiHBbift 

envoy nocji^HHHirb 

envy 3&BHCTb 

envy (to) aaBA^OBaxb 

epic an^qecKifi 

epoch 3n6xa 

equally paBH6 

err (to) omHCaTbCH, 6JIyac;^4Tb 

error omfi^Ka, 3a6jiyacA6Hie 

especially oc66eHHO 

essay 6ubiTh 

essential cym^CTBennbiS 

estate HMinie, HMyiu,ecTB0 

esteem (to) yBaat&Tb 

6tat-major rji^BHbift mTaCi 

eternal BiqHuft 

eternally Bi^Ho, BB'feK'b 

eternity BiinocTb 

Europe EBp6na 

European espon^ficKift 

European EBpon^ei;^ 

even (also) fl^kxe 
even (smooth) paBHbiii, r;i&;^Kii 
evening B6qepi 
ever Bcer;^4 
every BCJiKift, sds^^ft 
everybody, -one Kdaj^biS 
everything Bce 
everywhere hezfljk 
evidence A0Ka34TejibCTB0 
evidently oqeB6;^HO 
evil 3JI0; 6ojn> 
exactly T6qH0 
example npHMipii 
exceedingly qpe3MipH0 
excellence npeB0cx6;^CTB0 
excellency npeBocxo^^ArejibCTBO 
excellent iipeB0cx6;^HbiM 
except, excepting Kp6Mt 
exception Hciwiioq^Hie 
excessive qpe3U'&pHbifi 
exchange (building) 6^«a 
exchange (to) irfcHjtrb 
excitement BOJiH^nie 
exclamation BOCKJiHi^&Hie 
excursion nporf^Ka, BKCKypcia 
excuse HSBHHenie 
execute (to) HcnojiHilTb 
execution HcnojiH^nie 
executioner najiS,Tb 
exercise ynpaacH^nie 
exhibition BiicTaBKa 
exist (to) 6HTb, cymecTBOBaTb 
existence cymecTBOB&Hie 
expect (to) at^axb, 0KH;^&Tb 
expense H3^6pacKa, pacxo^^i. 
explanation o6'hsicE^me 
expose (to) BHCxaBjijiTb 
express-train KypbepcKift ^6'fe3;^'l. 
expression sHpas^me 
extensive o6mdpHuft 
exterior, external napywHuft 
extraordinary qpesBuqdflHbifi 
extremity KpaS, Kp&finocTb 
eye rjiast, 6ko 
eyebrow 6poBb 
eyelash ptcndi^a 
Fable 6kcua 
fabulist eacHondcei^T. 
face jiHi^6 
fact ;^ijio 

factory (t)d6pHKa, za.hdp^'h 
faint cj[&6uft 



fair (market) ilpMapsa 
fair (beautiful) npeKp&CHLift 
fair (it is but — to state) cnpa- 
BBAJiHBOCTb Tp^fiyerb yKaa&Tb 
faith B^pa 
faithful BipHufi 
fall (to) n^^^aTb 
fall (to — short) oCuasfrbiM 
fallacious Ji63KHuft, o6ukB^XBui 
family ccm^Sctbo 
famine rdjio;^!*; roji6;^Hoe Bp^Ma 
famous SHaMeH^Tufi, cji^BHuft 
fan Biepi* 

far fljakJieKi% fljkxbEhdk; ^^ajiesd 
far (by) rop^^o 
far-seeing ;^ajibH036pKifi 
farmer (j^dpMep'b 
farther ;^^bine 
farthest ^^Jibine Bcer6 
fashionable M6;^Huft 
fast KpinKifi, CKdpufi 
fasten (to) npHKptnji^Tb 
fat T6jiCTiiift, acdpHuft 
fate CYfl,h6k 
father 0T6i^'b 

fatigue ycT^jwcTb, yxoMji^Hie 
fault oind6Ka 
favour M^jocTB, ycjyra 
favour (to) CjiaronpiixcTBOBaTb 
favourable 6jiarocKJi6HHui 
favourite jao66Meu,'b 
fear 6oAznhy CTpaxi 
fear (to) 6o^TbCR 
feast np^;^HHKi> 
feather nep6 
February <i>eBpdJiB 
feeble cjik6u& 

feed (to) KopM^Tb, uwtkTb, nacrti 
feel (to) qyscTBOBaTb 
feign (to) npHTBopjtrbCfl 
fellow TOB&pHmi. 
female, feminine SB^HCKift 
ferocious asipcKift, jiibTuft 
fetch (to) npHHOcdTL 
fever JHXop^;^Ka, rop^qica 
few 'HeMHbrie, ukjio 
field n6jie 
fierce CBHpinMfl 
fight (to) cpaac^TbCfl, ;^p4TbCfl 
figure (t)Hrypa; u^L^pa. 
fill (to) nanojiH^Tb, ;^onojrajfTb 
final OKOHq&TejibHuft 

find (to) Haxoxte* 

fine npeKp^cHbifi, KpacdBuft 

finger nliei^'b 

finish (to) OK^H^HBaTb 

Finland ^VMJiAEfl^ 

fire or6Hb 

first (at) cnepB4 

firstly BnepB^e 

fish p^6a 

fish (to) jiOB^Tb pi;^6y 

fist Kyji^Ki* 

fit (adapted) cnoc66Hi>ifi 

flag sEkua 

flame njikuft 

flee (to) yO*r&Tb, y;^ajirfTbCJi 

flesh M)lco 

float (to) njibiTb, BcnjiuB^Tb 

floor nojFb, aT^XTb 

flour MyE^ 

flower i^BtTb, ipiTorb 

flute (I^JL^ftia, 

fly Mfxa 

fly (to) jieT&Tb 

foal sepe6eH0K'b 

foam nina 

fog TyMS.Hl> 

fold (to) CKJI^BIBaTb 

follow (to) cjii;^0BaTb 
following cjr6;^yK)iii(ifi 
food nfii^a 

fool AYP^Ki, rjiyn6i^> 
foot (limb) Hor4 
footman jias^fi, cjiyrS, 
forbidden sanpen^eHHuS 
force c^Jia 
forehead jio6'b 
foreign HHOCTpiHHufi 
foreigner HHOCTp&Hei^'b 
forest jAcb 
forget (to) 3a6£iB4Tb 
forgive (to) npon^^Tb 
fork B^jiKa 
former np^nift 
formerly np^Ae> Hisor^a 
fortification (t)opTE(t)HK4i0ii 
fortnight jifi^ hc^'^jih 
fortress Kp'bnocTb 
forward (to) ornpaBjufTb 
found (to) ocHdBUBaTb 
foundation ocHOB&nie 
fowl Kf pHi^a 
fox jiHc^i^a 



France ^pkan^ 

Francis ^paHi;!* 

frank orKpiftBGHHutt 

fraud o6ii4hi> 

free cbo66ahiiiM, B6ji^Hiiift 

freely otkpob6hho 

French (fp^Hi^yacKifl 

Frenchman (|)paHii]f3'i> 

frequentiy i4cto 

fresh CBiadfi 

friar MOH^xi. 

Friday luh'HHi^a 

friend npijlTeJiB, APyn» 

friendly ;^pf acecKiit 

friendship ;^pY»6a 

frighten (to) Hcnyr^xb 

front (forehead) nejid^ 1x11,6 

front (of a building) ^ackx"^ 

front (to) 6hiTh HacynpoTHBi* 

frontier rpae^a 

froth irfena 

frozen aaHepsmift ' ' 

fruit njio;^'b ' '■■ • 

fry (to) acApHTb 

frying-pan cKOBopo^^ 

frdfil (to) HCH0jmfe> 

frdl n6;iHiiifi 

ftin myrb, ifffnca, 3a6&Ba 

frmd, hinds ^dRflfA '>■ 

frmeral noxop6HH 

frir infCa, irfex3»' 

frmiiture u66exbi yTBapB 

frisil py«b§ 

friture 6y;^yI^ift 

Gallant xp46pHft 

gallows BHC^jmi^a 

garden ca^^-b 

gardener caA6BHBKi> 

garland B']^H6ini 

garlic qecHdKt 

gate BopoTd (plur.) 

gather (to) coCnpiTb 

general 66i]^ift 

generous BejiHBo;^tnmBift 

gentleman rocno^^^Hi. 

German HiiievL 

German H'i^M^iycift 

Germany FepiciHia 

get (to) ;^ocTaB4Tb> e^v^JiaTbcii 

get (to — a cold) npocTy^toieji 

get (to — away) y^^aJirfTi»(ea) 

get (to — rid of) pasMra&i^cji 

ghost npHBH^'^Hie ; ,]^yxi> 
girdle, girth ndflcb 
girl'^BOiKa ) 

give (to) ^naBdTb, MTb 
give (to — up) OTicasiiiBaTbcA 
glad pa;^!*, AOBdibHuft 
glass rpane of) «TeKJi6 
glass (drinking) craKiiHii 
glitti^ 6jieoKi>, cilfHie 
globe mapi, rji65yoir 
glorious • cji^Huft 
glory cji&Ba 
glove nep^^Tica 
go (to) httA) xoxte», 'bx&Tb 
go (to — away) y;^aJIJiTbCfl 
go (to — on) ^po;^OJUB&Tb 

goat K03&y KOSeJTb 

God Bort 

goddess 6orAHH 

gold 36J10TO 

golden 30jiOT6i 

good A66pi>ifi; xop^miii 

good-natured xo6po;^tmHUi 

goods TOBapu 

goose rycb 

gospel eB^HFejiie 

government npas^ejibCTBO 

grace M^jiocTb, MHJioc^p^^ie 

gradually nocTen^HBo 

grain 3epH6 

granmiar rpaMM^TBKa 

grandfather' p^f^by A'^;^yinKa 

grandmother 6&6yHiKa 

grapes BHHorpa;^T» 

grass Tpas^ 

grave (tomb) Mor^Jia ' '] 

great BejidKift, 6ojrbin6fi ^ 

greatly 6qeBb, 66jihineK) q4cTbK> 

greatness sej^ftqie, B^SKHOCtb 

Greece ^p6^1fl 

Greek rpeai 

Greek rp^qeCKlM 

green 3eji3sbift 

grind (to) M0Ji6Tb, ToqfiTb 

grow (to) pacT^ 

guard (to) 6ep6qb, 2B.v\ism,kTb 

guess (to) y^4;^>IBaTb 

guest rocTb 

guest (to) roertiy /^ 

guide insMMiMimiMiiifi..i>M.. 





gun (cannon) nymica 

Habitual o6iiiKHOB^HHuft . 

hail rpa^^T. 

hails (it) rpa;^'b H^erb ■ 

hair b6jioch (plur.) 

half nojiOBi^Ha, nojiy ... 

hand pyica 

handkerchief (H0C0B6fi) iuiaT6Ki> 

handsome EcpaciiBMli, iisjSu^Hufl 

happen (to) cjiyndTiica 

happiness c^jacrie, y;^4qa 

happy c^acTAfiEhi^ 

harbour rasaHb, nopi-^ 

hard rh&pjt.iAil, Kp'hnulk 

hardly cb rpyjifiyrh, ejifik 

hare 3&au,i> i 

harm Bpe;^T>, sjio 

harsh acecTKift, rpy6ufi 

harvest ^ujjlu aceriBO 

haste cn'fex'iir nocninmocTb 

hat mji^na, mkuKO, 

hate (to) QeitaBi^;|1^Tii 

haughty r6p;aii|i, H-iAM^HHuft 

have (to) luniTi* 

hazard cji'fqatr 

hazel-nut op:fex^ 

head TOj\onk; r^aoi : i . 

health 3flOp6Bbe 

healthy 3;^op6Bua 

hear (to) cji^maxb, cjifmaTb 

heart c6p;^i^e 

heart (by) HaHstcTb 

heat acap-b, nbijn. 

heaven Hef5o. paft 

heavy T^KejiHfi, TifwKifl 

height b£icot4, BbimHH^ 

heir Hacjii;^HHK'b 

hell a^t 

help n6Moii^b 

help (to) noEor^Tb 

hen KypHi^a 

herb TpaB4, a^jibe 

herd cxd^o 

here 3;^'fecb 

hero rep6ft 

high Bi>ic6Ki£i, Beji^Kitf 

highwayman pa366iiHH]rb 

hill xojnrb 

hint HaMgKi 

hire ui^'b 

hire (to) HaHHM&Tb 

hiftoikal HCTop6qecKii . 

listory HCTdpia 

hit (to) y^apilTb 

hold (to) ;^eps4Tb 

holy CBflT6fl 

Hcly Virgin BoroM^Tcpb 

home ji<OM% xnjiAuifi 

honest q^CTHufi, npaB^^Bufi 

honey Me^^i* 

honour qecTb; noqx^Hie 

hook KpiOVb, RpK)4dK:b 

hope HaA^SAa* 

hope (to) ua^^tjiTbCJi 

horn porii pL pora 

horrible Grp^mnufi, yx&cubitt 

horise KOHb, Jt6majt,h 

borsoh^ick (rn) eepx^in. 

hospital r6cnfiT3Jib 

hospitality rocT^npif^MCTBo 

hot ^apKiil ropfiqiS 

hotel rocT^HHHi^a 

hour qacT. 

house flflwh, xEx6m,e 

how KaKT» i 

how much CK6jibK0 I 

Immblo noKopnMfi, cKp6MHRfi 

hunchbacked ropSdTuft 

Hungary Beiirpifl 

hunger rdjio^h i 

hungry ^0Jl6;^Huit 

hungry (to be -) 5HTb roidxHHiii 

hunter ox6THHK'b 

husband wy^t, cynpyrb : [ 

Imsbandry 3etfjie;^ijije i 

hymn thmht. 

Ice jg^T. 

idea HJ^6fl, Mucjib 

idle jitn^Bbiii 

idleness jitHb, ^p&3;^H0CTb 

ill (sick) 0ojibH6ft 

ill (badly) xyj^o '. : 

illness 6ojt%5Bb i 

illustrated Hji;iK)CTpHp6BaHHbif ; 

illustrious snaiieHiTbift i 

image (sacred) nndsa 

imagine (to) BooGpaaE^ib i 

imitate (to) noipiKiTt 

imitator noflpaac^rejib 

immed a[cly HeM^^JieuHO 

immense oGrndpsuff, o p6imufi i 

imminent npeACToriciiiii 

immobile jipno,iBri)KHTJit 

immortal CeacM^prHuft 



impatient HeTepntjifoufi 
important Bkx,Eu& 
impossible HeB03M63KHBifi 
impostor o6m4hii^hki> 
improvement ydrfext 
impulse no6y»;^^Hie, T0jiq6Ki> 
inaugurate (to) OTKpuB&Tb 
incapable Hecnoc6dHuft 
incessantly CecnpecTdHHO 
indeed wb caiiosrb ;^i;rfe 
independent HesaB^CHMug 
India HhaIa 
Indian HH^^iei^'b 
indian HH^^iftcKifi 
indicate (to) yK^UBaTb 
indifference paBHO^f mie 
indifferently paBHO^^ti^HO 
indulgence yroxA^nie 
indulgent CHHCxo^^^rejibHiift 
industry npoMiiiinjieHHOCTb 
infamous ^esqecTHufi 
infancy ;^•feTCTB0 
inferior H^3inift 
infinite 6e3npe;^'6jii>Hi>ifi 
influence (to) Hn^Tb BjiijiHie Ha 
inform (to) yBt^^OMJuiTB 
information HSBtn^^nie; jifindcb 
informer ;^0H0c6Tejrb 
ingratitude nedjiaroj^&pHOCTb 
inhabitant sc^Tejib, o6HT&Tejn> 
ink qepH^jia 
inkstand nepn^Jibnian^a, 
inn rocT^HHHi^a 
innocent neB^HHuft 
innumerable ^eaq^cjieHHiiM 
inquiry BonpdcT., H3CJrfe;^0BaHie 
inscription H^^nHCb 
insect HactK6Moe 
insensible CeaqfBCTBeHHufi 
insist (to) nacT^HBaTb 
inspect (to) ocM^TpHBaTb 
inspector Ha;^3HpiTejib, peBH36p'b 
inspiration B;^>IX^Hie 
inspire (to — one's self) B;^oxHfTb 
instance npHMipii 
instant (moment) MrnoB^nie 
instant (this month) cer6 

instantly HeM6;^;ieHH0 
instead BHicTO 
instinctively no HHCifiHKTy 
institution yqpeac;^6Hie 

instruct (to) nacTaBJUiTb 
instruction HacTasji^Hie ; npocBt- 

insult (to) o6^^Tb, ocKopdjuiTt 
intelligent t><H^tt 
intend (to) HaMtpeB^TbCfl 
intercourse coo6m6me 
interesting saHHM&TejibHbift 
interfere (to) BMimHBaTbCJi 
internal BHyrpeHHift 
interrogate (to) Aonp&mHBaTb 
interview cBH^^^e 
intolerable HecH6cHbiM 
introduction BBe^^nie 
inundation HaBo^n^Hie 
invade (to) ean^CTb 
invalid HHBajidA'b 
invention HSoCpiTCHie 
invitation nperjiain&Tb 
iron xexhzo 
irregular Henp^BHjibHuM 
irritation pa3Apa3K6Hie 
Islamism Hciauiau'b 
island 6cTpoB'b 
issue Bikxofl.'h 

Italian HTaJiiflReu'b, fern. -Hua 
Italian trrajdiiHCKift 
Italy ETkjiia 
ivory cj0H6Baii Kocib 
Jacket KypTKa 
jail TiopbMa 
James Akobii 
January ;iHB^pb 
jealousy p^BHOcxb 
Jew eBp4% 

jewel ;^paroi;iHHbifi K^MeHb 
join (to) coeAHHjiTb 
joiner CTOJuipi 
journal SKypHajTb 
journey ^oi3;^Ka, nyTemecTBie 
joy p^;^ocTb 
judge cy^bA 
judge (to) cy;^6Tb 
judgment cy;^'b, pa3ctj^oin. 
July ii)jb 

jump (to) npbir&Tb 
June iH)Hb 

just now TO^HO TDa^pb 

justice npEiBOcy^ie ; cnpaeeflji 


justify (to) onp^B/^wB*T^ 
Kaznn Kaaasb 



keep (to) jsfi^xkTh 

keeper xpaH^Teju* 

key Kxiovb 

Khanate x&hctbo 

kick T0jra6in> (Hor6io) 

kick (to) TOJiK&Tb (Hor6K)) 

kill (to) yMsp^BJiifTb, y6HB^Tb 

kind (sort) po^^t, coprb 

kind (good) ;^66pi>ift, jiacR6B£ift 

king Kop6jib, i^apb 

kitchen KfxRA 

kitten KOTeHOin* 

knee KOJiino 

kneel (to) npeooHilTb 

knife noxrb, ndxEKb 

knock jA^iprb 

knock (to) CTyq^Tb 

knot taejb, 6aHn» 

know (to) SHaib. 

knowledge SH^nie 

known HSB'bcTHufi 

Lad likjibnEisi,, ibHoma 

ladder jr&CTHHi^a 

lady rocnoxd 

lake 63epo 

lamb ArHeHOKi 

lamp ji&Mna, jisMukjifl. 

land asMjuf, CTpan^ 

land (to) cxoA^b Ek 6eperb 

landlady xos^eBa 

landlord xosjtHHi* 

language a3iAKi> 

lantern (|)0H4pb 

large 6ojibm6ft; iiiHp6Kitt 

last nocjii^^Hift 

last (at) HaKOH^i^'b 

late (dead) noK6ttHi>itt 

late (not soon) n63;^H0 

lately He^^BHO 

latter nocjrfe^^HiS 

laugh (to) cirfejiTbCJi 

laundress np^^Ka 

law 3aK6Hi> 

lawyer lopficrb 

lay (to) KJiacTb, nojiosKi^ 

laziness jr&nocTb, jiteb 

lazy jrhE^BU% TAsejiufi 

lead cBHH^i^'ii 

lead (to) BecT^, pyKOBO^^dxb 

leaf jiHCTb 

lean xy;^6ft, cyx6ft 

leap (to) CBaKdTb, npAraxb 

learn (to) yq6Tb(ca) 

learned yq^Huft 

least (at) no Kp&ttHeft nipt 

least (not in the) HHCK6jn»K0 

leather sdsa 

leave 6TiiycKi> 

leave (to) noKH^^Tb; saBtn^^Tb 

leech niitBBa 

leg Hor& 

legacy Hacjr&^CTBO 

legation noc6jn»CTBO 

legend CK&asa, jiei^H^^a 

lend (to) ^as^Tb Bs^fiMU 

Lent nocTb 

less M^Hte 

lesson ypdKii, ji^kiua 

let (to) nycK&Tb, nosBOJi^Tb 

letter nHCbM6 

level "^poBCHb 

liar Bpajb, JiryHi>, xmeij^ 

librarian 6H6jnoT^Kapb 

library 6H6jri0T^Ba 

lie jiosb, Henp&B^^a 

lie (to — down) jieataTb, jio- 

life acHSHb 
light CBtrb, ciifHie 
lighten (to) ocBin^&Tb 
lightning udxaix 
like uojsfi6Eu1k; sairb 

like (I) MHt Hp&BHTCJI 

likely BbpoifrHO 

likewise no^d^HO, T&Kse 

limb qjieHi» 

limit (to) orpandqHBaTb 

line jii^HiH 

linen 6tjibg, nojiOTH6 

lion jieB'b 

lip ry6& 

liquor (Kpimcitt) HanArosii 

listen (to) cjifniaTb 

literary jiHTepaTtpHbifi 

literature JtHrepaffpa 

little M^jibitt, He6oj[bin6ft 

little (a) M^jio, HeMH6ro 

live (to) 3BHTb 

lively 3BHB6tt, Bec3jibifi 
living »HByiii(ifi 
loaded Harpyn^HHiiifi 
loan saeiTb, cetA^ 

lock ZBMdK'b 

locomotive napoB63'b 



lodgings KBapTiftpa 

log 6peBH6 

long ji,aAiiEhi1k, jffijiiilk 

long (to — for) TOCKOB^Tb 

longtime jifijiro, fl,a,BE6 

look BBJkTfj B3rj[aX3b 

look (to) MflA'tTt, cKorp^Tb 
look out (to be on the — } 6hm 

Ha CT0p63Kt 

Lord (our) focndflfc, Bon 

lose (to) Tepitrt 

lot (destiny) ey;ii.Ga 

loud rpOMKiS; rp6Mgo 

love jid56bb 

low H^SKift 

lower Hdanift 

loyal q^THLifi 

Inck cqdcTie, cjit^aft 

luggage 6a,rkscb 

lunch saKtcKa 

luxury p6cKonib 

lyric, lyrical jiupli^ecKfi 

Mad cyMacme;^ini& 

madam rocnoTicJi, cyAapHSH 

magnificient BejiHJLo^ineHH 

magpie cop6Ka 

mahogany Kp^CBue j^^peBO 

Mahomcdan narouetiHitB'b 

maid j^'feeyniKa 

maid-servant cjiyac§fiKa 

mail n6qTa 

mail-coach ;^Ti;is3a£iHCi} 

majesty eejifiiecTBO 

major waidpT* 

make (to) ^ija-n. 

mankind ^lejioBiqecTBo 

man TOjioR'feK'b men jnb^^H 

manner cn6co6'b 

mantle njian^'b, inHH^jn> 

many MH6rie 

map K^pxa 

March iiaprb 

march (to) xoai&tb, vapmHpoBdTB 

mare Ko6i;iJia 

market piiaoKi. 

marriage dpanij, CB^;^b6a 

marry (to take a woman) ae- 


marry (to take a man) BUXO^iiTb 

mask jumAnak 
mason K&MeHbii^HKi> 

master xo3jtnHi>/ 6S,pHHi> 
master-piece o6pa3i^6Boe npoHS- 

matches cnfiqKH 

material Mar^pia; MaTepid-JibHufi 
matter (no) see paBH6 
May Hafi 

may be 6HTb Mdaerb 
meadow Jrynt 

mean (to) ^yMatb; SB^qHTb 
meaninp; anaq^ine 
means cp6;^CTB0 
means (by no) HHCB6JibK0 
meantime (in the) m^skaY ri^inb 
measure nipa; H'&pKa 
meat uAm 

medical man Bpa^b, jrfeKdpb 
mediocrity nocp^jcTBeHuocTh 
meet (to) BCTp'bq^Tb(cfl) 
meeting Bcrpiqa, C0n;^inie * 
member qjiem* 
mend (to) HciTpaB,ijfTi. 
merchant Kjruent. ToproB^ui 
mercy anjioc^pAie 
merely T6jibK0, e^^tincTBeHHO • 
merry Becejnjfi ' 

messenger wt^cmm'h 
metal MeTajTJTb 
middle cpe^iiHa cp6;^Hifi 
midnight nijiHO^b 
might MortmecTBO 
mild Kp6TKift, M^rKift 
mile uiiJiH 
mihtary BO^HHHft 
milk M0JI0K6 
mill H^jibHHi^a 
miller M^jibawKt 
miHitier Moj^ricTKa 
mind ywh; Aymk; ;^yxT. ; 

mind (to) 3a66THTbCii 
mingle (to) Mtmjm, 
minister Mim^CTp'b 
minute MHHyTa 
miracle nyflfi 
mirror a^pKajio 
miser CKpiira, CKyn6ft 
rniseralfle uecHaCTifbiii 
misery Cii;^CTBie, HHinera 
misfortune iiec^^cTie^ Hey^^a^a 
mistake om^di^a 
mistress (school-) yq^emtBHt^ft 
mob Tomk 



mock (to) ocM'l^uBaTb 
mode bCpasT., cn6co6'b 
model o6pa36i^'b; npHM'&pnb 
modem HiiiHtinHifi, e6bu& 
modest CKp6MHuft 
molest (to) 6e3noK6HTb 
moment MrHOB^Hie, HHHyTa 
Monday noHe^^ijitHHi^ 
money ;^6Hb^H, Mon^ta 
monkey o6e3b^Ha 
monster qy;^6BHI^e 
month MicjmT» 
monthly whannM; esiceMicAq- 


monmnent nkiuvtEiiacb 

moon XYEk, kkcsas.'h 

moral Hp^BeTBeHHutt 

morning tTpo 

morrow (to-) s^BTpa 

mortal cm^pthhS 

Moscow Mockb4 

mosque Me^^Tb 

most 66jrfee Bcer6, BecbM& 

mostly no 66j[bniefi q&CTH 

mother MaTb 

mother-in-law cBeKpifeb 

motive npHq^Ha, ndBO^'^ 

mount rop4 

mountain rop& 

mouse Hbimb 

mouth poTb 

move (to) ;^BliraTb; Tp6raTb 

much MH6ro, 6qeHb, rop^;^o 

mud rpflSb 

mule Myji'by jiomkieb 

multitude MHdacecTBO 

murderer jCifii^a 

music HtsbiKa 

musician My3biKS,HTb 

must (I) a flfijixiewb 

mutton Capd.H'b 

mystery T&itHa 

Nail (finger-) H6roTb 

nail (iron-) raoaj^b 

name ^a; ^au'kjda 

name (to) nasuB^Tb 

Inamcly fLMeuHO 
napkin cajittit^Tica 
narrate ({o) pa^CKaatiaaTb 
narrative paaeit^a^ 
narrow fasift, rfecRutt 
natural ecT§cTEeaH6fft 

nature npHp6;^a 
naval MopcK6fi 
navigable cjflfiXdflfiulk 
navigate (to) Hji&BaTb 
navigation nji^Bame, Mopex^;^* 


navy ^jfexi 

near BjidsKift; b6jih86 

necessary Heo6xo;^]&ifbift, Ht»Hbii= 

neck m^fl 

necklace oaicep^Jibe 

needle HrdJiKa 

neighbour coc'fe;^'b 

neither . . . nor hh . . . hh 

nephew luieM^aHHKi 

nest rfffe3A6 

Neva HeB4 

never HHKorA^ 

nevertheless r^wb He M^nte 

new H6Bbifi 

newly hc^^bho 

news H6B0cTb, HSB'bcTie 

newspaper B'&;^0M0CTb, ras^a 

next cjrfeAyron^ift* 6tAyn4tt 

nice xop6iiiifi, Kpac^Bbift 

niece njieM^HHHi^a 

night Hoqb 

nightingale cojiOB^tt 

no H'feTb 

noble 6jarop6;^HHfl 

nobleman ABopaHtoi* 

nobody hhkt6 

noise myiTb 

none HHKaKdfi, hh oa^hi* 

noon n6jij^eHb 

North ciBcpi., Hop^ 

northern ciBepHbitt 

nose Hocb 

not He 

note OTir&TKa; san^csa; 6HJi6Tb 

nothing HH^erd 

notwithstanding HecMOTpif Ha 

nourishment n6ni(a 

novel poM&Hi* 

novelist, novelwriter poMaB^CTb 

November H0ll6pb 

now Ten^pb, ntitni^ 

number qHCJi6 

numerous MHoro^AcjienHbifi 

nurse (of a child) eAbx 

nurse (pt a sick) CH^^joca 

nut opixii 



ill (3 

iVrpii BeJiiiicitt 
■a) (CaHKTB) rie- 

mcj np6cii5a 

hian Bpaqi.., jliicapii 
lies {{sfiaiiEca 

(to — up) nOflHHM&Tb 

ket KOJi-fc, ctojiCt* 
Scture KajyTiiaaj sicuQonBcb 
rpictnresque iKaooniicmjii 
piece icyc6KTi, na.crh 
pilgrim iiBJiiirpdMi* 
pillow no^^ynnca 
pillow-slip H^BOjioqKa 
pin 6yjidBRa 
pincers n^Hinpli 
pinch (to) wjmkTb 
pipe Tpt^Ka 
pistol nHCT0Ji6rb 
pit (well) K0ji6Ae3b 
pit (in a theatre) napi^pi* 
pity coacajrlme; acajib 
place MibcTO 

plain (level ground) pasH^Ha 
plain (clear) jfcHutt, npocTdtt 
plane, (toothed) 3y6&pb 
plant pacT^Hie 
plaster rancb, iiji4(nupi> 
plate Tap^joca 
play (game) Eifk 
play (to) irp&Tb; nj^^ffifrkBwrb 

pleasant npijfTHBifi, Bec^jiiiifi 

please (to) Hp^HTbCH 

please (if you — ) nojKdjiyficTa 

pleasure y^OBbJibCTBie 

plenty H3o6^jiie; b;^6bojii> 

plot sdroBopii; HHTp^ra 

plough njiyrb 

plum cJ^Ba 

pocket KapifdHi* 

poem nodMa 

poet uo^Tb 

poetical noaT^^ecRifi 

poetry no53ia 

point Tb^Ka; nyHKTb 

poison flAi> 

policy, politics nojiATHKa 

polite yqT^BMfi 

polity npaBJi^Hie 

poniard KHH3Kdjii> 

poor 6^fl,Eu1k 

pope n^na 

popular nonyjijfpHutt 

populous MHorojnb^^Hutt 

populousness iiHorojn&^^CTBO 

porcelain ({)ap({)6pi> 

port r^BaHb, noprb 

portrait nopTp^rb 

Portugal IIopTyrdjiia 

position noji03K^Hie 

possess (to) JDrhTb, o6jiaA^Ti» 

possession Hir&Hie 

possibility B03M6sH0CTb 

possible B031f63KHIilft 

post-office uonTknTb, ndvra 
potato KapT6({)ejib 
power BjiacTb, c^Jia 
powerful cAjibHuft, MorymecTBCH- 


practice npdRTHKa 
praise (to) XBaji^Tb 
pray (to) npoc^Tb; MOJi^TbCH 
prayer Moji^a 
preceding npeA^^ynUtt 
precept np^BHJio, npe^^HC&Hie 
precious ;^paroi^iHHbitt 
precisely T6qH0 
prefer (to) upejiflonwrkTb 
preference npeAnoqr^me 
prejudice npe^pasctAOKT* 
prejudicial Bp6;(Hiitt 
prematurely npesAeBp^MSHHO 
prepare (to) roT6BHTb 



Oak Ay^i* 

obey (to) nocjitniaTb 

object npe^M^; i^tjn» 

objection Bospas^nie 

oblige (to) npHHys^^Tb 

oblivion 3a6B^Hie. 

observe (to) Eai.6JD0fi,kTk,\^f^^&Tb 

obtain (to) nojiysdTb 

occasion cji^qatt, nbao;^!* 

occupy (to) 3a.EjmkTb{(M) 

October 0KTjf6pb 

ode 6;^a 

Odessa 0;^6cca 

odious HeqaB^CTHLitt 

offence o6tLflfl.; npecTynji^Hle 

offer npeAJioac^Hie 

office K0HT6pa 

officer 0(J)Hi;6pT> 

official qHH6BHHK'b 

oft, often ^kGTO 

oil if^cjio (pacT^TejiBHoe) 

old CTdputt; Ap^BHifi 

omit (to) onycK^Tb 

once (one day) gah^xah, HiKor^a 

once (at) p^0Mi> 

only eA^HCTBeHHufi; T6JibK0 

open OTKpiilTIlfi; OTSpOB^HHllft 

opinion MniHie 
opposite Hanp6THB'b 
optician bnTHKi} 
opulence 6or&TCTBO 
orchard oropb^-b 
order (regularity) nopil^^OK'b 
order (to) npHK&sbiBaTb 
order (in — to) qrd^u 
ordinary o6biKHOB^HH£ifi 
origin naq^jio, npoHCxoaK^^Hie 
original CBoeo6p^Hbitt 
ornament yKpam^Hie 
ornament (to) yspamdTb 
orphan cnpoT^ 
other ^pyr6fi, HH6ft 
otherwise HH4?e 
ought (I) a ;^6ji3KeH'b 6iiijrb 6u 
out Hsii, BHt; Ha ABopi 
overcoat najibT6 
overladen o^peHeneEHbifi 
overlook (to) o6o3p*B4Tb 
overshoe raji6ma 
overwhelm oCpeMeHitTb 
owe (to) 6uTb BT. ;^ojirt 
own c66cTBeHHuft 

owner coCctb^hhhkt. 

ox BOJIT, 

oyster tcTpni^a 

Pack cBiisRa 

pack (to — up) yKJidAHBaTb 

packet naK^Tb 

painter acHBondcei^'b 

painting KapT^na 

pair n&pa, n&rk 

palace ^^Bop^i^i} 

pale djrib^^Hufi 

pane cTeod 

paper 6yM4ra; raa^Ta 

paradise patt 

parasol napac6jib, sbHTHKi* 

parcel (packet) tseji'b 

pardon (to) npon^^Tb, HSBHHiTb 

parents po;^fiTejiH 

Paris Uap^scb 

parish npaxdji.'b 

part qacTb 

particularly oc66eHHO 

partridge Kypon^TKa 

party CToponi, n&pria 

pass (to) npoxoA^Tb, npotsacdTb 

passenger naccaacdpii 

passion cxpacTb 

passport n^cnoprb 

pastime yseceji^me 

path CTcait, nyTb 

patience TepniHie 

patient TepirfejidBbifi; nai^^HTb 

patriotic naTpioT^qecKitt 

pause ocTanbBKa 

pay (to — money) njiaTfiTb 

pay (to — a visit) noctm^Tb 

peace Mnpii 

peaceful cM^pHutt, i^xift 

peacock naejillH'b 

pear rpyma 

pearl aceMq^acHna 

pearl-fishery ji6bjia seMqtacHH'b 

peasant KpecTbitHHH'b 

peculiar CB6ftcTBeHHMft 

pelisse mY6a 

pen nep6 

pencil KapaH;^diirb 

penknife (nepoq^HHufi) HdacHK'b 

pension nencia, neHci6ffb 

people HapdAT*, JW^A^ 

pepper n^pei^-b 

perceive (to) ycMdipHBaTb 



perfect coBiepin^HHutt 
perhaps udxerb Clitl 
peril on^cHOCTb, onac^Hie 
perilous oukcEU& 
periodical nepipA^ecKitt 
perish (to) norH6&Tb 
permission HOSBOJi^Hie 
permit (to) nosBOJwiTb 
Persia n^pcia 
Persian nepciiHHHi 
Persian nepc^^CKifi 
person oc66a, qejiOB^i* 
perspective npocn^KTB 
persuade (to) y6'kK;^4Tb 
persuasion yCtJBA^Hie . 
Peter the Great IleTpi. BejiAicift 
Petersburg (Saint) (CaHBTb) Ile- 

petition npom^Hie, np6ci»6a 
Petriad IleTpi&^^a 
petticoat ibdsa^ 
phenomenon aBJi^Hie 
philosopher ^EJidco^'b 
philosophy ^HJioc6(f)iii 
physic jitKdpcTBO 
physician spaTb, jrlKapb 
physics $63HKa • 
pick (to — up) uoflflmikTb 
picket K0Jii», CT0Ji6i> 
picture Rapr^Ha, ac^BonHCb 
picturesque acHBon^cHutt 
piece KycdKT., qacTb 
pilgrim nHJiHrp^irb 
pillow ^o;^yI^Ka 
pillow-slip H^BOjio^Ka 
pin 6yji^Ka 
pincers n^Hm^ 
pinch (to) mflukTb 
pipe Tp^dKa 

pistol HHCTOJI^Tb 

pit (well) K0ji6Ae3b 

pit (in a theatre) napT^p-b 

pity coacajiime; sajib 

place M-fecTO 

plain (level ground) pasniHa 

plain (clear) itcHuft, npocidtt 

plane, (toothed) 3y6&pb 

plant pacT^Hie 

plaster rencb, nji^ciupb 

plate Tap6jiKa 

play (game) Erpk 

play (to) Hrp^Tb; npeACTdsHTb 

pleasant npijfTHutt, BecejiLifi 

please (to) Hp^HTbCH 

please (if you — ) noadjiyficTa 

pleasure y^OBbJibCTBie 

plenty H3o6^jiie; B;^6B0Jib 

plot s^ux^Bopii; HHTp^ra 

plough njryrb 

plum cj^sa 

pocket KapM^Hi* 

poem nodMa 

poet uo^Tb 

poetical no3T6qecKifl 

poetry uoiBia 

point T6qKa; nyHKTb 

poison a^T. 

policy, politics nojiATHKa 

polite yqT^Bbitt 

polity npaBji^Hie 

poniard KHHScdjrb 

poor d-fe^^Huft 

pope n^na 

popular nonyjijfpHbitt 

populous MHorojnb^^Hutt 

populousness MHorojii&^^CTBO 

porcelain ^ap^bpi* 

port rdsaHb, noprb 

portrait nopTp^rb 

Portugal IIopTyrdjiia 

position nojioJK^Hie 

possess (to) HM-feib, oCjia^^Tb 

possession lar&Hie 

possibility B03M6sH0CTb 

possible B03M63KHblft 

post-office novrkuTb, nbqra 
potato KapT6(i)ejib 
power BjiacTb, c6jia 
powerful c^jibHutt, lf0^tI^ecTBeH- 


practice npdRTHKa 
praise (to) xsajiAib 
pray (to) npoc^Tb; MOJiATbCJi 
prayer MOJiixBa 
preceding npe^^i^t^ynUtt 
precept np^BHjio, iipe;^HC&Hie 
precious ;^paroi^iHHbitt 
precisely t6too 
prefer (to) npe;^noqHT4Tb 
preference ^pe;^^oqT6Hle 
prejudice ^pe;^pa3cy;^0K•b 
prejudicial Bp6;^HHft 
prematurely npe»AeBp6MeHH0 
prepare (to) rorbsHTb 



prescription npe^^nHcdnie ; pe- 
u<^nYh ( ) • ' 

presence npncytCTBie 

present (not absent) npHcyrcT- 

present (to) ^ap^Ti.; npe^CT^ 

presently TOTq&cT», cefiq&CT»r 1 

press (to) rbcHArbca 

presume (to) npe;^nojiar&Ti> ; 

pretty M^jiuii, KpacdButt * 

previous np6«Hift 

previously np6a;^e ^ ; 

price nf^Ek 

pride r6pA0CTb 

priest CBam^HJttHKi; noiTb . 

prince KHfl3b; npnHi^'b 

princess KHJir^H^; npHHi^icca 

principal rji^BHu^ 

print (to) neq^TaTb •■, 

prison TeiiH^i^a, TiopbH^ : 

prisoner njiiHHHirt. 

probable b'j^pohthiiM 

procure (to) ^^ocTaBjuiTt 

produce (to) npoa3BO;]^^Tb ; 

production npoHSBefleHie 

profession SB^Hie 

professor npo4)6ccopi> 

profit (to) Bocn6jib30BaTbCA 

profitable Bi^oXHufi 

profound rjiy66Kiit 

profusion H3o6<ijiie 

progress ycnfexi 

project Upo^Tb 

promise o6'femaHie 

promise (to) oS'femiTb 

pronoun MicTpHM^Hie 

pronounce (to) npoHSHoc^Tb 

pronunciation npoHSHomenie 

proof ;^0Ka3&TejibCTB0 

properly c66ci^eHH0 

proposal npe^^jioMC^Hie 

propose (to) npe;^Jiar4Tb 

proprietor noMin^HK'b 

prose np63a 

prosperity 6jiarococTOilHie [ ; 

protect (to) 3amHm4Tb } 

proud r6p;^ufi ! 

prove (to) A0K43biBaTb 

proverb nocji6BHi^a 

provided ^jih T6jibR0 

Providence npoBH^iHie) 

province (Russ.) ry66pBifl - 
provisions 3anS.c'b, 3anac6Hie '; 
provoke (to) pasApaac&Tb ; 
Prussia ilpyccia 
Prussian np^ccRi&, npyc&R'b 
public nyGji^qHutt 
public (the) ny^JiHKa 
publisher HS^^^TSJib 
pun KajiaMdypi 
punctual Td^Hbifi 
punctuality T6^H0CTb 
punish (to) HaK^biBaTb 
pupil (scholar) yqenj^Ki. 
purchase noKyoKa , 
purchase (to) noKyn^Tb, KyntiTb 
purchase noKyn^toJib 
pure q^CTbiS; Qeeftedbift: 
purely qficTO; T6jibK0 - 
purpose (for that) ;^JIJ^ T0r6 
purpose (on) Hap6?H0 
purpose (to) HaMipesatbca 
purse KomejieKik; irhmdvb 

push (to) TOJlK^Tb 

put (to) KJiaCTb; CT^LBHTb : 

puzzle (to) CMyii^^Tb, Aps^^^rb 

Quadruped ^erBepoHdrift 

quality K&qecTBO 

quantity KOJi^qecTBO ' 

quarrel cc6pa . ' 

quarrel (to) cc6pHTbca 

quarter q^TBepib 

quarters EBapiApa 

quay H^CepeacHaa . r 

queen Kopoji^sa ■ 

question Boap6cT> 

question (to) cnp^niHBaTb 'j 

quick CK6pbifi, acHB6fi 

quickly CK6po, 66cTpo,* ji^Abo 

quiet (to) ocTaBJwtTb 

quill nep6 (rycfiH06). 

quit Tdxift, cnoK6fiHuft ; 

quit (to) noKiiHyTb 

quite coBepmeHHO, coBciiTb 

quite aware (to be) xopom6 3Hai% 

Race {tribe) nji^Mji, noKoHme 

rag fpkuviSL 

rage jipocib 

raU p^jibCb 

railroad,, railway s&exkznaji pfi- 

railway-station BOK34jrb 
rain, ^^ow^b ( ; 



rainbow p&Ayra 

rains (it) jifi^A^ EflfiTh 

rainy flfiTRfl^ABuH 

raise (to) BOSBum&Tb 

range paji,!* 

rank panrb 

rapid C^CTputt 

rare pi^Kifi 

rash HeocTop6sHufi 

rat Kp^ca 

rate (at any) Kain» du to h^ 6biJio 

raven B6poHT> 

raw C£ip6fi 

ray JiyTb 

read (to) ^mkTh 

reader murktejib 

ready roT6BMfi 

reality ^^tficTBfiTejiBHocTb 

really bi* c^MOirb ;^ijrb 

reap (to) acaTb (a acHy). 

reaper acHeA'b 

reason (faculty) paacyAon* 

reason (cause) npH^^na 

reasonable pastMHBifi 

rebel MflT^acHmcb 

rebellion Maieaci, dynrb 

recent HeA^emfi, HacToin^ifi 

recently ne^^HO 

recite (to) CK^auBaTt 

reckon (to) cmsrkTb 

recognize (to) ysHaB^Tb 

recollect (to) n6MHHTb 

recollection BocnoMHH&Hie 

reconcile (to) npHMHpjfTb 

red Kp^CHLitt 

refer (to) OTHOcdib 

reflect (to) oipaac^Tb 

reflection OTpaw^Hie 

reform npeoCpaaoBdnie 

refrain (to) y^^epacHBaTbca 

refresh (to) ocBtacdTb 

refreshment ocB'bjK^Hie 

refuge ydiacnme 

regard yeaac^Hie, noqr^Hle 

regard (to) yBaac&TB, cmotp^tb 

regiment nojiKi 

region CTpand, 66jiacTb 

registered (letter) saKaande 

regr'^t (to) aKaji-feib 

regular npdBHJbHbift 

regulation paanop^JK^nie 

reign i^^pciBOBame 

reign (to) i^^pciBOBaTb 
rein ysfl^i 

reject (to) OTBeprdib 
rejoice (to) p^^^OBaxbca 
relate (to) pasK^sbiBaTb 
relationship po;^CTB6 
relatively OTHOcdiejibHO 
reliance ^^osipie 
relinquish (to) ociaBJuiTb 
reluctance OTBpam^Hie 
remain (to) ocTaB^Tbca 
remark sairfaq&Hie 
remark (to) aaiftqdTb 
remedy ji'feK^pcTBO 
remember (to) n6MHHTb 
remind (to) HanoMHH^Tb 
remote OT^ajieHHbifi 
remove (to) yj^ajwiTb 
renew (to) B03o6HOBJufTb 
renown cji^Ba 
renowned cJi^BHbitt 
repair (to) nonpaBJwiTb 
repay (to) oinjidqHBaTb 
repeat (to) noBTopjiib 
repent (to) pacK^Tbca 
repentance pacKiflHie 
reply (to) OTB'feq^Tb 
report cjiyxi* 

represent (to) ^pe;^CTaBJwiTb 
reproach (to) ynpcK^ib 
repulse (rpydufi) OTK^ai* 
reputation penyT&i^ia 
request Iip6cb6a 
request (to) npoc^Tb 
require (to) Tp66oBaTb 
reserve (to) cCeper^Tb 
residence npe^biB^nie 
resist (to) conpoTHBjuiTbca 
resolute ptm^TejibHbift 
resolution ptm^nie, paaptm^me 
resource cp6;^cTB0 
respect yBaac^eie 
respect (to) yBaac^Tb 
respectable no^T^nnbifi 
respectively OTHOcliTejibHO 
respiration ^^bixdnie 
rest (repose) bT^uxT, 
rest (remainder) oct^tokt. 
rest (to) OTflH^kTb 
result peayjibT^Tb 
retain (to) y;^6pacHBaTb 
return BOSBpan^^me 

Russian Cony.- Grammar. 



return (in) bi» ynji4Ty 

return (to) BOSBpan^^Tb 

revenge (to) mcthtb, OTOMm&Tb 

revenue ^ox6;^'b 

review nepecM6TpT» 

revolve (to) Bpam&TB, oCpamaTb 

reward Ha^p^;^a, narpaac^^^Hie 

reward (to) narpaa^^^Tt 

Rhine Peftnt 

ribbon ji6HTa 

rich 6or&Tuft 

riches dor^TCTBO 

ride (to) ^sfljsrb (Bepx6MT>) 

ridicule CM^niHde 

ridicule (to) ocM^HBaTb 

right (justice) np&BO 

right (just) sipHMft 

rigorous CTporifi, cyp6Buft 

ring K0Jibi^6 

ring (to) SBOHHTB, sBeniTB, ssyn^TB 

ripe apijiufi 

ripen (to) coapibB^Tb 

rise (to) BCTaB^Tb, BOCxo^dTb 

rival con^pHEKii 

river pifeic^ 

rivulet pyq6ft 

road ;^op6^a, nyib 

roast acapK6e 

roast (to) acipHTb, Bap^b 

robber paaddftHEKT. 

romantic poHaHT^iqecKifi 

roof Kpiima, KpoBi* 

room K6MHaTa^ noK6fi 

rope BepeBKa 

rose p63a 

rough cyp6BHft 

round Kpyrjiwit 

routine h^bbir'b 

royal Kopoji^BCKid 

rude rpt6bifi 

rug KOBepi), ckpxsL 

ruin (to) paaopjiTb 

ruins pasB^jiHHbi 

rule (precept) np^HJio 

ruler npaBtiTCJib 

run (to) Ctat&Tb; Teib 

rush (to) 6poc^Tbca 

Russia Poccifl 

Russian pocciflEHHi, p^^ccRiS 

rustic c^jibCKifi, ^^epes^HCKiM 

Sabre ck6jia 

sacred cbjui^^hhuS, cBflT6tt 

sacrifice aceprBa 
sacrifice (to) ac^pTOsaTb 
sad neqaju>HuM 
safe CesondcHbift 
sail ndpycb 

sail (to) OTDJIUB^Tb 

sailor MaTpbcb 

sake (for the — of) p&;^H 

sale npo^^daca 

salt cojib 

salutary 6jiaroTB6pHbitt 

salutation uoKJidniy 

salute (to) KJI^HHTbCH 

same ckuufi 

same (it is the — to me) MH'fc 

Bce paBH6 
sand nec6Ki> 
sand-box nec6?HHi^a 
satire caTdpa 
satiate Hacbin^aTb 
satisfactory y^OBjieTBoptiTejibHbift 
satisfied ;^0B6jibHi>itt 
satisfy (to) y;^OBJieTBopilTb 
Saturday cy666Ta 
savage A^Kid, CBHp'&iiiitt 
save (to) cnac^Tb, coxpaeiTb 
say (to) CKaa&Tb, roBop^Tb 
scarce pi^^Kifi; He^^ocT^TO^Hbiil 
scarcely eflfik, T6jibK0 ^to 
scatter (to) pascbB^Tb 
scene ci^ena; n6npHii^e 
scenery bh;^!.; AeKop^i^La 
scheme npoeKTb, cx^iia 
scholar (school-boy) yqenAK'b 
scholar (learned man) yqenbiS 
school yq^jiHii^e 
school-fellow coyqenfiK'b 
school-master yqfirejib 
school-mistress yq^rejibHEO^a 
science nayica 
scissors H6»HHi^bi 
scold (to) dpan^Tb 
scream (to) Kpnq^Tb 

screw BHHTb 

sea M6pe 

seal neq^Tb, OTneqdTOK'b 
seal (to) saneq^TUBaTb 
sealing-wax cypryq-b 
seaman ifopjiKi} 
seamstress mBeji 
seaport npuMbpcBift noprb 
season Bp^M^ rb^a 



seasonable 6jiaroBp^MenHufi 
seat (country) nanicThe 
seated (to be) caj^^TbCJi, CH^^iTb 
Sebastopol CeoacT^Qo.ib 
second BTop6il, Apyr<>ii 
secret T^^fiea., ceKp^Ti. 
secretary ceKpeiipb 

see (to) Bfi^^Tb, CMOTp^Tb 

seed c^Mfl 

seek (to) HCK^Tb 

seem (to) KasaTbCJi 

seize (to) OBJia^^'^Tb 

seldom p'l^KO 

sell (to) npo^aB^Tb 

send (to) docuji^tl 

send (to — back) BOSBpan^Tb 

sense TyacTHO; yai* 

sense (common) sj^p^biii: CMbicjn» 

sensi bUi ty ^y bctb/i te Jtf. HOCTh 

sensible lyDCTeriTejiiiniJii 

sentiment ^yBcrno 

sentimental cenTiMeHTajibHufi 

separata or^'bjn.iibifi: 

separation pasjiyica 

September ceHT^6pb 

serpent siri^^ 

servant c^rk 

servant-maid c.iy^aHE^ 

serve (to) cjryKHTt 

service cxyacCia? ycjyra 

settlement noeejeaie 

several p^sHbie, MH6rie 

severe CTp6rift, 3KecT6Kift 

sew (to) urnib 

shade, shadow rfenb 

shall (I) H A^-i-Hent 

shape dCpaati (})6pMa 

sharp 6cTpufi, pisKifi 

shave (to) 6pHTb 

shear (to) cTpnqb 

shed cap^tt 

sheep 081^4 

sheet (bedlinen) npocTUHil 

sheet (of paper) jiHcrb 

shelter aoE^putuiuL 

shepherd nact^Kii 

shift pyfiamica (x^HGt^aa) 

shine (to) mjlTb, djieerfexb 

ship Kop&.6jib, cyABo 

shipwreck KOpaSjieicpym^Hie 

shirt pyCiiUKa (My^KCKifl) 

shiver (to) ^poHcarb 

shock (to) noTpac^Tb 

shocking ocKopd^TejibHuM 

shoe danui^K'b 

shoemaker dauiHdqHHK'b 

shop ji^BKa 

shore 66pen» 

short Kop6TKifi 

shortly BCKopt 

shot Bi^crp'^ji'L 

should (1) Ji A^jisKeui* 5i>ijrb 6hi 

shoulder njieqo 

shout (to) Kpun^Tb 

show (to) G0Ei'l3bIBaTb 

shrewd 6cTpuli 

shun (to) H36'fer&Tb 

shut (to) saTBOpjiTb^ sannp^Tb 

shy CTH^Ji^Bull, sacTinqHBuft 

Siberia C]i<5iipi> 

sick 60MbE6& 

sickness Oojit, SojiisHb 
side 6oKi>, CTopoH^ 
siege oc4;^a 

sigh BS^OXT* 

sigh (to) BSAOxnyTb, CTOH^Tb 

sight apinie, Bsop-b; bii;^t> 

sight (out of — ) HSi BH;^y 

sign snaKi}, np^snaicb 

signification SHaq^Hle 

signify (to) oanaq^Tb 

silence MOJi^^nie 

silk mejiK'b 

silken mejiK6Butt 

silver cepe6p6 

similar no;^66Hbitt 

simple npocrbtt 

simplicity npocTOT^ 

since cb rferb nopb 

sincere licicpeuHiii 

sing (to) o^T^ 

single e^^HCTDeHayfi 

Sir cy^apt 

sister cecrp^ 

sit (to — down) ca^drbca, 

situated (to be) Hax6AHTbca 
situation sriJCTonojiox^Hie 
fikate iLOHeK-b 
sketch 6<iepi;'b, 3Ck631> 
skill cnoc65aocTb, ji6BK0CTb 
skin K6»a 
sky h66o 
slander (to) KjieeeT^Tb 




slave padi* 

Slavonic crapocJiaBiiHCKitt 

slay (to) yCHB^Tt 

sleep (to) cnaTb 

sleeve pyic^B'b 

slender TdiiKlfi, r^6Rifi 

slice jioh6ti>, Kyc6R'i> 

slight Jigrxift 

slowly Jiefl.Mitiio 

slumbfir ^peiiOTti^ cowl 

sly xJlTpwii, -lyriiewli 

small ui^Mfl, H^jiiiiQ 

small-pox 6cna 

smile (to) yjiuO&Tbca 

smith KyaH^r^T. 

smoke fl.uu'b 

smoke (to — cigars) KypArb 

smooth TJikfljiilk 

snake 3Mii! 

snow CH-felTi 

snows (it) CH'ferb haStl 
snuff aibxaTojiMibiii Ta6d,]n> 
snuff-box TaCaK^pKa 
so TaKit, xaK^iTb 65pa30]n> 
soap Hi^jio 
socialist coniojiiicrh 
society bdiu^ecTHo 
soft i^ricifl, ii*fe:ttHuft 

softly TI[X6BbK0 UAVKO 

soil ndmn-y aexjuS 

sojourn npe6wB5,Hie 

soldier cojifl,kTh 

sole (only) e^riRCTBeBHui 

solitude ye;im]4^nie 

some niiroTophitt ; oiicsojibKO 

somebody ji'feKTO 

something ni^TO, ^T0^E^l6ffi,h 

sometimes HH0^;^4 

somewhat H-feqTO, K6e-«rro 

somewhere rA^-TO, r^'fe-Hndf aJ> 

song nicHA 

soon cK6po, p^HO 

sorrow neq^Jib, r6pe 

sorry cep;^fiTMft; neq^jn.HHft 

sorry (to be — ) »a;rfeTb 

soul fl^yuik 

sound (noise) asyKT* 

sound (to) 3Byq&Tb 

soup cym*, noxjieCica 

sour K^cjiutt 

source HcidqHHK'b, KjnoTb 

south lorb 

southern ibsHbiit 

space npocTpS-HCTBO 

spacious o6iii6pHbiii 

Spain HcnaHiA 

Spaniard Hca&Heu'b 

Spanish Hcn^HCKift, 

sparrow Bopo66tt 

speak (to) roBop^Tb 

specimen oCpaa^x^-b, o6p&3?Hirb 

spectacle sp^jiHO^e 

spectacles omsA 

spectator spArejib 

speech pfe^b 

speed CycrpoTa, nocniniHOCTb 

speed (at full — ) bo bck) npiirrb 

speedily CK6po, nocniiirao 

spill (to) npOJIHB&Tb 

spin (to) npacTb 

spiritual ^yxdBHbift 

spite (in — of) BonpesA 

splendid sejiHROJiinHbitt 

splendour Cjicckt., sejiHEOJiiiiie 

spoil (to) n6pTHTb; rp&CHTb 

spoon ji6»Ka 

sport ox6Ta, nrpd 

sportsman ox6tuhkt» 

spot (place) M-fecTO 

spread (to) pacTdniBan. 

spring; (season) necHi 

spring (to) npeJiniTii 

square (place) aji6ma;^b 

squeeze (to) XBJh (Htny) 

stable £OLii()ifiDHiT ; xjrbs'b 

staff (stick) ukjiK8k 

stag oji^Hb 

stain nflTH6 

stair CTyn^Hb 

stake (sum) CT&BKa 

standard (banner) snaMfl 

standard (exemplary) iwaccAiec- 

star SBts;^^ 

stare (to) (iipficTajn>Ho) cMOTpiTb 
start (to) OTopaBjutTbca 
starve rojiOfl,kTh, yMHpfi-Tb cb r6- 

state (condition) cocTOilHie 
state (nation) rocyA&pcTBO 
state (to) onpe^^'i^Ji^Tb ; HS'bHCHjfTb 
station CTaHi^ia, M'fecTO 
statue CTaTya 
stay npedbiB^Hie 



stay (to) ocTaB^Tbca 

stead (in) bh']&cto 

steal (to) KpacTb, noxHm^TB 

steamboat, steamer napoxb^i* 

steam-engine naposd^ Mam^ea 

steel CTajib 

step man., xo;^ 

step (to — in) Bxoflfirb 

stick n^jiica, Ay^^^a 

still (yet) eii^e; o;^^ko 

stir (to) ;^BA^aTb(ca), M'fem&Tb 

stirrup CTp^iia 

stock in trade TOBdpu 

stocking qyiibKi, Hocbicrb 

stomach sKejiy^^OKii 

stone K^MeHb 

stoop (to) rnyxbca; ynnjadTbca 

store san^cb, H3o6djiie 

storm dypfl 

story (floor) aT^i 

story (tale) CKdsKa 

stove ne%, n^qKa 

straight npiiHO 

stranger qy3K6fl, HHOCTp&Hei^'b 

straw coji6Ha 

street yjiai^a 

strength cAjia, TBep;^ocTb 

stretch (of a way) TpaKTb 

strictly T6qH0 

strike (to) 6wrb, y;^apto» 

string BepeBKa, mnypdK'b 

strive (to) CTap&Tbca 

stroke yA^pi*; mryKa 

strong KpinKitt, c^JibHbifi 

student ciyA^HTb 

study yq^Hie; CTap&me 

study (to) yqfiTbca 

stupid rjiynuft 

style CTHJb; cjiorb, 66paj3rb 

subject (to) no^BeprdTb 

subscribe (to) ^o;^^ficMBaTb 

subscribtion udfljmch, no^nnc^- 

substance ctmnocTb, BeinecTB6 
subtle x^Tpufi, T6HKifi 
suburb npe^^iiicTbe 
succeed (to follow) nocjii^OBaTb 
succeed (to be able) ycnts^Tb 
success ycnixT,, y^aqa 
successful ycniniHuft 
successfully ycnimno 
successive noc.T&;^OBaTejibHbifi 

successor nacjii^^HHK'b 

such TaK6fi 

suddenly BHe8§,nH0 

suffer (to) CTpa^^aTb 

suffice (to) 6biTb AOCT^ToqHbiM-b 

sufficient ;^0CT^T0qHbi^ 

sufficiently flfi^Tkionno 

sugar c&xapi» 

suicide caMoy6ficTBo; caMofiifti^a 

suitable npHji^qeufi, coo6pa3Hbift 

sum CtHMa, HTOFb 

summer jt&to 

sun c6jmi^e 

Sunday BOcspec^Hbe 

sunrise BOcxoac;^^Hie c6jmu,a, 

sunset 3axoac;^^Hie c6jiHi^a 

sunshine cojiHeqHoe cijinie 

sup (to) yacHHaTb 

superb BejiHKOJiinHbifi 

superior B^cmitt, npeBOCxb^Hbifi 

superstition cyeB'fepie 

supper fKEWb 

supply (to) ;^0CTaBjiiiTb, CHa6aaTb 

support no;^^p3Ki:a 

supportable BUHOci^Hbig 

suppose (to) npe^nojiar^Tb 

supposition ^pe;^^0JI0»c6Hie 

suppress (to) ynnqToat^Tb; ocia- 


sure B'i^pHbifi, 6e3ondcHbiS 
surely naB-fepHO 
surface noB^pxHOCTb 
surpass (to) npcBOCxo^i^Tb 
surprise y;^HBJI6Hie 
surprise (to) jfljssjiihh 
surprised (to be) y;^HBjwiTbca 
surrender (to) c;^aB&Tb(cfl) 
surround (to) OKpyacAib 
survive (to) nepeacHB&Tb 
suspect (to) no^^osp'feB&Tb 
suspicion no;^03piHie 
swallow McToqEa 
swallow (to) norjiOTATb 
swear (to) npHcar^Tb, KJijicTbca 
Swede niBejrb 
Sweden HlB^i^ia 
Swedish um^flfiKifi 
sweep (to) MecTfi 
sweet tJikjifiili 
swift tfi^CTpufi 
swim (to) nji^Baib 
Switzerland UlBefti^dpiii 



sword uewh 

sympathetica! CHHnaT^ecsitt 

sympathy coqyBCTBie, CHMndiia 

system CHCT^Ma 

Table CTOJTb 

table-cloth cK^Teprb 

tail XBOCTb 

tailor noprabft 

take (to) 6paTi», bsjitb, doSm^tb 

take (to — a seat) ctcTb 

take (to — care) 6ep6qBca 

tale CK43Ea, pascK^si*; h6b'6ctb 

talent Taji^HTb^ ;^apoB^Hie 

talented ;i;ap6BaHHuS 

talk (to) pasroB^pHBaTb 

talkative roBopji^Bufi 

tall BUcbKitt (pocTdHi)) 

tap (jierKifi) yjifii^'h 

tapestry o66h (plur,) 

Tartar TardpHHi 

taste BKycb 

taste (to) nonp66oBaTb 

tavern KSi6kK'b 

tea qatt 

teach (to) yq^Tb 

teacher yq^TSJib 

tear cjiea^ 

tear (to) psaTb 

tedious CKyqHuft 

tell (to) CKas^Tb; pascK^sbiBaTb 

temper (to) yntpjiTb 

tempest 6ypa 

temple xpaMi> 

temporary BpeHeHHud 

tendency CTpeMJieHie 

term (condition) ycji6Bie 

term (end) KOH^i^'b 

term (time) cpoKi. 

term (word) cji6bo 

terminate (to) 0K6HqHTb 

terminus BOKslnnb 

terrible yac^cHufi, CTp^mHbitt 

terror yacacb, CTpaxT> 

Thames T6M3a 

than qi^Mi, e^acejiH 

thank (to) 6jiaro;^ap6Tb 

thankful 6jiaro;^^pHbift 

thanks 6jiaro;^^pHOCTb 

that totb; qro 

theatre TeS.Tp'b 

theft sp^a 

flien Tor^d; nordwb 

thence orry^^a 

there xairb 

there is botb 

therefore CJrfe;^OBaTeJIbHo 

thick (big) TdjiCThiA 

thief Bopi* 

thin (fine) T6HKifi 

thin (lean) xy;^6fl 

thing flikjio, Ben^b 

think (to) ;^yiiaTb 

thirst xks&fljs. 

thirsty acam^^y^ifi 

thoroughly coBciMij, coBepmeHHO 

though XOTJi, O^H^KO 

thousan Tikcsna, 

thought HLICJIb 

thread (to sew) H^TKa 
threat yrp63a 
threaten (to) yrpoac&Tb 
threshold nop6rL, bxo;^ 
throat r6pjio 
throne npecTbjTb 
through q^pesT*, CKB03b 
throughout noBCjbxy 
thunder rpoM-b 
Thursday qeiB^prb 
thus TSusAtiTb bdpasoBTb 
ticket CHJi^Tb 
tie (to) CB)i3biBaTb 
tiger THTpi* 
till ;^o, uoKk 
time (duration) Bp^Ma 
time (repetition) paai* 
times (at) VEOTfl,^ 
timidity 6ofl3JifiBOCTb 
tin 6JI0B0 
tire (to) yTOMJufTb 
tired (to be) yciaBaxb 
tissue TKaHb 

toast TOCTB 

tobacco Ta6&KT> 
tobacco-pipe Tpydsa 
to-day cer6AHa 
together BMicTt 
told (to be) c.iiymaTb 
tolerate (to) cnocfiTb, lepntn 
tumb uordjia 
to-morrow a^nTpa 
tone 3ByKT.^ tou'l 
tonp n|B[fi;i;i 
tonguEi Jiariaii 
too 'skmiBj 



too much cjiAuiKOWb 

tooth ayCt 

top Bepm^Ha 

tonnent Myaa, Myq^nie 

torment (to) MyqHTb 

touch (to) Tp6raTb 

touching Bac^Teji&HO 

towards kt>, 6kojio 

towel nojiOT^Hi^e 

tower 6kniEsi ^ 

town r6po;^T> 

train nb'fesA'B 

tranquil cnoKbfiHufi 

tranquillity cnoK6ftcTBie 

translate (to) ^epeBo;^ATb 

translation nepeeb;^'!} 

transport (to) nepesosiiTb 

travel nyTem^CTBOBaTb 

traveller nyTemecTBeHHHKTj 

treacherous ^pe;^4TeJII.CKift 

treachery, treason npe^^Hie, b3- 

treasure C0Kp6BHme; KasH^ 
treasurer KasHaq^ft 
tree ;^6peB0 
tremble (to) ;^poac4Tt 
trifle 6e3;^'fejiHi;a 
trip no-fesAKa 
trouble Tpy;^^>, 3a66Ta 
trouble (to) CeanoKoAib 
troublesome saipy^^H^TejibBuft 
trowsers niTaH^, naHTajidHU 
true aipHuM, npae^^jftEBitt 

truly B-fepHO, fiCTHHHO 

trumpet Tpy6& 

trunk (of a tree) CTBOJi'b 

trunk (coffer) cyB^^yKi* 

trust (to) nojiar&Tbca 

truth ^p&B;^a, ticTima, 

try (to) np66oBaTb, HcmiTUBaTb 

Tuesday BT6pHHK'b 

tulip TIOJIbn^HT, 

tunnel Tyan^jib 

turbulent 6tfiHufi, myiiHufi 

Turk TJPpoR'b 

Turkey Ttpiua 

turkey-cock HH;^i6K'b 

Turkish Typ^iycii 

turn L'l'jepc^ii ; nepcHiaa 

turn (to) mpThTh(v.n) 

turn {to — round) oCepafrbeJi 

turnpike (an a custom-house) 

twice flfiksufl^hi 
twilight c^MepKH 
type THiTb 
Udder B^n 

ugliness 6e3o6p^3ie; r4;^0CTb 
ugly rkflfiHA, ;typH6ft 
umbrella 36HTHK'b 
unable Becnoc66Hbifi 
unacquainted He3HaK6Mi)itt 
uncle ji,Afl,ii 

uncommon Heo6uKHOB^Hfli>ifi 
undergo (to) npeTepirfeB4Tb 
understand (to) noHHH^Tb 
understanding yinb, pdayirb 
undertake (to) npe^npHBEH^Tb 
undertaking npe^^npiiiTie 
undoubtedly necoMH'feHHO 
unequal Hep&BHuft 
unexpected Heo»c^;!^aHHi)ifi 
unfit Becnoc66Hutt 
unfold (to) pacicpuB^Tb 
unfortunate Bec^^CTHufi 
unhappy Becq^CTHbift 
uniform (equal) e;^BBOo6p&3Hbift 
uniform (regimentals) MyH^fip-b 
uninteresting BeHBxep^cBHft 
uninterrupted CeanpepiiBBMft 
unite (to) coe^HBjiTb 
unity e;^6BCTBo; corji^cie 
universal BceMipnufi; Bce66mifi 
universe BcejieBHaa 
university yBHBepcHT^rb 
unknown BeB3BicTflBitt 
unless 4cjiB Be; p436ib 
unluckily no Becq&CTiio 
unlucky BecqaxjidBuft 
unmoved Be^o;^B6acBuft 
unnoticed Eeza^wkneEEuQ 
unpleasant BenpijiBBLifi 
unquestionably BeocnopfiMO 
unreasonable 6e3pa3ctAHbifl 
unsavory BeBKtcHuft 
unseen aeB^HMufi 
until ;^o, bok4 
unusual Beo6biKBOB^BBufi 
unwell Be3;^op6B'b 
unwilling BeoxoTBHfi 
unworthy BeAOCT&TO^Buft 
upholsterer o66fimBKT» 
upon which n6cjrfe nerd 
upright npjiM6fi, q^Bufi 
use ynoipeCji^Hie, n6jib3a 
use (to) npHBUK^Tb; ynoTpe6;iJiTb 



useful noji63Hi>iS 

usually 06UKH0B^HH0 

utterly cosepm^HHO, ptnniTejibHO 
Vagabond 6pojv^a 
vain (proud) T^ecji^BHuft 
vain (useless) Hanp^cHufi, He- 


vain (in) nanp^cHO 

valley AOJi^Ha 

valour xp46pocTb 

vancpiish (to) ^o6'feac;^§.TB 

variable nepem^EEulk 

variety pa3Hoo6p43ie 

vary (to) HsirfenjiTb 

veal TCJuiTHHa 

vegetables 6BomH 

vein ac^jia, B^na 

vengeance Mu^^me, MecTb 

Venice Ben^i^ifl 

venture (to) ocMhjumaTbcsi 

verb rjiar6jn. 

verify (to) yTBep«;^&Tb 

verse cthxt> 

verst BepcT& 

very 6qeHb, BecbM^, ropaa^^o 

vice nop6Ki» 

vicious nop6qHHfi, sjioft 

victim s^pTBa 

victory no6'fe;^a 

Vienna B'i^Ha 

view BH^^'b, Bsrjia;^ 

view (to) ^J^a;^iTb, ocM^TpHsaTb 

vigour cAjia 

village (with a church) ceji6 

village (without a church) ^e- 


vine BHHorp&AT» 
vinegar ^KcycT> 
violence nacdjiie 
violent ciiJibHbifi, CBHp'^^iiBitt 
violet (J)i&JiKa 
violin CKp^nica 
virtue fl<o6ipofl,^Tejih 
virtuous Ao6poA'iTejibHuft 
visible oqeB^^^Huft 
vision BH;^'feHie 
visit nocfemeHie 
visit (to) noctm^Tt 
vizier BHS^pb 
vocabulary cjiOB^pb 
voice rbjiocb 
Volga B6jira 

volume (book) KHdra 

voyage nyTem^cTBie (udpewb) 

Wafer oCji^TKa 

wager napd, 3ax.Jikfl,'b 

waggon BarbH'b, TCJi-fera 

waistcoat acHJi^rb 

wait (to) T&fljaLTb, ji,ox,Eji,kTb 

waiter cjiyjB^Tejib, qejiOB'feK'b 

waiting-room (cTaHi^ibHHaji) sajia 

wake (to) npo6yac;^&TbCfl 

waken (to) pa36y;^6Tb 

walk nporyjiKa; ryjwfme 

walk (to) ryjwiTb, xo^Tb 

wall-paper o66h (plur.) 

walnut opixT* 

want HeAOCT&TOKTb 

want (to) HyaB;^&Tbca, weji&Tb 

war BO&H^ 

ware TOB^pi 

warm Tenjibifi 

warm (to) rptib, Ton^Tb 

warmth tcojiot^, aKapi 

wash (to) HblTb, O0MUBdTb 

washerwoman np4qKa 
washstand pyK0M6SHnKi» 
watch (clock) qacii 
watch (to) Ha6jiK);^&Tb 
water bo^^ 

water-communication KaH^BKa 
wave B0JIH& 

wax BOCKTi 

way nyTb, Aop6ra 

weak cji^6i>ifi 

wealth 6or&TCTBO, HMymecTBO 

weapon opfacie 

weather ^o^6;^a 

wedding CB&;^b6a 

Wednesday cepe^^ 

week He^^-fejiii 

weekly eaceHe;^•feJIbHbIft 

weep (to) nji^KaTb 

weigh (to) B-fecHTb 

weight Btcb; T)iacecTb 

welcome! m^jiocth opbCHMi*! 

well (pit) K0Ji6;^e3b 

well (suitably) xopora6 

west s^naAT* 

wet MdKpufi; sajidrb 

what qTO; KdKoft; to ^to 

whatever ^to 6h hh 

wheel K0Jiec6 

when Kor^^ 



whence OTKy^a 

whenever BCjfKifi paat 

where r^^'b 

wherever r;^* HHCy^b 

whether jih; KOTbpufl h31> jifiyji» 

which K0T6pufi, KkKoHiy «rro 

while (during) bt. to Bp^Ma Kavb 

while (time) bp^mh 

whim Kanpds'b 

whirl-wind BHxpb 

whistle cbhct6k'i» 

white 6ijii>ifi 

who KTO 

whole i^ijiHft, Becb 

whole (on the) coBciin* 

wholly coBepm^HHO 

why no^eMt, saqiMt 

wicked sjiott, 6e366acHLifi 

wide mapbEiit 

wide-spread pacnpocTpaHeHHLitt 

widow b;^ob4 

widower b;^ob6i^t> 

wife xenk, cynpyra 

wild A^Kifi 

will (desire) b6jih, aceji^nie 

will (testament) fi^jxdBESM 

will (I) a xoqt (xo'rtTb) 

willingly ox6tho 

willow Abb, 

wind siTcpii 

window okh6 

wine bhh6 

wing (of a bird) KpiiiJi6 

wing (of a palace, an army) 

wink (to) MHr^Tb 
winter shh^ 

Winter-palace 36ifHifi J(Bop6i^i» 
wire (to) Tejierpa^ApoBaxb 
wisdom M^;^pocTb 
wise My;^puft, ^mhuA 
wish aceMeie 
wit yiTb, ocTpo'yMie 

witch Bi^^bMa, KOJlfl^^EhH 

withdraw (to) y;^ajijiTb(ca) 
without 6e3T»; snt 

witness CBBA'&Tejib, CBH^tTejiBC'iv 


witness (to) CBH;^iTeJ^.CTBOBaTb 
witty ocTpoyMflbifi 
woe r6pe, r6pecTb 

wolf BOJIKli 

woman acen^, SK^B^HHa 

wont (to be) HM-feib npHBiiqKy 

wood (forest) Jitcb 

wood (fuel) AP0B4 

wood-cutter ^^poBOciKi* 

wool mepcTb 

word cji6bo 

work pa66Ta; coqHB^nie 

work (to) pa66TaTb 

workman pa66THHKi> 

world MipT», cBtrb 

worm qepBifKii 

worse xyae 

worship n6qecTb 

worship (to) o6oat&Tb 

worth CT6HM0CTb, I^iHHOCTb 

worthy ;^0CT6ftBbIft 

wound pdna 

wrath retBii 

wrest (to) BUAeprHBaTb 

write (to) BHCdTb 

writer nHcaiejib 

writings coqHH^Hia 

wrong (injustice) HecnpaBCAJiA- 


wrong (unjust) Benp^BUJt 

Yard (courtyard) ^^Bopi 

year ^o;^^> 

yellow acejrrbift 

yes fla 

yesterday Bqep4 

yet eine, o^^h&ko 

York IopRi> 

young M0Ji0A6ft, H6Buft 

youth (young age) M6jio^ocTb 

youth (young man) i&Homa 

Zeal yc6pAie, pB^nie 

zealous yc6p;^Hbift 

zero Hyjib 




A [a], and; bat 
isrycTb f avgast], Aagast 
ajx&3i [al'maz], diamond 
a]i6ipi [am'bar], warehonae 
inreji fang.el], angpl 

aHTiHv&HHRB [angl4 V°^i^l ^S~ 

&HTjifiCKiH ['angl,i8kiq, English 
AHTjrij f anglia], felngland 
aiipiib [a'pr.elj, Apnl 
apmHHi [ar/io], yard, areheen 
OacHa ['baRniaj, fable, tale 
6taaM&Kb [ba/"mak], sboe 
6aiiiMiHHHSB [ba/'ma/nik], shoe- 
6&mun f b(x/hta], tower 
6e3DpecT&BHo [b.ezpr.e'stanno], in- 
6631 [b,ez], withont 
6e8noK6HTb [b.ezpv'kolt], to trouble 
6^eri ['b.ereg], shore, coast 
6htb [b.itj, to beat 
62aroiapte& [blageda'r.itj, to 

6iarop6xHHfi [blage'radnit], noble 
6iarocioBUTB [blago^oVl,atJ, to 

6.i^3Rifi ['bl,izkil], near 
6iixHB& [l)l^ednii], pale 
6oraTBft [bBgatit], rich 
6orkRa [bi3'gin,a], goddess 
Bora [box], God 
6ojub [bolj, pain, ache 
6oibH6& [bel/not], sick, ill 
66jubme ['bol/e|, more 
6oxhm61k [hvVfoi], great, large 
6oii3HB [bi?'],eznj, illness 
6opox4 [b^re'da], beard 
66qKa fbot/ka], tub, barrel 
6oflTBCji [be'], to fear 
6paR'B [brak], marriage 
6pa'rb [brat], brother 
6paTb [bratj, to take 
6p6Mfl ['br em,a], burden 
6pHTb [brit,], to shave 
6poc&Tb [bre'satj, to throw 
6yfjjnj& ['budu/t/il], future 
6yjio?HBK'b ['buhs/nik], baker 
6yMara [bu'maga], paper 
6^pH ['bur,a], storm, tempest 

6HK'b [bik], bull 
6uTh [bif^, to be 
dixHHH [ b.ednn], poor 
6^kmkTh [b.e'zatj, to run 
6iiiiH [b^elil], white 
B&sBHt [va^nil], important 
BBtiTb [y.ek], for ever and ever 
BAOBk [vdB'va], widow 
BxcB^ai [vdBV,6ts], widower 
Bxpyra [vdrug][ all at once 
Besxi [vez'd.e], everywhere 
BeiHsit [ve'likii], great 
BejBsojioBHH [veliko'l,6pniI], 

BepeBsa [ve'r.ovka], rope 
Beceind [ve's.olii], joyful 
BecB^ [ves'na], spring (season) 
Becb [v.esj, ail, whole 
eecT^ [v.e'stji], to lead 
BecbMa [v.esma], much, very 
B^nepi ['vet/er], evening 
Bemb [v.e/i/J, thing 
Bsopi [vzor], glance, look 
BBxi [], face, air, shape 
BHAiTb ['vid,etj, to see 
Bixsa ['vilka], fork 
bbb6 [vi'no], wine 
B^mBJi ['vi/n.a], cherry 
BxicTo fvm.ettto], instead of 
BMicTi [' together 
BsesiflBo [vne'zapno], suddenly 
BBBsy [vni'zu], downstairs 
BBHManie [vni'], attention 
BOid [ve'da], water 
BoxHTb [vB'd.itJ, to lead 
edxaa ['vodka], brandy 
B03Bpan(&TBca [vBzvra'/'t/], to 

Boajiyxi ['vozdux], air 
Bdai'b [vozl.e], beside 
B03M6zHHfl [voz'mojnil], possible 
bo&b4 [vol'na], war 
b6hbi f voin], warrior 
BoficRo ['votsko], army 
B0K3ajii[TBk'zal], station, terminus 
Boisi [volk], wolf 
B0JH& [vol'na], wave 
b6jioch ['volosl], hair 
BOJi [vol], ox 
b6jiii [vol.a], will, desire 



BOHi [von], away 

Boo6m6 [vBob'/t/e], generally 

Bonpdcb [vB'pros], question 

BdpoH'b [Voron], raven 

BopoT4 [v-Bre'ta], gate 

Bopi [vor], thief 

BOCKpec^HBe [v'Bskr.e'B.en.e], Sun- 

BOcnHTdHie [TB8p,rtan,e], educa- 

boct6k'& [vBs'tok], East 

BnepeAi [vp e'r,od], forward 

span [vragj, enemy 

BpajDb [vralj, liar 

BpaTb [vrat,], to lie > to tell 

Bpa^i [vrat/], physician, doctor 

Bpej^Tb [vr.e'ditj, to endamage 

sp^AHHif ['vr.ednil], hurtful 

BpeAi [vr,ed], damage 

fip^iffl ['vr,em,a], time 

Bcer^A [vsex'da], always 

Bcer6 [vs,e vo], on the whole; of all 

Bceif HpHHH [vs,e'm,irnil], universal 

Bce-TaR^ fys,9taki], notwithstan- 

BCnoMHH^TB [fsp^mi'uatj, to re- 

BCTaBaTb [vsta yatj, to get up, 
to rise 

BCTp'i^H&TB [vstr,e't/at|]> to ™6et 

BT6pHHK'& ['vtom,ik], Tuesday 

B^epa [vt/e'ra], yesterday 

Bi [v], in, into 

Bjkroj!,2i fy'igBd'B}, advantage 

BHHrpHBaTB ['vitgrXvatJ, to win, 
to gain 

BiiRyni ['v'ikup], ransom 

BHc6Kifi [vi'sokifj, high 

BucoTd [vIsB'ta], height 

BHCTaBKa [^'stavka], exhibition 

BHTOCTHTb ['vit/istitj, to cleau 

Bu-i^xaTB ['v'iiexatj, to ride out; 
to start 

B'feH^i;'B [¥,e'ii^Et3]» crown 

B'l^HdK'b [v^e'D^k], garland 

B-fepa [V.^ra], faith 

B^pHTB [V^eritJ, to believe 

B-fepHHi [%,Ernii], faithful 

BtTBB [v Et,], hran^h 

B^xep-B ['v,Etpr], wind 

BiHHHu [v^c/jin], eternal 

r^ [gd e], where 
rep6fi [ge'rol], hero 
nasi [giaz], eye 
tjij66kA [glu'bokil], deep 
iJi^DHfi ['glupil], stupid 
rjiyx6H [glu'xol]. deaf 
iH'i^B'B [gn ev], rage, anger 
roBop^TB [gBVB'rit,], to speak 
rojii [god], ^ear 
rojoB^ [gehi'va], head 
r6iOAi [gol^d], hunger 
rdJiocB t'golos], voice 
r6jy6B ['golubj, pigeon 
rop4 [gB'ra], mountain 
r6pjjocTB ['gordostj, pride 
r6p^Bfi ['g:>rdii]) proud 
rdpo;^^ ['gornd], town 
ropoxt tgr'r^x], peas 
ropindKB [gsrTbk], pot 
rdpLfiifi ['jrBr,kiI], bitter 
ropiib ff^'retj^ to burn 
rop,»^iH [gT3V,a-t/i!], hot 
rocno;i;BHi [^sps'(i,in]j gentlemau 
rocnosa [^uspu'jti], lady 
roCTHUHHua [gufl't^injtsa], inn^hotel 
rocTt [g»stj, gueit 
rocy flipcTBo [gas u 'd ara tvo], empire 
roxdeuft [gu'tavlT], ready 
^pa;^t [gr^xd], hail 
rpajK^aH^Hi [gra^da'n,in], citizen 
rpantna [gra'n.itsa], fronteer, 

rpa<t)6HH [gra'fin,a], countess 
rpa4)'B [graf], count, earl 
ipedeHB ['gr,eb,enj, comb 
Tpdaifl ['gr ets.a], Greece 
rpd^ecRifi L'], Greek 
rpo6i [grob], coffin 
rpoMi [grom], thunder 
rpy^t [grud,], chest 
rpjma ['gru/a], pear 
rpix-B [gr.ex], sin 
ryjiaxB [gu'l.atj, to walk 
rycB [gus,], goose 
;^a [da], yes 
AaBdTB [da'vatj, to give 
A^e ['daje], even, also 
Aafi, A&iTe [dat], give 
xaji^Kifi [da'l,okit], distant 
A&poifB ['darom], free of cost 
;iBepB [dv^erj, door 
ABitoaTB [dvigat,], to move 



XBop'B [dvor], court, yard 
xeK46pB [de'kabrj, December 
xeRb ld,enj, day 
X^Hbrn ['d en,gi], money 
xep^BHa [ae'r.evn.a], village 
X^peso ['d er.evo], tree 
xepadTB [a.erjat,], to keep 
xemgBHfi [d.eTovll], cheap 
jt^Kvk ['dikit], savage, wild 
XHTa [d.i't.a], child 
XAi&UHHfi ['dl.innn], long 
XJfl [dl a], for 

XO^poxiTejiB [dobro', virtue 
x66pHft ['dobrH], good 
Xo6ii9a [do'blt/a], prey 
X0B6i[BH0 [d'B'vol.noJ, enough 
X0B6jBHHti [dB'vol,nIt], satisfied 
xoaxb [do^fdj, rain 
XOsas^TejiBCTBO [dBka'zat,el,stvo}, 

x6jirifi ['dolgii], long 
Xojii&Ha [dv'lina]^ valley 
XOAFB [dolg], debt 
x6ji3KeHi, E ['dolmen], I must 
XOMB [dom], house 
Xop6ra [d-e'roga], way 
xopor6& [d-Bnj'goY], dear 
XOCTdHHHfi [d-B'etoYnXq, worthy 
XOHB [dot/*,], daughter 
Xp^BHii [ dr evnil], ancient 
XpoB& [dre'va], wood 
XP03k4tb [drB'jatJ, to tremble 
xpyr6fi [dru'goi], other 
xpycB [drug], friend 
xy6i [dub], oak 
X^MaTB ['dumatl to believe 
Xyp^'K'B [du'rakj, fool 
xypndft [dur'noi], bad 
XymA [du'/a], soul 
f,uwb [dim], smoke 
xisymKa ['d,evu/ka], girl 
xiJiaTb ['d.elatj, to do, to make 
xlffo ['d.elo], business; thing 
xaxa [], uncle 
er6 [le'vo], of him; his; him 
effi& [led'va], scarcely, hardly 
^cjiH ['iRsli], if, whether 
emfi [ie/t/o], still, yet 
s&zxa [';a;da], thirst 
aajiiiB [«;i'l,n,], to pity, to regret 
»4pHTB L ?°^r,it,], to roast, to fry 
zapKde [^arkoYe], roast meat 

xei^TB [^e'latj, to wish 

xei^XORi [je'ludok], stomach 

xgjiTHfi ['^oiifi], yellow 

xejiisHaji Xop6ra [^e'l,eznala dv- 
'roga], railway 

xejiiso [^e'i ezo], iron 

xeuk [^ena], wife 

z^HmHHa [';,en/t/ina], woman 

z^pTsa ['j.ertva], victim 

ZHBdTHoe [^i'votnole], animal 

ZHx^BKa [zi'dovka], Jewess 

ZHXB [^idj, jew 

z^rejiB ['{it.el,], inhabitant 

ZHTB [^itj, to live 

8a [za], for; behind 

8a56THTBCii [za'bot it,sa], to care 

aa^HB^TB [zabi'vatj, to forget 

s^BTpaKaTB ['zavtrakatj, to break- 

s^BTpa ['zavtra], to-morrow 

sazHrdTB [za^i'gatj, to light 

saadui [za'koD], law 

3&H0RI ['zamok], castle 

3aH6R'B [za'ritok], lock 

saHBHdTBCJi [zan,i'mat,sa], to oc* 
cupy oneself 

s^naxB ['zapad]. West 

sanpem&TB [zapr,e'/i/atj, to pro- 

sacjiyzBBaTB [za'slu^ivatj, to de- 

samBm^TB fza/tyi'/t/atj, to protec* 

3is\n,'b ['zaiats], hare 

SBfex^ [zv,e'zda], star 

3Btpb [zv.erj, beast 

3Aop6Bbe [zd-B'rov.e], health 

3Xop6BHH[ [zd^'rovll], healthy 

sxtcb [zd es,], here 

sejigHHfi [z,e'l,ODn], green 

seMja [z.em'l.a], eanh 

s^pRajio ['z.erkalo], looking-glass 

3bm4 [zi'ma], winter 

sjiOA'fefi [zl-B'd ei], rascal 

3Mia [zm.e'Ia], snake 

SBaRB [znak], sign, mark 

SH&Mfl ['zDam,a]. flag 

3BaTB [znatj, to know 

36JOTO ['zolBto], gold 

36btbr'b ['zontik], parasol; um- 

sp^jiHft ['zr.elSi], ripe 

3y6i [zub], tooth 



H [i], and 

Hr6jiKa [i'golka], needle 

nrp^Tb [i'gratj, to play 

h36hp4tb [izb.i'rat,], to choose 

Hsi [iz], out, from 

i^H ['il,i], or 

HHoepdTop'b [imp.e'rator], emperor 

HMnepaTp^i^a [imp,era'tritsa], em- 

vmTb [i',], to have, to possess 

i^Mfl fim.a], name 

HHorA^ [in'B'gda], sometimes 

HiiocTp&HHHi [in«'strannlt], fo- 

HCKiTL [i'skatj, to look for 

i^CRpa ['iskra], spark 

i&CEpeHHig nskr.ennii], sincere 

HCRyccTBO [i'.-kustvo], art 

HCT6pi;i [i'stor.ia], history 

HCTdHHHKt [i'sto/n,ik], source 

HciesdiB [ist/e'zatj, to disappear 

iibjn. [iXiil,], July 

is)HL [iiunj, June 

k4»ahh ['kazdil], each, every 

KasdTbCA [kazar,sa], to seem 

Kasna^^H [kazna't/eY], treasurer 

KaK6H [ka'koi], which 

saR-b [kak], how, as, like 

K^MOHb ['kame.nj, stone 

KapaHA^'b [karan'da/], lead- 

KapnAHi [kar'man], pocket 

KapTAna [kar't.ina], picture 

Kinjra [ka'pl,a], drop 

K^qecTBO ['kai/estvo], quality 

Kdmejib ['ka/elj, cough 

EJdHflTbCfl [kl;a'n,at,sa], to bow, 
to salute 

jsJiK)m, [kl,ut/], key 

RH^a ['kn,iga], book 

RHHronpoA&Beii'b [kn.igapra'da- 
v.ets], bookseller 

KHflr^Hji [kn,a'gin,a], princess 

KHfl3b [kn,az,], prince 

E63Ra [ko'^a], skin 

R0Jiec6 [k-Bl.p'so], wheel 

KOJOAOU [k-B'bJ.ezJ. well, pit 

Eojibu.6 [k-Bl/t/o], Dng 

EdMHaxa ['komnata], room 

KOHeR-b [kB'n,ok], skate 

Koe6^•b [k-e'n.ets], end 

KOHb [konj, horse 

KOHibinHA [ko'n,u/n,a], stable 
Kop45i[b [k'B'rab], ship 
R6peHb ['kor,en,], root 
Eopa^HRa [kBr'z,inka], basket 
Kopoj^aa [kBrBl,8va], queen 
Kop6jib [k'B'rolJ, king 
Rop6TRi% [ksVotkil], short 
KocTb [kostj, bone 
EOTdpug [k-e'torit], which, that 
R6(J)e ['kof.e], coffee 
KOfflRa ['ko/ka], cat 
KpacHopi^ie [krasn-B'], elo- 
Kp&CHHg ['krasnH], red 
spacTb [krastj, to steal 
KpaK [kral], border; region 
KpecTb [kr.est], cross 
KpecTbflUB B'b [kr es'tlanin],peasant 
RpHBOH [kri'vol], crooked 
RpHHdTb [kri't/at], to cry 
BposaTb [kr'B'yatj, bedstead 
RpoBb [krov], roof, shelter 
RpoBb [krov,], blood 
Rp6Mt ['krom,e], besides 
Rpj^rjHM ['krughl], round 
spiiffla ['kri/a], roof, cover 
RpiflRiH ['kr.epkfl], strong 
KpinocTb ['kr.epostj, fortress 
KTo [xto], who 

KT0-HB6y;^b [xton.i'bud,], somebody 
sy3B^i(7i [kuz'n.ets], blacksmith 
BynaTbCii [ku'], to bathe 
syii^m [ku'p.ets], merchant 
KycdR-b [ku'bok], piece 
RyxHfl ['kuxn.a], kitchen 
JEauiia ['^ampa], lamp 
jiewb [I ef, l,of], lion 
j^BKa flafka], shop 
jgrRifi n.oxkil], easy 
jierR6 [l.ex'ko], easily 
jifiA'b [1,0(11 ice 

jieR&pcTBO [l.e'karstvo], medicine 
jexdTb [I.e'tatJ, to fly 
jiHciii^a [l.i'siisa], fox 
jiBCT-b [Ij^isi], leaf 
jmufi [1,1 tPo], face 
ji62RRa ['bjka], spoon 
joM^Tb [to mat], to break 
jdniaAb ['Jo/edj, horse 
jyn [lug], meadow 
jiyna [lu'na], moon 
jii)6ATb [l.u',], to love 



jik)56bb P.u'bof,], love 

i[D6oniiTHHH [l.ub'B'pItD'il], curious 

iisHH ['l.evil], left 

jitedTb [l.e'jat ], to lie 

jiiRapb ['1 ekarj, doctor, physician 

j'j^H^Bug [l,e'D,iYn], lazy, idle 

A'hub [lenj, idleness 

jiicTHHi^a nesn.itsa], ladder 

rbcb [l.esl forest, wood 

Jiixo [i.eto], summer 

Mag [mat], May 

M^o ['mato], little (adv,} 

H^jeHLRiii ['mal,enkil]^ small 

MijiHg [main], little (adj.J 

nkjLbHEJi'b ['mal,t/ik], boy 

Maprb [mart], March 

M&cjio ['masio], oil; butter 

naiepi^i [mate'r,ik], continent 

naTB [mat,], mother 

ueAB^AB [m.ed'vedj, bear 

M6»;^y ['m.szdu], between 

MOHi [, sword 

MHpt [m,ir], peace 

Mip-B [m,ir], world 

HHdro ['mnogo], much; many 

MHoroj[]5;(CTBo [mnogo'l.udstTo], 

iiH62RecTBo ['mnozestvo], multitude 
MHime ['mn,en,ej, opinion 
nor^va [mo'gila], tomb 
Mor^mecTBO [m'B'gu/t/estYolpower 
M6xeTB 6HTb ['mojet bitj, perhaps 
]i6£H0 ['mo^no], (it is) possible 
m6rphS ['mokril], wet, damp 
MOJiATBa [mB'l.itva], prayer 
]i6j[Hia ['molnta], lightning 
mojioa6h [m-BlB'doX], young 
HOjroR6 [m'Bl'B'ko], milk 
MOJindTb [m-Bl't/at,]) to ^e silent 
M6pe ['mor.e], sea 
MOCTX [most], bridge 
MOHb [mot/J, to be able 
MCTHTb [mst.itj, to revenge 
MyjipbiH ['mudrii], wise 
MysHE'b [mu.^ik], peasant 
uyatHHHa ['mujt/jna], man 
nysx [mu;], husband 
M^HKa ['muzika], music 
HLjKk [mu'ka], flour 
M^xa ['muxa], fly 
HHCJib [mlsl,], thought 
MHTb [m'lt,], to wash 

MHmb [m'l/J, mouse 
M4;^b [m.ed,], copper 
Hipa [m era], measure 
isicfli^'b [m,es,ets], month; moon 
MicTO ['m.esto], place, spot 
H'J^CTonoJios^Hie [m,estopBl:'B'p- 

nie], situation 
Mibm^TB [m,eyat,], to prevent 
Mimds'b [m,e/ok], purse 
HjIrRiH ['m.axkil], soft, tender 
VLkco ['m,aso], meat 
Ha [na], on, upon 
HaBipno [na'verno], certainly 
narpazA^Tb [nagraj'datj, to re- 
H^XdHCB ['nodpisj, inscription 
H&X06H0 ['nadobno], it is necessary 
HaA^x^a [na'd,e;da], hope 
HaA'B [nad], above 
R&jiikaThca [na'd,eiat,sa], to hope 
nasto [na'zad], back; ago 
HasHB^Tb [naz'i'vatj, to call 
HaRdsHBaTb [na'kazl'vatj, to pu- 
HanipeHie [na'm er,snle], intention 
nanp^cHO [na'prasno], in vain 
Hapdx'B [na'rodj, people, nation 
HacjiiAHHR'b [na'sl,edn,ik], heir, 

naxo^Tb [naxB',], to find 
nandjo [na't/a^o], beginning 
HaHHH^Tb [nat/i'nat,], to begin 
He [n,e], not, no 
h66o ['n,ebo], heaven; sky 
HeB03M6xHHfi [n.ovBz'mo^Xt], im- 
uexkiji [n,ed'el,a], week 
He^o;^BA»HHft [n.epBd'vijnXt], im- 
HenpiixejTb [n e'priat.el,], enemy 
HenpiaxHHM [n.e'prlat.niTj, dis- 
HecpaBH^HHHH [n,esrav'n,ennn], in- 
nAsRifi ['n.izkil], low, inferior 
HHR0^;^4 [n.ilrex'da], never 
hhrt6 [n.i'xto], nobody 
HHHer6 [n,it/e'vo], nothing 
H^miii [n.iyt/il], beggar 
HO [no], no 
h6bhh ['novit], new 
Hor4 [n^'ga], foot; leg 



HoacHKi (nepoHiHHHft) [n^'jik (p,e- 
rB'tfinnii)], pen-knife 

Hosi [no;], knife 

HopB^ria [oBr'v.egia], Norway 

Hoc'b [nos], nose 

HOHB [not/J, night 

hocAtb [iiB',], to bring, to carry, 
to wear 

Hoa6pB [n-e'labrj, November 

BpiBHTBCfl ['], to please; 
to like 

Hysji&TBCA [nii^'], to want 

H^ZHHH fniiznlY], necessary 

EsmB ['n,an,aj, nurse 

H'feM^i^Rifi [n,e'm,etskil], Qerman 

H^Meu'E ['n em.ets], German 

H'feM6i [n,e mol], mute, dumb 

HixB [n,n], not; it is not 

66a ['oba], both 

o6e'3Bj9Ha [Bb,e'z ana], monkey, ape 

o6H3K4Tb [Bbi'jatJ, to offend 

66aslko ['ohlako], cloud 

o6MaHUBaTb[ob'man][vat J, to cheat, 
to deceive 

o66h [B'bofl, tapestry 

o^OHmBK-B [B'boi/t/ik], upholsterer 

66mecTB0 ['ob/t/estvo], society, 

66miM ['ob/i/it], common 

o6HRHOB^Hie [Bb'iknB'v.snie], habit 

o6hkhob6hho [BbXknB'v.ennoJ, 

o6hkhob6hhhh [BbiknB'venuot], 

o6i;^aTB [B'b.edatJ, to dine 

o6^fl,'b [B'b.ed], dinner 

o6'bmdTb [Bb e/f/atj, to promise 

o6i3aHHOCTb [B'b.azannostJ, obli- 
gation, duty 

OBi^d [Bv't8a], sheep 

or6Hb [B'gonj, fire 

OAiB^Tb [B«l,e'vat,], to dress 

oaHA^Tb [Bji'datJ, to wait, to 

oaepo ['oz.ero], lake 

OK^HqHBaTb [B'kant/ivat,], to finish 

OKHO [Bk'no], window 

6K0J0 ['okBlo], round, about; 

0Kp6cTH0CTb [B'kr.estnostJ, envi- 

0KTa6pb [Bk't.abrj, October 

oji^Hb [b'I.bu,], stag 
ondcHocTb [B'pasnost,], danger 
oodcHHg [B'pasnll], dangerous 
ooATb [B'p,at ], again 
op^ji [B'r.oiJ, eagle 
opyaie [B'ruzle], weapon 
opixt [B'r,exJ, nut, walnut 

0CB060XX^TL [BSVBbB^'dat,], tO 


ocBtm^Tb [Bsve'/t/atj, to promise 

oceji [b's.oI], ass, donkey 

6ceHb ros,en,], autumn 

ocMijHBaTLCfl [B8'm,el,ivat,8a], to 

oc66eHHo [B'sob.enno], particularly 

ocTaBJflTb [Bsta'vl.atJ, to aban- 
don, to leave 

ocT^BHTb [B'stav.itJ, to abaudou, 
to quit 

0CTaj[bH6H [B-^tal/nori, remaining 

ocTop6xHHg [Bsta'ro^nKl], carefiU 

6cTpoBB ['ostrof], island 

6cTpEi& ['ostra], sharp 

on. [ot], from, out 

OTffoxHyTb [BtdBx'nut,], to rest, 
to repose 

OT^i^T. [B't.ets], father 

oT^HecTBo [B'], native 

OTKpHB^Tb [BtkrfvatJ, to open, 
to discover 

ox6TBHR'b [B'xotnik], sportsman 

ox6tho [Bxotno], willingly 

6HeHb ['ot/en ], very much, greatly 

6Hepe;^b lot/er,ed,], turn 

omsA [ot/'ki], spectacles 

oni66Ka [B'/ibka], mistake 

n&jeui rpal,ets], finger 

ndJLKa ['pa^ka], stick 

n&MflTHBK'b['pam atnik],monument 

n&MJiTB ['pam.atj, memory 

n&pa ['para], pair, couple 

napox6A'b [para'xod], steamer 

napi [par], steam 

nacT^xB [pa'stux], shepherd 

n^QejiB r'pRp.el], ashes 

n^pBHfi ['p.ervif], first 

nepeBOAAxb ['d.itJ, to trans- 

n^pejii [], before 

nep6 [p,e ro], pen ; feather 

necdRB [p,e'feOk], sand 



nendiB [p,e't/al], sorrow 
n^qica ['p,et/kaj, stove 
neni, [, to bake 
viBo [p.ivo], beer, ale 
nBc4TB [p.i'satj, to write 
DHCBMd [pis/mo], letter 
HHTB [p.itj, to drink 
njidsaTb ['plavatj, to swim 
nji&KaTB ['plakatj, to weep, to cry 
nidMfl ['p}am,a], flame 
MaT^TB [pla'iitj, to pay 
nji4TBe ['plat.e], dress 
nji^Mfl ['pl,em,a], tribe 
njeMAHHHK'B[pl,e' m,aDnik],Dephew 
lueiuaHBivi [p],e'm,anait8a], niece 
ujion-b [plod], fruit 
njioxo ['ptoxo], hardly; badly 
njdn^axB ['itio/t/ed], place, square 
no [po], after; by; out of; about 
ndBapi ['povar], cook 
nOBBHOB^TBClI [p'BYin'B'Tat,sa], to 

noBTopiTB [pBft-B'r.atJ, to repeat 
nor6Aa [p^'godaj, weather 
noeA^HOKB [p«ie'd,inok], duel 
noadJiyflcTa [p^'jaluXsta], if you 

nosBOJi^TB [p«zvB'l,atJ, to allow 
n63AHo ['pozno], late 
noK43HBaTB [pv'kazl'vatj, to show 
DOKpiiB^TB [pBkri'vatJ, to cover 
noKyn^TB [p^ku'patj, to buy 
ndJAeuB ['potd.en,], noon 
n6jie rpol,»']> field 
noji6i5HHH [pB'I.eznil], useful 
DOJOB^Ha [pBl;'B'v,iDa], half 
nojiyndTB [p-elu't/af J, to receive 
noMor^TB [pBmB'gai,], to help, to 

u6MomB ['pomo/t/J, assistance 
BOHeA'^bHHK'B [p«n,e'd,8l,n,ik], 

iiohhm4tb [p'Bn/matJ, to under- 
nonpasjaTB [pBpra'vl.atJ, to cor- 

n ct, to mend 
noHB [pop], priest 
nopaadTB [pBra'jatJ, to surprise 
nopnudrB [p-Bri't/atj, to blame 
nopd^a [p'B'roda], kind, species 
nopoK-B [p-e'rok], vice 

nopTH6% [pBft'nol], tailor 
nopajtOEB [p-e'r^adok], order 
nopyH^TB [pBru't/atJ, to commit; 

to c'.harge 
uocA^fljim [pB'sl.sdnil], last 
ndcji* ['fiosle], after 
ndcjit-sderpa ['posl.e 'zaftra], the 

day after to morrow 
noc6jiBCTBo [p-e'i-ol.stvo], embassy 
nocojii [pB'sol:], ambassador 
nocT^jib [pB'si.elJ. bedstead 
noctm&TB [pB8,e/i/atJ, to visit 
nocim^Hie [p'B»*,**7*i/,enie], visit 
nocH^dTB [pB-flatJ, to send 
noTopaTB [pBt.e'r.atJ, to lose 
noTOM^-qTO [pBt^'mU'/io], why; 

noidMB [pB'tom], then, afterwards 
nox6aiH [pBxojil], like, similar 
doitA [pB't/ii], nearly 
ndia^'B ['polezd], train 
npdBHJLHHH ['pravil^nlt], regular 
np&.'iAHHK'B [prazn.ik], festival 
npe^JiardTB [pr.e'iin'gatj, to oflfer 
npesAC [p'.s? ',<*]» before, sooner 
npesBpdTB [pr,ez,i'rat J, to despise, 

to repard with contempt 
npeBM^mecTBO [prei'mu/i/estvo], 

npespdcHHu [pr.e'krasnil], beau- 
npenflTCTBie [pr e'p,atsvte],obstacle 
npecT6jiB [pr.estolj, throne 
npB [pr,i], at, near, on, by 
DpB5jrHs4TBCii [pr,ibli'^at,sa], to 

npH6iiTB [pri'bitj. to arrive 
npHBiiiKa [pr,i'vit/ka], custom, 

nparoTOBJiaTB [pr.igBtB'vl.atJ, to 

npHJi6»BHB [pr/l.e^nit], diligent 
npHM-fepB [pr.i'ii' er], example 
npHHoc^TB [pr.inB',], lo bring 
npHxoAi^TB [pr^ixB'ditJ, to come 
npBiBna [pr.i'i/ina], cause, reason 
npiixaxB [pr,i lex at,], to arrive 
npiaieJiB [prt'at.elj, friend 
npiaTHHH [pil'atnll], agreeable 
np66oBaTB ['prohBvatJ, to try 
npoAaB^TB [pr-Bda'vaiJ, to sell 
npoc'dTB [pre',], to beg 


npocidfi [pnj'stoi], simple 

np6THB'B ['prot.if], against 

npom&TB [prB/t/"*,], to pardon 

npyxi [prud], pond 

HTHna ['pt.itsa], bird 

nycR^TB [pus'katj, to let, to let go 

nycT6H [pus' tot], empty 

nycTiiHa [pus't'in.a], desert 

nyrem^CTBeHHEKi [put,e'/estv,en- 
n,ik], traveller 

nyiemiScTBOBaTb [put.e'/estvovatj, 
to travel 

n^eAk [p/e'ta], bee 

iibAhhh ['p.aniri, drunk 

u^TpLit [p e'tux], cock 

n-feTL [p.etj, to sing 

nATHHi^a ['p,atn,itsa], Friday 

pa66Ta [ra oota], work 

pa66TaTB [ra'botat,], to work 

pa66THHR!B [ra'botn.ik], workman 

paBH^ea [rav'n,ina], plain, level 

pA;^0BaTBca ['], to re- 
joice, to be glad 

p&AOCTB ['radostj, joy 

pa^-b [rad], glad 

pasBdJiHHa [razValina], ruin 

p^BB-fe ['razv.e], perhaps, then 

paaroB^pHBaTB LrazgB'varivatJ, 
to dissuade 

pa3roB6pB [razge'vor], dialogue, 

pasjidMHBaTB [raz'l;am][vat,], to 
break, to smash 

pa3Ji6^HHH [raz'l,it/nW], diflferent, 

p43HHua ['rozn.itsa], difference 

p^sHHt ['raznil], different 

paaaop^Hie [razzB'r.enle], destruc- 
tion, overthrow 

pascK^d'B [raz'skaz], tale, narra- 

pascRdsHBaxB [raz'skazivatj, to 
tell, to relate 

pascMiTpHsaTB [raz'matr.ivatj, to 
view, to contemplate 

pa3CM0TpiHie[raz'sm'Btr,enIe], exa- 

pasx [raz], time; once 

pdna ['rana], wound 

pdHO frano], soon 

pacsaaiBCA [raska,at,sa], to repent 

pacnpocTpan^TB [raspnsstra',], 

to entend 
pacT^Hie [ras't,enle], plant 
psaxB [rvatj, to tear, to rend 
p6BHHfi ['rovn][t], even 
por-B [rog], horn 

pdxHHa ['rod,ina], native country 
poA^xejH [rB'd it,el,i], parents 
p6ACTBeHHHK!B ['rodstT,ennik], re- 
lation, relative 
po;^ [rod], gender 
poa^dTBca [rej'], to be born 
PosAecTB6 [ra^diOst vo], Christmas 
poxx^Hie [ra^'d snYe], birth 
poxB [rojj, rye 
p63a ['roza], rose 
poc4 [rc'sa], dew 
poTB [rot], mouth 
py64iinia [ru'ba/ka], shirt 
pyxBfi [ru'j o], gun, rifle 
pys^ [ru'kaj, hand; arm 
pyH6ft [ru't/el], brook; rivulet 
pii5a f rl'ba], fish 
pH6dK'B [rf bak], fisherman 
p^ARin ['r,edkii], rare, seldom 
pisaTB ['r,e/atj, to cut 
piRd [r.e'ka], river 
pifliATB [r.e'/atj, to decide 
P'j^m^nie [r.eTenle], decision 
pibMRa [V,umka], small glass 
pflAi [r,ad], row, tier 
caxi^TBCJi [sa'd,it,sa], to sit down 
caA6BHBR'B [sa'dovn.ik], gardener 
caAi> [sad], garden [same 

caifB, cknui [sam, 'sam'il], self, 
can6r'B [sa'po^], boot 
can6xHHR'B[sa po;n,ik], shoemaker 
c§.xapi> ['saxar], sugar 
CBHAtTejiB [sv,i'd,et,el,], witness 
CBHH^u'B [svi'n,ets], lead 
cbhhbjI [svi'n.a], swine, pig 
CBo66Aa [sv-B'boda], freedom, li- 
cBo66wHH [svB'bodnlf], free 
CB'fexHJBHHK'B [sv.e'], candle- 
CB'j^rB [sv,et], light; world 
CB'bH§. [sv.e't/a], candle 
csisRa ['sv.azka], tie 
CBflTdfi [sva'tol], holy, saint 
CA'^axBCfl ['sd,elat,sa], to become, 
to get 

Russian Cony.-Orammnr. 



ccr^jna 'f e'Tdiaaj. tr4aT ouxim 'ani'^v^ nMi 

onu^p^ 'iexi'tabr^ ScptinDker «:«& 's»^ tiecp 

eepe^ 's^relra^ dwr aAorafOBT 

c€peju >ere'd«;p WediaeidiT occpoCTsuncj jipitiiTi 

oepi^ni 'ie'rjcz^. wriovs lo ^Pp'^BC- to 

otcrpk l^e'sa^'j. 

caiin 'f fdn^- to ot oc^rlci 'sr^sd^^ Bcigh^ 

CBJm 7*^j» sj«Bft& cui> 'sfi'ss^. to drrp 

fajjggj 7^^^- strme <^zzzi 'i^Vm*\ back 

C£&:-aTi '^kAZK^. to tdL to sst ca>:<^<fixz 'sfmsahwHj, 

csjLsizfc 'ska'ksT], to jvap opawMMi^ 7 V*1'>^*0 ^ 
cziLU i^la], rock Zm iziq^kirc 

fgawtfia 'fka'asikm^ beack cpazincx 'fzm'pttnl^ to 

cxopo 7^1e^> boob. ^micUj cpejwi '«T«dirB«~,. 

cxopfii 7s^^> t«kk * q>'i-r7M '^^'' idsirOj. 

aLrjT% '&k3t\ l«Bsi: cBttle ccofA fison',. q^^ftirri 

csp6«BHx 7^^>'3"B^~- Bodest mxiss [ftakvaj 

cspann 'ckrfTu^- to kide cra^ATi^^c 'ssm'rvtn]^ to 

CUBS 7^^^^^^I- lE^OTT, rmovm cn|W£S 's^'rik]. old 

cieia >le'xs~. tear cnpTssa ^it^'ralDi]^ oU 

cioupb 'ri«'Tsr\ dJctMsarr <TkfiA ' KvfLj, <^ 

cioM 7^^- vxvd creu:* [s^-k o]. riim 

cirri 'sls'fa^ s^rvmnt. foolaaii ctod 'f t^^ ubSe 

ciyuMsa '^'|aBkm\ Biid- crio^ps 's:?'lar\ jomer 

serruit cropti'Ci 'stvrF'oa^. side 

cjTZKTk 'slu'pt ~^ to serve crpau ^«cri x:t\ cooBtrr, iCfnoB 

ciy^at ^rffit al^ accidevt. cue CTfimMak "striLmf, ' ^" 

ciTUT¥ca !^'l "i^t ss> to faappcB avfcl _ 

cuain. 7^'^> to IwBr crpoTm jstr^^ziC^ neoioaB 

citiosm 7^BiitiBTat\ to foUov cttk-xt^ ssr^ii^- ^o boOd 

citiTiwi 7d^Blv.\n^ fbUov- crjjv 'jx^\ ch^ir 

inf err? AT* 'set at ^. to 

ciinoi 'sle'p^r. bind ctuimnc^ [nn'dilsi]. to be 

mliHi 7^™^^!- M^ askamed 

CMtancj 'smelxtsa^ to laagb orlsi ~steB»\ wall 

cHoaeaie 'sBc^eaie^ iBterooorse cTrV^OTa [scbioia]. Satordaj 

csin ]$DS|[. SBOv CTjn^ ]flBd%\ jadge 

co6aEa ^sit'baki^. dof c}-xo« ^saiM'^ dry 

CD^flpan [s«bi'rat\ to coDect ciacuBBst {s/enlniii kappj, 

co6opi 's« K>r\ catkedral Iscky 

co6paEie 'sc'bruiie^ eoUectioB. ciacne ~ s\ agt e^ happieew, Imdk 

Assemhlj cvKTan ~>\ I'tst^ to coat 

ooBiTBXca'sc'TstBik^ ooBBsellor che¥ '<in\ son 
owira ~sv'Tfit\ adrice c% :Vi. viik: irom 



ciBepi ['8,8V er], North 

c&Mn ['s,8ii),aj, seed 

c^HO ['seno], hay 

TkEEuPi ['tainiT], secret 

TaRxe ftak^e], also, too 

TaKoti [ta'kol], such 

TaRi [tak], thus 

TaMi. [tam], there 

Tap^jiKa [ta'r.etka], plate 

TBfipAHH ['tv.ordlQ, hard 

TeaTpi [t.e'atr], theatre 

TejeHOKt [t,e'l,onok], calf 

TeMHHH ['t,omnH], dark 

Tcn^pL [t,e'p,8rj, now 

TenjHM ft.opin], warm, lukewarm 

TepniHie ['p.eote], patience 

TCTKa [t,otka], aunt 

t6jicthh ['tolstfl], fat; big, thick, 

T6jrbK0 ['tol.ko], only 
T6HKi8 ['tonkilf], thin 
Tondpt [tB'por], hatchet 
ToprdBja [ter'govl.a], trade 
TOTB [tot], that 
TdHKa ['tot/ka], point 
T6qH0 'tot/no], exactly 
TpasA [tra'va], herb, grass 
Tp66oBaTi» ['tfieb-BvatJ, to require, 

to ask 
Tp^Tifi ['tr,et,il], third 
Tp^TBaro AHii ['tr,et,avo dn,a], the 

day before yesterday 
ipynHHH ['trudnil], difficult 
Tpy^t [trud], work, pains 
Tp6raTb [trogat], to touch 
TynaHi [tu'oanj, fog, mist 
TyjioBHme ['tulBvi/t/e], body, rump 
lijo ['telo], body 
T^Hb [t.en,], shadow 
TflHyxb [t.a'nutj, to pull, to draw 
TflaejHfi [t,a'5ohl], heavy 
y6HTb [u'b.itj, to kill 
y6iiT0R'b [u'b'itok], advantage 
y6'fea4Tb [ub.e'jatj, to run away 
yBiAOMJATb [uv^ed-e'ml.atj, to in- 
ysipaTb [uv.e'r at,], to assure 
yrpoaaTb [ugrB'jat,], to threaten 
yroB^pHBaxb [uge'var.ivat,], to 

yr6jii [u'gol:], corner 
yrojib [ugolj, charcoal 

yAajiflTb [uda',], to remove 
yAHBJi^Hie [ud,iv1,8nie], astonish- 
yXHBJiATBCJi [ud,iv'l^at,8a],to wonder 
y;^0B6JIbCTBie [ud-B vol.stvie], plea- 
y»6 [u'je], already 
yxHHaTL ['ujinatj, to sup 
yaHH-b ['ujin], supper 
3^KiH ['uzkii], narrow 
finna, ['ul,itsa], street 
yMHpdTb [um.i'ratj, to die 
ynoxpeCjiiTL [upBtr,e'bl,at,],to want 
ypdR-b [u'rok], lesson 
yc6pAie [u's.srdle], zeal 
ycji6Bie [u'slovie], condition 
ycnix-b [u'sp.ex], improvement; 

jTEa [utka], duck 
^rpo ['utroji morning 
yr^m^TL [ut.e'/atj, to console 
j'lo ['ujto].f ear 

yiBE^A-b [ut/e n,ik], pupil, scholar 
y^^HHti [a'lf^nn], scholar, lear- 
ned man 
y^AjHme [u't/il,i/"t/e], school 
yHATejb [u'tyit.elj, teacher, master 
ynATejibHHi^a [u't/it,el,n,itsa], 

ynAib [u't/itj, to teach 
yqHTbca [u't/it,sa], to learn 
^aMHJiifl [fa'm,ina], family 
^esplib [fe'vralj, February 
(J)ji6fiTa ['fl.elta], flute 
$p4Hi(iii [irantsYa], France 
4)paHU3^3CKifi [fran'tsuzkii], French 
4)paHu;^3'b [fran'tsuz], Frenchman 
XBaj^TB [xva',], to praise 
xikxpHfi ['xitrit], sly 
xM-b [xl.eb], bread 
xoA^Tb [xB'ditJ, to go 
xosafiKa [xB'zaika], mistress, 

xos^HHi [x-b'z aln],master, landlord 
xoiiM-b [xolmj, hill 
xoJidxHHfi [xo'lodn'li], cold 
xoTiTb [x-B'tiSt,], to be willing, 

to wish 
xoxa [xB't.a], although 
xpoMdfi [xr-B'moI], lame 
xyA6fi [xu'dol], bad 
i^B-fecTi [tsv.e'st.i], to flourish 




^B•feT6K!B [tsve'tok], flower 

nfi^Th [t8v,et], colour 

i^6pK0BL ['ts.erkofj, church 

i^'MHfi [ts.eln], whole, entire 

i^'fejiL [ts.el,], aim, end 

^•feH§, [ts.ena], price 

'la^ [t/aq, tea 

h4cto ['t/asto], often 

HacTL [t/astj, part 

Hacii [t/e'sSJ, watch 

HaCB [t/as], hour 

^4hctbo ['t/Vanstvo], vanity 

nejOBiifb [t/el'B'v ek]. man 

"^ejioBiqecTBo [t/etB'], 

Hep SB [t/erv,], worm 

H^peai ['t/er.ez], through 

^epa^ja [t/er'nila], ink 

TCpHAJIbHH^a [t/er'n,il,n,it8a], ink- 

HgpHHft ['t/.omxq, black 

HecTB [t/estj, honour 

HCTB^prt [t/et'v,erg], Thursday 

HHHdBHHK-B [t/i'uovn.ik], official; 

racji6 [t/i'sb], number; date 

h6cthh ['t/istii], clean 

TOT&TB [t/i'tatj, to read 
HopTB [t/brt], devil 
HTO [t/oj, that; which; what 
ht66h r/tobl], in order that 
hto-hh6^;cb [/to-n,i'budJ, some- 
H^CTBOBaTB ['/tuvsvBvatJ, to feel 
^t^o ['t/udo], wonder 
H^m [t/em], than 
mapi [foLr], ball, globe 
in6a f/e.taj, neck 
iirap6KiH r/i'rokii], broad 
nujina ['Jio.pB.], hat 
mym [/um], noise 
myiATB [/u't.itj, to joke 
D^^TKa [TVbtka], brush 
fl5joRo ['lablvko], apple 
jiBJi^Hie [la'vl enle], phenomenon 
flsiiK'B pte'zikj, language 
jiHB&pb ptanVarJ, January 
kcnulk ['lasni't], clear 
aHi(6 [ia^t^^], egg 
lori [lug], South 
43A^ [le'zda], drive 
•fe3;^6TB [iez'd,it,], to drive, to go 
•fecTB pest,], to eat 
ixaiB ['texatj, to ride, to go. 

Printed by C. F. Winter, Darmstadt. 


Edncational Works and Class-Books 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 


•With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul.* Charles V. 

cAt the end of the IS^** century the world is ruled by the interest for 
trade and traffic; it breaks through the barriers which separate 
the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations. > 

William n. 

t^ulius Groos, Publisher^ has for the last fifty years been devoting his 
special attention to educational works on modem languages, and has published 
a large number of class-books for the study of those modem languages most 
generally spoken. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur^ 
passed by any other German publisher, Tfie series consists of 200 volumes 
of different sizes which are aU arranged on the same system, as is ectsUy 
seen by a glance at the grammars which so closely resemble one another^ 
that an acquaintance with one greatly faciliteUes the study of the others, 
TTiis is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of one 
language alone is hardly deemed sufficient 

The textbooks of the Oaspey- Otto- Saner method have, within the 
last ten years, acquired an universeU reptUatioUf increasing in pror 
portion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modem 
life. The chief advantages, by which they compare favorably with thousands 
of similar books, are lateness of price and good appearance, the happy union 
of theory and practice, the dear scientific basis of the grammar proper comr 
bined with practiced conversational eoDercises^ and the system, here 
conceived for the first time and consistently carried out, by which the pupU is 
really taught to speak and write the foreign langtM/ge. 

The grammars are aU divided into two parts, commencing with a 
systematic explanation of the rules for pronunciation, and are again sttb" 
divided into a number of Lessons. Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech 
in succession, the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules, which 
are explained more fully in the second. 

The rules appear to us to be clearly given, they are explained by examples, 
and the exercises are quite sufficient. 

To this method is entirely due the enormous success with which the 
Oaspey-OttO'Sauer textbooks have met; most other grammars either 
content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical 
farms and trouble the pupU with a confused mass of the most far-fetched 
irregtUariHes and exceptions wUhotU ever applying fhem,, or go 

Method &aspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modern iangnages. 

to the other extreme, and simply teach him to repeat in a parrot-' 
Wee ma/mier a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the 
real genius of the foreign language. 

Hie system referred to is easily discoverable: 1. in the arrangement of 
ihe grammar; 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a 
regular text as soon as possible, and above aU to teach him to speak the 
foreign language; this latter point was considered by the authors so partieur 
larly characteristic of their works, thai they have styled them — to distinguish 
them from other works of a similar kind — CfonversoMoncU €hram>m,a/rs% 

The first series comprises manuals for the use of JEngUshmsn and 
consists of 38 volumes. 

Our admiration for this rich collection of works, for the method dis* 
played and the fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increased when we 
examine the other series, which are intended for the use of foreigners. 

In these works the chief difficulty under which several of the authors 
have laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign 
idiom; not to mention the peculiar difficulties which the German idiom offers 
in writing school-books for the study of that language. 

We must confess that for those persons who, from a practical point 
of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently weU to enable them to 
write and speaJc it with ease, the authors have set down the grammatical 
rules in such a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to learn them. 

Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type 
and binding of the books. It is doubtless on this account too that these 
volumes have been received with so much favour and that several have rea^Ud 
such a large circulation. 

We willingly testify that the whole collection gives proof of much ears 
and industry, both with regard to the aims it has in view and the way in 
which these have been carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on the 
editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its kind." 

. . . . t 
(Bxtra^ from the Literary Review.) 

All books bound. 

Jniiua Oroo^ London. ParU. 1Um«. Ei. ¥«UittVu«\L. ^t\^«LVRv 

Method &aspey-Otto-Sanex 

for the study of modern Itngoages. '^■ 

Unglishi EdLltions, 

Elementary Modern Armenian Grammar by Gulian .... 
Untcli Conversation-Grammar by Yalette. 2. Ed 

Key to the Dutch Conyers.-Orammar hy Valette 

Dutch Reader by Valette. 2. Ed 

French Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 13. Ed 

Key to the French ConverB.-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 8. Ed 

Elementary French Grammar by Wright. 3. Ed 

French Reader by Onions 

Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. 5. Ed. . . 
French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran 

Oerntan Conversation-Grammar by Otto. 28. Ed 

Key to the German Con vers. -Grammar by Otto. 20. Ed 

Elementary German Grammar by Otto. 8. Ed 

First German Book by Otto. 9. Ed 

German Reader. I. 8. Ed.; II. 5. Ed.; III. 2. Ed. by Otto each . . 

Key to the Mater, f. tr. Engl. 1. Germ. I. by Otto. 8. Ed 

Materials for tr. Engl, into Germ, by Otto. Part II. 3. Ed. . . . 

German Dialogues by Otto. 5. Ed 

Accidence of the German language by Otto-Wright. 2. Ed. . . . 

Handbook of English and German Idioms by Lange 

German Verbs with their appropriate prepositions etc. by Tebbitt . 
The Hansa language (DieHaussasprache; la langue haoussa) by Seidel 

Italian Conversation-Grammar by Sauer. 8. Ed • 

Key to the Italian Convers.-Grammar by Sauer. 7. Ed 

Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Italian Reader by Cattaneo 

Italian Dialogues by Motti 

Japanese Conversation-Grammar by Plant 

Key to the Japanese Oonv.-Orammar by Flaut 

Modern Persian Conversation-Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall . 

Key to the Mod. Persian Convers.-Grammar by St. Clalr-Tlsdall 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar by Eordgien and Kunow 
Key to the Portuguese Convers.-Grammar by Kordglen and Kmiow . . . 

Bnssian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Key to the Rnsslan Convers.-Grammar by Motti. 8. Ed 

Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Key to the Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Russian Reader by Werkhaupt and Roller 

Stpanisli Conversation-Grammar by Sauer -deArteaga. 7. Ed. 
Key to the Spanish Convers.-Granmiar by Sauer -deArteaga. 5. Ed. . . . 

Elementary Spanish Grammar by Pa via . 2. Ed 

Spanish Reader by Sauer-R6hrich. 2. Ed 

Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran 

Elementary Stwedisli Grammar by Fort 

Tnrkisli Grammar by Hagopian 

-A.ral>ic Edition. 

Eleine deutsclie Sprachlehre fur Araber von Hartmann . . . . 

Ax*inepia,i:i Edition, 
Elementary £nglisli Grammar for Armenians by Gulian . . . . 

Jsllnfl Oroos, London. Parte. Biomtt. ^t.'?«>\«ti^raxigki. ^^^sfS^RKib^ 

Method &aspey-Otto-Saiier 

for the gtudy of modem languages. 


3. Aufi 

Kleine dentsclie Sprachlabr^ fiir Bulgaren von GawTiyaTEy 
Oenwan Editions- 

Ajralilfif^lie EouversatiotiB-Grammatik v. Harder 
ftchltlBae] dasu v. Harder , . , , ...... 

C!hine«ii»elie Konv^ersatioDB-Orammatik r. Seidel 

BohltSBel dazu V. 8&[del . . h 

Kleine cbinesiache Sprachlehre t, Seidel . . , . 
ec1ilQss«l diLKH T, 3eidel ....... ^ .. . 

D&iil^clie Konvefaatioae-Grammatik y. Wied . - 

SchLflBflel dazu t. Wicd 

HaaJa Sprachlehre utid Wfirterbuch v. Seidel . . 
£ll£lisclie Komrersationi- Gramma tik v. Gasptsy-Eunge, 
Bchldsael daza t. Range. (N»t EUt Lebrer nnd s;uii3 Belbstucterricbt.) 
^gliflcbea Konver&ations-Lesebucb v, Gaspey-Runge, 6. Aufl, 
Kleine engliscbe Spracblehte 7, Otto^Rnnge. 6. Anfl, 

Bngliscbe Geepracbe y, Ruupre, 2. Aufl 

Materialien z, Uberaetzen ins Engliecbe v, Otto-Rung'e, 
Engliscbe Cbreatomatbie t. Supfle- Wright, 9. Anfl. 
Handbncb eDgliacher und deutscher Idioms v, Lange 
¥iwe Sprachlebro und Wfirterbucb v. Seidel , , , 
FrailK^if^isclie KonTersationfi-Grammatik v. Otto-Runge, 27- 
Bchldase] dazu v. Range. (Ntir fdr Lebrer und sum fidbstuntermlitj 4 
Franz* Konv.*LeBebuch I. 9» Aiifl., IT- 5. Aufl, v. Otto-Runge. 
Tmnz. Konv.-Leseb. f, Madcbscb, v, Otto-Runge 1. 5, Aufl,, IL 3 
Kleine franadeiecbe Spracblebre v, Otto-F^un^e. 8, Aufl.. , , 

Schlossel clnsu v. Emij;i3 * ^ * 

Fran^^siache Geepr^cbe t. Otto-Kunge. 8. Aufl 

FranzOBiscbes Lesebucb t. S^pflf** IL Aufl 

Italtenli^elie Kooversationa-GranLmatik v. Saner. 12. Aufl 
StjbliiBflel dazu v. Cattaneo. (Nur fUr Lebror and xam SelbstTititerricht.) 
Italieniscbes Konversationa-Lefliabncb v. Saner. 5, Aufl. , , 

ItalieniBcbe Cbreetomatbie v. Cat tan eo. 3. Aufl. , 

Kleine italieniscbe Spracblebre v. Sauer. 9. Aufl. , , . , 

Sahlua^el dam t. Cattaneo , , 

ItalieniHche Geepracbe v. Saner-Motti. 5. Aufl 

tJbungastiicke znm tJbera. a, d. Deutscben i. Ital. v. LardelH, 4 
Jap an is eh e Konvereatioua-Grammatik von Plant . . . 

Bchlfisse! dazu toe Plant 

Marakkfiiileiehe Spracblebre t. Seidel 

fifeii^leehliielio KonTersations-Grammatik v. Fetrarie . 
SoblflBflel dazn v, PetrarlA .............. 

Lebrbncb der neiigriechiachen Volksipraebe v, Petraris , , 
HiederlJindiische KonTeraatioua-Grammatik v. Valette. S 

Sohlflsael daiu v. Valette , . . . . 

Niederlandiscbea Konv.-LeBebucb v. Yalette. 2. Aufl. . . . 
Kleine niederMndiscbe Sprachlehre t. Valette, 2. Aufl. . . 
Polnl^che Konversations-Grammatik t. Wicberkiewicz, i 

echltlaael dazn t. WlcherklewicE. 2. Anfl 

Portng^ie^isclie Eon veraations- Gram mat ik v. Kordgien. 
Bchlttssel dftzu v. Kordgien. 2. Anfl, ,...,...., 
Kleine portogieBiache Spracblebre v. Kordgien. 3. Aufl. » - 
Rn^ifii^che Konversations-Grammatik v, Fncha-WyczliriBki. 

Sdiiasael da^u v. Fncha-WycalinBkl. 4. Aufl 

Eussiscbeh KouverBationB-Leaebnch v, Werkbaupt , , , 
^£tu7fi russisohe Spracblebre v* Motti. 2. Anil 

'hittssel d^sB v^. Mom. 2. Aufl 



Aufl. i 












; 1 

I 6 

': 3 


. 6 






Julium erooB, London. Parii. Hovtt. Bt. l^«t«nVnt^. lL«\^«tewt«. 

Method Graspey-Otto-Saner 

Tor the study of modem languages. 

Slchwedlselie KonveTBationB-Grammatik v. Walter 

SddUiEiel dazu y. Walter ....*. 

EJeinp achwedische Sprachlelire v. Fart ..,..,. 
JSpauifB^clie KonversationB-Grammatik t, Sauer-Euppert. 

Scfiuseel dazu v. Rap pert. ». Aufl. . 

SpaniaclieB LeBebucli t. Sauer-B5kricli, 2. Aufl 

Kleine ipaoieclie Spraclilelire y. Saner. 5. Aufl 

Spanic^obe Gespraone v. Sauer. 3. Aufl. ,...*.. 
SpaBiRche EektiDnBliate v. Saiier^Kordgien -..,,. 
Hnahllt KoHTeriationB-Grammatik v. Seidel .... 

ftfiijtissel dasu y* Sddel 

Siiahili W5rteTbiich v. Seidel ..»,,,.... 
^iirkiische Konversationa-Grammatik v. Jehlit&chka . 

BchlUsael dussu t* JeWltachka ,,..,. 

Kleine ungarlefctie Sprachlehre v* Hagy « . . . , 

9. Aufl. 


Grammaire allemande par Otto- Nicola a. 17. :^d. 

Corrlg^ dea themes de 1& Gr&mm&tre allemaDde par Otto-KlcolnB 
Petite grammaire allemande par Otto-Verrier, &, Ed. 
Leotores allemand&s par Otto. 1. part, 6. ^d. 
Leoturea allemandeB par Otto. II. part. 5. Ed. . 
Lectures allemandea par Otto, III. part. 2. ^d. 
Erstea deutschea Leaebucli von Yerrier .... 
ConversatioiQs allemandes par Otto-Verrier, 5. ^d. . 
Grammaire anglalse par Mauron-Yerrier. 9. ;6d 
CorrigS des tbiimeii de la Grsmmalre au^lafse par Mfturon-Verrl^r, 
Petite grammaire anglaiae par Mauron. 0. Ed. . 

Lectures anglaisew par Mauron. 2, lid 

Conversation a auglaiees par Corkran , . , . • 

Grammaire arabe par Arraez 

CorrlgS dea th^mefl da la Gfammaire a-rabe par Arm (^ . 
Grammaire itatieune par S^uer. 10. l!;d. . . 

Corrigl des tb^mefl dc la Grammaire ItatleuDc par Bauer. 
Petite grammaire itftlieune par Motti, 4. ^d. 
Chreatoiuathie italienue par Cattaneo. 2. Ed. 

Conyeraatiouft italiennea par Motti 

Grammaire iai>Oiiaif^e par Piaut 

Corrlge des thcmcit da la Graminalrft Japonalae par Plant 

Grammaire oeerlandal^ie par Valette. 2. ^d. 
CorrfgS dea themea de l& Qrammctlrc n^erla-nd^lae par Valette 
Lectures B^erlaudaieea par Valette. 2. iSd. , . . 
Grammaire p0rtn£al»e par Armez . . . , , 
Corrig'^ de la Grammaire poriugftl^e par Armez . . . , 
Grammaire ra^S« par Fuchs-Kieolae, 4. ltd. . . 
OdTTi^^ dea thtmea de la Grammaire niaae par Fncba-Nlcolaa, 
Petite grammaire ruaae par Motti, 2, fid. * , • , 
Corri^£ des themes de I& petite ^ammaire ruase par MoCtl. £ 
Lecturea russea par Werkhaupt et Roller , » . , 
Grammaire enpagnole par Saner-Serrano. S» :6d, 
CkKrrig^ dea themes d« la gramm. espagn. par Saaer-aerraDo. 
Petite grammftire espagaole par Tantj. 2. l^Id. , , 
Lecturea espaguolea par Sauer-BGbricli. 2. ild, . , 
Petite grammaire Haldol lie par Fort 


4. M. 

6. td 

4. td. 

. M. 










































































- — 









JnlisB Oroof, London. PariB. ILoua. %t. 'B«l»c%'te«at^ ^%V^siNwstiE.. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for tke study of modern lao^ageSt 

CrT-eel£ lildltloiis. 

Eleine dents clie Sprachlehre for Griechen von Maltos . . . 
Deuteche Geapry.elLe ftr Griecben von Maltos 

ItaHan Editions* 

Grammatics iiedefiea di Sauer-Ferra.ri. 7. Ed. . . . . p . 

OhlftTe dellii GrammiLticii tedeaca dj Bau«r-Ferraj^^ 3, Ed, ..... 

Grammatical elementare tedesca di Otto. 5. Ed ^ . , 

Lettwe tedeiche di Otto. 5. Ed 

Antologia tedeeca di Yerdaro , » , . * 

Converaazioid tedeacHe di Kotti. 2, Ed 

AvTiamento al trad, dal ted. in ital. di LaTdeUi, 4. Ed« , . > 

Granmiaticft ioij^lese di Fav^ia. 5. Ed. 

Chlftve dfiUa gTammatlc& ingleiR di P&vla. 2. Bd 

Grammatica elementare ingleae di Pavia. 3, Ed 

Grammatica francese di Motti- 2. Ed 

CI1I1LT6 d6U& ^&miD&tlc& friLDeefle dl Muttl 

Grammatica elementare franceae di Saiier-Motti. B. Ed. . , * 
Lettnre franceii di Le Boucher 

GtamiDatica rnni^a di Motti 

ChlKve dell& ^aimD&tIo& itmiiA di Mottl ........... 

Grammatica »pa|:niiola di Pavia, B. Ed. 

Cfhiftvo della Gramaiatlca gpagDuola di Pavia. 2. Ed, ....... 

Grammatica elementare ftpagnuola di Pa via. 2. Ed 

Gramatica elementare STedese di Pereira , 

r>i:tteli Edition * 
Eleine HoOf^dnltftehe Grammatica door Scbwjppert. 2. Dr. ^ 

Foljg^h Edition. 
Kleine dent Hebe SpracHebre fiir Polen von Paulus * . . - 
Fortngnese Edit ions 

Grammatica allema por Otto-Pr^vfit. 3. Ed 

duve d& Grammatica allema por Otto-Pr^-rdt. 2, Ed. . . . . . . . 

Grammatica elemeatar alloma por Pr^vdt-Pereira. 3, Ed. . . , 

Grammatica franc esa por Tantj-Vaaconcellos, 2, Ed. . . - 
Chava dft Grammatica fr&ncesa por Tantj YflscouceUos. S. Ed.' , . . . 
livro de leitura francessa por Le Boucher , . , , 

Grammatica elementar «aeca per Percira 

Tfcoximan Editions* 

Gramaticg eermana de Leist . 

G^eea gram^ticli germaoe de Lelat 

Elemeufce de gramttticli germ an S, de Leist. 2. Ed 

Converaajiuni germane de Leist, 2. Ed 

Gramaticli franeesa de Leist 

Cfaeea grumjiittdl ftai]c«Be de Leitft 

£IeinentQ de gramaticS francesB, de Leist. 2. Ed 

Opnvers^p'anX fmucese de LeiEt. 2, Ed 

JnJtuM OrooB, Kondon. Paris. Home. Bt. l^«t«x«VaT«\L. TL^X^^'^^m^. 














Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

Tor the study of modern Eaiigua^. 

Sjiig^llsli Grammar for Hu^Biacis bj Hauif , . * * . * . . . 
Key to the EngllBli Grammar for RuHai^ma hy Hatiff 

D6iitACli0 Grammat^ik far Bassen von Haiitf <. , < , . . * 
SchlilSBel %Rr denieehen Gramznatlk fUr RttSBeo ron H&uff «..,..« 

Sei^^vj^m 'Editioxi* 

Petite grammftire fran^aise poar Serbes par Petrovitch . * . . 

S-iveaisli Edition. 
Kleme den t sell e Sprachlehre fUr &cbweden von Walter ... * 

Spa^nisli Editions. 
Grajn&tica aleniana par Buppert. ^. Ed 

ClftTe de ]& Qramlfitlcii ulemana por Ruppert. £^ Ed 

Giamitica elemental alemana por Otto-Euppert. 6, Ed 

Gram&tlca ingle Ha por Pa via , » 

Cl&ve de la Gramitiea i^^lcaft por Favla ............ 

Gliaiti4tLca sacintft de la lecgua ingleea^ por Fayia. 4. Ed. . . . . 

Gramfitica f^ancesa por Tant? 

€l&ve de la Graa]iitic& fr&DCefta por Tantj , . . ^ , , ^ « . . , » 

Gram^tica sucinta de la len^a francesa par Otta. 4. Ed 

Libro de lectura franceia por Le Boucher 

Gramatiea Bneinta da la lengua italiatia por Pavia. 3. Ed. . . 
Gram^tica sucinta de la lengna rn«a por d^Areaig , 

Ca*ye de la Girarndtlca BU^lnta luaa por d'AraaJe . * . . , , , j . » . 

Tchech Editioxi. 

Eleine deatsche Spractlehre fixr Tschechen von MaBchner , . . 

Tiii-l3:lsh Edition. 
Klein e deutsebe Sprachlelire iur Tiirken von Wely Bey-BoHand 

ConTersation^BookB by Coanor 

Engliah-GermaE , 
EDgliBcb -French . 
English-Italian * 
Engl iab -Spaniab . 
EDgliah-Swediflh . 
English- Euasi an . 
Fran9 aia-E epagnol 
Fran^aiB-ItaUen . 
F t^anpaiB-Partugai b 


in tyyo iasgaages; 


Dentsch'FranzGBiach , 

DeutacU-ItaUenisch . 
DeutBch-Portugiesia ch 

Deutsch^RiimaniBch » 

Deutsch-RnHBisch , . 

Deutsch-Schwediach . 

Deutscb-SpaniHch , , 

DeutBch-T^rkiach , » 

in thTe« lan^ua^es: 

13. Ed 

in fcinr Languages: 





3 i 







JttUua QrooB, London. Paris. lAmtt. 1^\. YfitAtAraxt^ i^i^^sS^hk^- 

Method Oaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modern laDguages. 


cAs lon^ as Bellamy's ^state of the futare' is no fact yet, as long as 
there are millionaries and Social Democrats, until every cobbler can step 
on to the scene of his handicraft, fitted out with an academic education, 
so lon^ will private tuition be a necessity. 

Smce no pedagogic considerations fetter the private tutor, one should 
think that the choice of a classbook could not be a difficult matter for him ; 
for it is understood, and justly so, that any book is useful if only the 
teacher is of any use. But the number of those who write grammars, from 
the late respected Dr. Ahn down to thoRO who merely write in order to 
let their own small light shine is too large. Their aim, after aU, is to 
place the pupil as soon as possible on his own feet i. e. to render a teacher 
superfluous, and to save time and money. 

Then the saying holds good: «They shall be known by their works », 
and for that reason we say here a few words in favour of the books of the 
Gkwpey-Otto-Sauer Method which have been published by Mr. Julius Groos. 

Valuable though these books have proved themselves to be for the 
use at school, it is for private tuition that they are absolutely indispensable. 
They just contain what I claim for such books, not too much and not too 
little. The chapters of the various volumes are easily comprehended and 
are arranged in such a way that they can well be mastered from one 
lesson to the other; besides, the subject-matter is worked out so as to lead 
the P^il from the commencement to converse in the foreign tongue. 

what success these books have met with will best be seen from the ever 
increasing number of their publications which comprise, in different groups re- 
lating to Englishmen, Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Russians etc. etc. 
not less thsuL 160 works the foUovdng volumes of which I have successfully 
used myself and am still using for the instruction of Germans: — the French 
grammar (24*\ edition), the English grammar (21**. edition)^ the Spanish, 
Italian, Dutch, and Russian grammars ; for English and French students : — 
the German grammar, not to mention minor auxiliary works by the same firm 

It is surprising what splendid results one can obtain by means of this 
method in a period of 6 to 12 months. Atter such a course the student 
is enabled to instruct himself in commercial correspondence in a foreign 
language without a master^s helping hand.» ( . . . . ) 

German Language by Becker 

Spanish Commercial Correspondence by Arteaga 

Bichtige Aussprache des Musterdeutschen v. l»r. E. Dannheisser, br. 
Englische HandelskorrespondeDz v. Arendt. 2. Aufl. . . . ' . . . 
Franz. Sprachl. f. Handelssch. v. Dannheiaaer, Kiiffner u. Offenmtiller 

Earze franzSsische Grammatik von H. Runge 

Italienidche kaufm. Korreepondenz-Gramm. v. Dannhei<iFer u. Sauer . 
Anleitung z. deutschen, franz., engl. u. ital. GeschS^ftsbriefen von 

Oberholzer u. Osmond, br 

Eleines spanisches Lesebuch f. Handelsschulen v. Ferrades-Langeheldt 

Langue allemande par Becker 

Lengua allemana de Becker 




The Publisher is untiringly engaged in extending the range of educa- 
tional works issuing from his Press. A number of new books are now in 
course of prepar&tion. 

The new editiomi are constantly improved and kept up to date. 

■ ■ 1 

Jmllmm Urooa, Loadoa. Pirli. Uome. «t. YttXAt«\raxf>. li%\^%>^x%.